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A Comparative Study of English and Chinese Apologies

— Taking Ipartment and Friends as Examples
— 以 Ipartment 和 Friends 为例

AbstraEt : accelerating globalization, cross-cultural communic important component of people's lives. This kind of communication not only includes language, but also encompasses various aspects such as customs, values, and ways of thinking. understanding the importance of cross-cultural communication can help us better respond to the challenges of globalization and promote world peace aThile duessee bafponhegy. speech act in communication has profound significance. I background and values, misunderstandings and conflicts are inevitable. An effective apology can resolve conflicts, establish mutual trust, and promote understa different cultures.
This article will elaborate on the importance of apology in cross-cultural communication by studying the use of apology in the fifthr seramdbfartmesitcoms. Through comparative analysis, we found significant differe connotations of apology in the two wofksenlosthe use ofpology speech act is more direct and candid, reflecting the values that emphasize individualism and direct expres American culturepdntmenthe use apology speech act is more tactful and impli reflecting the traditional Chinese culture of valuing face and harmonious relatio works have their own characteristics, but they also reflect the common pursuit of harmoni and effective communication in cultural exchange.
本文将通过研究道歉在第五部 seramdbfartmesitcoms 中的使用来阐述道歉在跨文化交际中的重要性。通过对比分析发现,道歉的内涵在两部作品中明显不同,使用道歉的言语行为更加直接和坦率,体现了强调个人主义和直接表达美国文化的价值观pdntmen使用道歉言语行为更加委婉和隐含,反映了中国传统文化的重视面子和和谐相对性作品各具特色, 但它们也反映了文化交流中对和谐和有效沟通的共同追求。
This thesis aims to conduct a comparative analysis aphegy speech act used in two

communication, in order to gain a deeper understanding of cultural differences between China and the United States, and to provide useful insights for cross-cultural communication.
KeywordEriendspartme rapology speech caldural differecr@ess; cultural exchange
关键词Eriendspartme rapology speech caldural differecr@ess;文化交流


Abstract in English ..... I
英文摘要 .....我

Abstract in Chinese. ..... II

1 Introduction. ..... 1
1 引言。.....1

1.1 研究背景.....1

1.2 研究目的和研究目的。.....1

1.3 论文的重新检索方法和布局。.....2

2 Literature Review. ..... 2
2 文献综述......2

2.1 FOREIGN STUDY ..... 2
2.1 出国留学.....2

2.2 DOMESTIC STUDY ..... 3
2.2 国内学习.....3

3 The Differences of Expression of Apology Speech Act between Chinese and
3 《道歉言论法》中文与中国道歉言论表达的差异

English ..... 4 英语。。。。。4
3.1 EXPression of APOLOGy SPEeCH ACT IN CHINESE ..... 4
3.1 《护教法》的中文解释.....4

3.1.1 Direct Apology ..... 5
3.1.1 直接道歉.....5

3.1.2 Requesting Forgiveness ..... 5
3.1.2 请求宽恕.....5

3.1.3 Apologizing for an Offence. ..... 6
3.1.3 为违规行为道歉。.....6

3.2 英文道歉言语表达法 .....6

3.2.1 Direct Apology ..... 6
3.2.1 直接道歉.....6

3.2.2 Requesting Forgiveness ..... 6
3.2.2 请求宽恕.....6

4 The Differences of Apology Speech Act Between Ipartment and Friends. ..... 7
4 道歉言语的差异.....7

4.1 道歉需求的差异 .....7

4.2 道歉策略的差异.....8

4.3 道歉频率的差异 .....9

4.4 不同人群中使用APOLOGy SPEeCH法案的差异

GROUPS ..... 9 组。。。。。9
4.5 回应道歉的差异.....10

5 The Reasons for the Differences in Apology Speech Act Between English and
5 英语和

Chinese. ..... 11 中文。.....11
5.1 文化差异.....12

5.2 THINKING MODES. ..... 12
5.2 思维模式。.....12

5.3 Personal FaCtORS ..... 13
5.3 个人FaCtORS.....13

5.4 OTHER FACTORS ..... 14
5.4 其他因素.....14

6 How to Effectively Apologize in Cross-Cultural Communication ..... 14
6 如何在跨文化交际中有效道歉 .....14

6.1 SIMPLE AND DIRECT ..... 15
6.1 简单直接的.....15

6.2 表达诚意.....15

6.3 责任.....16

6.4 请求宽恕。.....17

6.5 避免重复.....17

6.6 Paying Attention to Cultural Differences ..... 18
6.6 关注文化差异 .....18

7 Conclusion. ..... 19
7 结论。.....19

References. ..... 21 引用。.....21
Acknowledgements. ..... 22

1 Introduction 1 引言

1.1 Research Background 1.1 研究背景

In the process of interpersonal communication, "apology" is a common spee expresses guilt, apology, and determination to make amends to oth important role both personally and socially. However, due to cultural, linguistic, and individual differences, the expression and acceptance of apologies also vary. Therefore, in cross-c communication, both verbal and nonverbal communication can lead to con degrees. Ipartment is a youth sitcom in China, and Friends tells the story of six old friends living in Manhattan, New York, which both tell the humorous, bizarre, and romantic stories of several young men and women with different backgrounds, identities, and ideals. They ar conveying the living conditions and values of the new generation of young p playful laughter and verbal abuse, and wiping out hilarious jokes and sparks of wisdom with a series of witty words. Through their life experiences and emotional entanglements, it showcases the attitudes and values of contemporary young people towards life.Ipartment and Friends both showcase the preciousness of friendship and the beauty of life in a humorous and warm way, and the contradictions and conflicts between them are also worth paying attention to. How to solve the contradictions and conflicts in communication is worth our attention and learning.

1.2 Research Purpose and Significance
1.2 研究目的和意义

This research takes the fifth seashmartmentand the fifth seasofriendsas examples to analyze the differences and influencing factors of the speech act of apology between English and Chinese. It deeply explores and compares the expression methods, social functions, and values behind apologies in the two cultures, providing practical guidance and suggestions cultural communication. Through comparative analysis, we can see how pe resolve interpersonal conflicts in different cultural backgrounds, and how this approach reflects the values and social norms of the two cultures.
本研究以“第五次道歉”和“第五次”海上朋友“为例,分析了中英语道歉言语行为的差异及影响因素。深入探讨和比较两种文化中道歉背后的表达方式、社会功能和价值观,为文化交际提供实用指导和建议 。通过比较分析,我们可以看到体育如何解决不同文化背景下的人际冲突,以及这种方法如何反映两种文化的价值观和社会规范。
Apologizing, as a common social behavior, reflects the varying degrees of importance that different cultures place on interpersonal relationships, face saving, and social harmony. also improve our cross-cultural communication skills and help us become more pro cross-cultural communication. Proper use of the speech act of apologyc escalation of conflicts, but also enhance understanding and trust be addition, for English learners, it can promote adaptation between two cultures, and studying the differences in the speech act of apology between Chinese and English can help us better adapt to the cultural environment of the target language. In summary, studying the differ speech act of apology between English and Chinese has important theoretic significance.

1.3 Research Methods and Layout of the Thesis
1.3 论文的研究方法和布局

This topic is studied by using comparative analysis, literature research, and comprehensive analysis methods, and conclusions are drawn. This study is divided into seven parts. The

part provides an explanation of the research background, purpose, and significance of apology speech act in English and Chinese; the second part is a literature review, which first clarifies the current research status at China and English speaker countries. The third part is the differences of expression of apology speech act between Chinese and English; The fo studies the differences in apology speech act between English and Chinese by comparin fifth seasonIpartment and the fifth seasonFriends from five aspects: apology needs, strategies, frequency of occurrence, different groups, and responses to apologies; The fifth part explains the reasons for the differences in apology speech act between English and cultural differences, ways of thinking, personal factors, and other factors; the sixth part proposes suggestions on how to effectively apologize in cross-cultural communication based on the above research; The seventh part is the conclusion.

2 Literature Review 2 文献综述

2.1 Foreign Study 2.1 国外留学

Apology is a very common linguistic phenomenon in polite language behavior. Therefore, many domestic and foreign scholars have conducted research on apology speech act in different aspects. Austin,(1962) pointed out Fhow to Do Things with Wothlat speech itself is an action, while Searlle76) discussed twelve distinct dimensions of action behavior basec Austin's work. He classified apology speech act as expressive speech acts. Goffman, E (1971 categorizes apology speech acts as remedial speech acts, in which the offer remedy unpleasant social interactions through apology. Based on Austin's theory, Searle studied the issue of distinguishing dimensions in behavioral behavior and believed that apology speech act should belong to expressive speech acts. Coffman believes that "the act of apologizing is a remedial action taken by the offender to make up for their mistake. However, action does not mean that apologizing can effectively repair the rela appropriate methods and means, namely apology strategies." According to Cohen and Olshtain
道歉是礼貌语言行为中非常常见的语言现象。因此,国内外许多学者从不同方面对道歉言论行为进行了研究。Austin(1962)指出,用Wothlat言语做事本身就是一种行动,而Searlle76)则讨论了行动行为的12个不同维度。他将道歉言语行为归类为表达性言语行为。Goffman, E(1971)将道歉言语行为归类为补救性言语行为,其中通过道歉来补救不愉快的社交互动。基于奥斯汀的理论,塞尔研究了行为行为的维度区分问题,认为道歉言语行为应该属于表达性言语行为。科夫曼认为,“道歉的行为是犯罪者为弥补错误而采取的补救措施。然而, 行动并不意味着道歉可以有效地修复适当的方法和手段,即道歉策略。根据 Cohen 和 Olshtain 的说法

responsibility, maintaining restraint, explaining reasons, and providing Kulka(1984) believes that apologies can be divided into two categories: direct apol using various means to implement apology behaviors.
责任、保持克制、解释理由、提供 Kulka(1984)认为,道歉可以分为两类:直接道歉使用各种手段实施道歉行为。
However, there is little research on the speech act of apology in Englis based on the TV draReassearch Fniendsas also been conducted in various aspec including analyzing the humorous expressioemsd and analyzing the characters in the drama. However, there is relatively little research on Ipartments, as an anonymous writer (2014) mentioned in a news journal.

2.2 Domestic Study 2.2 国内学习

In recent years, there has been increasing attention to the study of apology speech ac China, with significant innovations in research topics and perspectives, gradually breaking away from the inheritance of Western research models. For Pangineatin Comparative Analysis of English and ChinelsinAlpi(narogire)s analyzed "the selection

contextual characteristics of English and Chinese apology speech act, as well as the lang forms of English and Chinese apology speech act from a cross-cultur analyzed the reasons that affect the differences in apology between th different levels and proposed suggestions for cross-cultural integration. Qi Jiating (2018) pointed out in a comparison of apology speech act use strategies between English and Chinese that cognitive and cultural differences have a significant impact on the choic apology strategies between English and Chinese. In A Study on Pragmatic Transfer in the Use of Apologizing Language by Chinese English Learn&rong Junying(2016) conducted a detailed study on pragmatic transfer in direct apology speech act from the perspectives of illocutionary behavior and sociolinguistic factors. She explored the specific manife transfer in the use of direct apology speech act by Chinese English learners, and explored influence of gender and second language proficiency on pragmatic transfer. This study aims to explore useful insights and suggestions for foreign langu communicators by analyzing pragmatic phenomena in English and Chinese apology speech act from the perspectives of the cooperative principle and politeness principle.
There is a lot of research on the two comedies in China, analyzing them from d perspectives, such akpartmentand Friends analyzing their humorous expressions, comparing apology speech act from a cross-cultural perspective, cultur

Friendsand Ipartmenthows that cultural reasons and social language also have an impact on apology; Han Yingjie (2024) mentioned that "there may be similarities and differences in the use of apology speech act and apology strategies due to cultural differences." Therefor differences are the main reason for the differences in apology, and we should pay attention cultural differences.
Friendsand Ipartment认为,文化原因和社会语言也会对道歉产生影响;韩英杰(2024)提到,“由于文化差异,道歉言语行为和道歉策略的使用可能存在异同。因此,差异是道歉差异的主要原因,我们应该注意文化差异。
We can see that there is relatively more research on apology speech act in both cultures, but we can still find that there is less research on apology speech act between English and Chinese cultures abroad, and how to improve cross-cultural communication through effective apology is still worth our attention.

3 The Differences of Expression of Apology Speech Act between
3 道歉言论表达的差异

Chinese and English 中文和英文

3.1 Expression of Apology Speech Act in Chinese
3.1 中文道歉言论表达法

China is a country with a "high context" culture, so there are many apologies in daily life. There are both direct and indirect expressions, and fewer speakers w directly use language containing apology symbols. More speakers express words with apology connotations, but they do not contain obvious symbolic apology words. Sometimes the speaker prefer using a long paragraph to explain the offending behavior or reinforce the apology. In order to make a more obvious and effective comparative analysis apology speech act, all research in this article is based on Mandarin to discuss the expres
中国是一个“高语境”文化的国家,所以在日常生活中有很多道歉。有直接和间接的表达方式,直接使用包含道歉符号的语言的说话者较少。更多的说话者表达带有道歉含义的词语,但它们不包含明显的象征性道歉词语。有时,演讲者更喜欢使用长段落来解释冒犯行为或强化 道歉。为了做出更明显、更有效的比较分析道歉言语行为,本文所有研究均以普通话为基础来讨论道歉言语行为

methods of apology behavior.

3.1.1 Direct Apology 3.1.1 直接道歉

According to data statistics,“不好意思”, “抱歉”, and “对不起” are the most frequently used expressions of apology in Chinese, with usage rates of , and , respectively. These three expressions can also be defined as from weak to strong base on their degree of apol expression. The frequency of people usin"g不好意思” is the highest, and it is also the most in line with the personality traits of Chinese people. Usually used in situations of minor offense or disturbancé.抱歉” and “对不起” are often used in various formal and informal occasions, indicating a higher level of offense and seriousness in the atmosphere. Sometimes, depending on the specific conversation scenario and the degree of offense, when using a p o lo g y ph r a s e s, we o f e a d d s o m e “很、太、真、真是、非常、十分、实在” and so on, to deepen the tone of the apology. The degree of apology can be “不好意思” “很抱歉” “太对不起了” “十分对不起” and so on. We can choose the appropriate apology method based on the degree of offense, different occasions, and different targets.
据资料统计,“不好意思”、“对不起”、“对不起”是中文中最常用的道歉用语,使用率分别为 、 和 。这三种表达也可以根据它们的 apol 表达程度定义为从弱到强。人们使用“g不好意思”的频率最高,也最符合中国人的性格特征。“对不起”和“对不起”通常用于各种正式和非正式场合,表示气氛中的冒犯和严重程度更高。有时,根据具体的对话场景和冒犯的程度,在使用 p o lo g y ph r a s e s 时,我们会用 “很、太、真、真是、非常、十分、实在”等来加深道歉的语气。道歉的程度可以是“不好意思”、“很抱歉”、“太对不起了”、“十分对不起”等。我们可以根据冒犯的程度、不同的场合、不同的对象来选择合适的道歉方式。

3.1.2 Requesting Forgiveness
3.1.2 请求宽恕

In general, after apologizing directly, in order to seek forgiveness from the other party. The expression used by Chinese people is “请(您/你)原谅/见谅/谅解/海涵/多包涵/别见怪/多担待、包涵” to express willingness to actively reconcile, express one's sincerity, and thus relationship between the two parties. This is mainly But in acquaintances or less formal occasions,原谅我吧” or more humorous expressions such as “是小的错,请大人原谅”. There is an ancient Chinese saying that goes, “大人有大过”.Take the initiative to place oneself in a humble position, and place the offended person i prestigious position, requesting forgiveness from the other party. What's more, we can express our sincerity in requesting forgiveness by giving a gift or card.

3.1.3 Apologizing for an Offence
3.1.3 为冒犯道歉

In Chinese culture, the word “赔罪” is only used if the offender has made a serious mistake. The apology speech act of “请罪、谢罪、赔罪、赔不是” is heavier, indicating that the speaker has committed a deeper level of error. Among th"e射罪” has the deepest degree of damage, and the formal tone of apology is also the deepestCompared to words, "谢罪" represents more of an act, it used to describe an extreme action taken by a person to apologize or admit their mistake. “赔不是” is more colloquial, and its expression of apology is lower than other similar words.

3.2 Expression of Apology Speech Act in English
3.2 英文道歉言论表达法

Most English speakers are from "low context" cultural countries, and their attitude towards apologizing is relatively direct and frank. In English culture, apologizing is seen as a personal responsibility and respect for others. When English speakers make mistakes or cat inconvenience to others, they usually apologize directly, acknowl express apologies to the affected parties. The most common and direct way for fore
大多数说英语的人来自“低语境”文化国家,他们对道歉的态度相对直接和坦率。在英国文化中,道歉被视为个人责任和对他人的尊重。当说英语的人犯错或给他人带来不便时,他们通常会直接道歉,向受影响的各方表示歉意。最常见和最直接的 fore 方式

apologize is through a simple "Sorry", "Excuse me" and so on.

3.2.1 Direct Apology 3.2.1 直接道歉

In English countries, when apologizing, it is usually done direct apology locally, rather than using indirect or vague expressions. In addition, when apologizing, attention should be paid to the tone and attitude, expressin determination to correct mistakes. At the same time, appropriate apology methods should also be selected based on the specific situation and target audience to avoid m unnecessary awkwardHess. are some commonly used apology exlpkes § Fonsuse me", "sorry to waste your time", "I'm extremely sorry", "forgive me", "sorry to trouble you "It's my fault", "It's my own fault", "I apologize deeply to you", "I apologize to you for you waiting", "I beg your pardon", "I am remorseful for it", "I really regret for what I have done" and so on.
在英语国家,道歉时,通常是在当地直接道歉,而不是使用间接或模糊的表达方式。此外,道歉时要注意语气和态度,表达改正错误的决心。同时,也要根据具体情况和目标受众选择合适的道歉方式,避免不必要的尴尬。是一些常用的道歉词,例如 § “对不起浪费你的时间”“非常抱歉”“原谅我”,“对不起麻烦你”这是我的错“”这是我自己的错“”这是我自己的错“”我向你深表歉意“”我向你道歉,因为你久等了“,”我请你原谅“,”我为此感到懊悔“,”我真的很后悔我所做的一切“等等。

3.2.2 Requesting Forgiveness
3.2.2 请求宽恕

In English culture, direct apologies are the most important, and in order to further request forgiveness from the other party, they usually use I beg your part "Please give me", "I'm sorry to have caused you any inconvenience", "I apologize for any mistake apologize for my behavior", "I hope you can find At the same time, make sure that your voice, facial expressions, and body langua sincerity and regret, so that the other person can feel your apology and the determ correct the mistake. In addition, it is necessary to choose an appropriate apology method based on the specific situation and target audience to avoid misund awkwardness.
在英語文化中,直接道歉是最重要的,為了進一步請求對方的原諒,他們通常會用我求求你的部分「請給我」、「很抱歉給你帶來了任何不便」、「我為任何錯誤道歉,為我行為道歉」、「我希望你能同時找到, 确保你的声音、面部表情、肢体都流露出诚意和悔意,让对方感受到你的道歉和改正错误。此外,还需要根据具体情况和目标受众选择合适的道歉方式,避免误会尴尬。
From the above definition of apology, people place mor characteristics and emotional factors when apologizing, often feeling the need to apologize due to guilt in Chinese culture. Apologies arise from within and are expressed externally, function of apologies is mostly to express a feeling in the speaker's heart. On Western scholars pay more attention to the function and purpose of apology. People in English speaking countries often use apology as a means of etiquette communication, not focusing their own feelings, but rather on the external form of apology. This is the most direct factor that leads to the inconsistency in the expression of apologies betn The other factors that exist among them are also worth further research.

4 The Differences of Apology Speech Act Between Ipartment and
4 道歉言论法与道歉言论法的区别

Friends 朋友

Ipartment and Friends, as two beloved sitcoms, have also received much attention for their apologies. The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the differences in the speech act of apology betwelqurtmen(Season 5) anfriend (Season 5), and explore the numerous factors behind them. The apology motivation infartment is more related to external situations,

while the apology motivationFiniendsis more derived from inner guilt and self-blame. This difference reflects people's different understandings and ways of handling apology behavior in two different cultural backgrounds. Learning the differences in apology between two cultures is for better communication and learning.

4.1 Differences in the Needs of Apology
4.1 道歉需求的差异

There are many reasons for apologizing. According to the actual context and situation, the need for apology is inconsistepar the taltheology is more related to the exter context and events. For example, in the fourth episode, when Hu Yifei was buying snack, the new waiter, Galijiang, was unfamiliar with the operation, so she kept placing wrong orders and finally bought a pile of snack. Galijiang sa对不起” to Hu Yifei about this mistake. It can be seen that apologies are generated due to external events, in or relationships and avoid embarrassment. Friends the demand for apologies is more rooted in inner guilt and self-blame. In the Episode of 1, Ross called his bride's nan wedding, which led to him constantly asking for his wife's forg understand why Emily would think it meant something, you know because-because it was you." It can be seen that he apologized for his inappropriate words and actions that hurt the relationship between both parties in order to salvage the relationship. For example, in the second episode of IpartmentZhao Haitang verbally attacked the other person when he was unsure if he was the person he needed to find, and finally apologized for his behavior He said “抱歉”. This example is also due to one's improper behavior, apologizing in order to request forgiveness from the other party. In the same episoder iefnd,sRoss saidl'm sorryl, can't move to London without Ben." He apologized to Emily for something he couldn't do.
道歉的原因有很多。根据实际情况和情况,道歉的需要是不一致 的,滑石论更多地与外部背景和事件相关。比如第四集,胡一飞在买零食的时候,新来的服务员加利江对操作不熟悉,就不断下错单,最后买了一堆零食。加利江对不起“给胡一飞这个错误。可以看出,道歉是由于外部事件而产生的,在关系中或关系中,避免尴尬。朋友们,道歉的要求更多植根于内心的内疚和自责。在第 1 集中,罗斯打电话给他新娘的婚礼,这导致他不断询问他妻子的福克,理解为什么艾米丽会认为这意味着什么,你知道,因为——因为是你。可以看出,他为了挽回关系,为自己伤害双方关系的不当行为道歉。比如在《异道》第二集中,赵海棠在不确定对方是否是他需要找的人时,对对方进行了言语攻击,最后为自己的行为道歉,说了句“对不起”。这个例子也是由于一个人的不当行为,为了请求对方的原谅而道歉。在同一集 iefnd,sRoss 说对不起,没有 Ben 就不能搬到伦敦。他向艾米丽道歉,因为他做不到。

4.2 Differences in the Strategy of Apology
4.2 道歉策略的差异

InFrien,dthe strategy of apologizing usually includes expressing ap acknowledging mistakes, and being willing to take responsibility. For example, when a character makes a mistake, they will directly apologize to the affected person and express a willingness to compensate or correct the mistake. This form of apology is direct, sincere, and responsible. It the second episodeFofend,sRachel said to Phoebe, "I'm sorry about the whole lifting or thing." After apologizing, she requested reconciliation and proposed to come in and out together in the future.
In contrast, the apology strhaginay be more diverse and complex. Ir addition to expressing apologies directly, characters concealment to alleviate awkwardness or resolve conflicts. These strategies are usually designed to maintain interpersonal relationships and avoid awkwardness, ra problems or make up for mistakes. Apologies are rarely selminmentbecause they do not choose to apologize directly, but rather choose humor or choose not to apologize because their relationship is close enough. In the fourth episode of Ipartment, Zhao Haitang wants to catch up with the girl he likes and share a room with Zhang Wei. However, he accidentally causes Zhang Wei to be injured, and instead of apologizing directly, he shows an apologetic expression.
相比之下,道歉 strhaginay 更加多样化和复杂。除了直接表达歉意外,角色还隐藏以减轻尴尬或化解冲突。这些策略通常旨在维持人际关系,避免尴尬、问题或弥补错误。道歉很少是直接道歉的,因为他们不会选择直接道歉,而是选择幽默或选择不道歉,因为他们的关系足够亲密。在《Ipartment》第四集中,赵海棠想追上自己喜欢的女孩,和张伟合租一个房间。然而,他却不小心让张伟受伤,他没有直接道歉,而是露出了歉意的表情。

4.3 Differences in Frequency of Apology
4.3 道歉频率的差异

According to research, since both comedies revolve around several goo

relationship is close enough, and there are not many scenes of apologizi because of their intimate relationship that the emergence of conflicts becomes more real. This is more meaningful for research. The frequency of apdioginding rimlatively high. In Friends characters often apologize to each other for various reasons, such as not being able to attend appointments, saying the wrong thing, or making inappropriate episode, four sorry words appear in a conversation between Ross and Rachel about nosebleeds. Another example is that they also use relatively polite language to greet others when disturbing them, such as in the fourth episode "Excuse me, would you mind switching with me?" It can be seen that apologies are very common, with the purpose of valuing interpersonal relationships and emotional communication among characters, as well as their sincerity and effort interpersonal relationships.
关系足够亲密,道歉的场面并不多,因为他们的亲密关系让冲突的出现变得更加真实。这对研究更有意义。apdioginding 的频率非常高。在《老友记》中,角色经常因为各种原因互相道歉,例如无法参加约会、说错话或制作不恰当的情节,罗斯和瑞秋之间关于流鼻血的对话中出现了四个抱歉的字。另一个例子是,他们在打扰别人时也会用相对礼貌的语言打招呼,比如第四集“对不起,你介意和我换个吗?由此可见,道歉是很常见的,其目的是重视人物之间的人际关系和情感交流,以及他们对人际关系的真诚和努力。
In contrast, the frequency of apololgiestinenthay be relatively low. This may be related to the humor and humorous style of the play, where c awkwardness or conflicts through humor and ridicule rather than addition, the drama may focus more on the development of the plot and the interaction of t characters, rather than overly emphasizing the importance of apology.

4.4 Differences in the Use of Apology Speech Act Among Different Groups
4.4 不同群体使用道歉言论法的差异

In addition, differences in apology speech act also manifest in communicati different groups. In English culture, there is a strong tendency towards individualism, and people tend to directly express apologies and take responsibility. In Chinese culture, collectivism tends to be stronger, and people may be more inclined to use euphemisms or indirect ways to express apologies.
In terms of social relations, the use of apology speech act in English culture ma greater emphasis on equality and mutual respect. In Chinese culture, the use of apology speech act may place greater emphasis on differences in status and apologizing to elders or superiors may be more formal and solemn. The two comedies revolve around good friends from the same age group and social class, so their level of intimacy do not need to be explained too much. So the apologies between them are common daily apologies, and there is not much dialogue between superiors, subordinates, and di However, there are still many differences between the two works. In China, when it comes treating elders and strangers with higher levels or less familiarity, most of us choo respectful and humbletitude. When misunderstandings and mistakes occur, even if it is the elder who is wrong, the majority of apologies are still from the younger one. In English culture, there is rarely a problem with this hierarchical relationship. They individual equality and apology for who is wrongoth comedies, the similarity is that they tend to use more polite language and more formal apology language when dealing with friends

Friends a man goes to a memorial service and says, "Oops, I'm sorry. Excuse me. Is this th umm, the memorial?h the fifth episode dfartmen,tif someone drops something, they will say “不好意思” and ask the stranger to return it.

4.5 Differences in Responding to Apologies
4.5 回应道歉的差异

In interpersonal communication, when conflicts arise, the way of apologizing varies, there are still differences in the way of responding to apologies. In English culture, the way of responding to an apology may benore direct and cleaer, expressing acceptance or rejection of the apology. In Chinese culture, the way of replying to an apology may be more tar vaguer, expressing understanding or indifference towards the other party.
In episode 19 of Friends, Rachel asks Phoebe to apologize for losing Monica's earrings. "I'm sorry! I am so, so sorry!" And Monica "All right well, I mean, what can you do? If you lost it, you lost it." But when Rachel admits to losing the earrings herself, Monica is that "exactly why I do not lend you stuff!! Okay?!," It can be seen that apologies towards different friends will be responded to base on the closeness of the relationship. Because Rachel always loses Monic things, she is angrier with her, but this does not affect their relationship.
在《老友记》第 19 集中,瑞秋要求菲比为丢失莫妮卡的耳环道歉。“对不起!我很抱歉!莫妮卡“好吧,我的意思是,你能做什么?如果你失去了它,你就失去了它。但是,当瑞秋承认自己丢失了耳环时,莫妮卡说:“这正是我不借给你东西的原因!好?!,“ 可以看出,对不同朋友的道歉会根据关系的亲密程度做出回应。因为瑞秋总是失去莫尼克的东西,所以她对她更生气,但这并不影响他们的关系。
InIpartmenthe motivation for apologizing is often related to external si events. For example, due to certain force majeure reasons (such as natural disasters, accidents, etc.), characters may feel the need to apologize to the affected party. In addition, in some cases, characters may choose to apologize for maintaining interpersonal relati

forgiveness and not too much language to reply.
In contrast, Fwiendsthe motivation for apologizing comes more from the charact inner guilt and self-blame. These guilt and self-blame can stem from im actions, hurting the feelings of friends, or violating moral standards. Apologizing has become a way for them to express guilt, repentanceThend we elk hfaoveg iwerrbeas forgiveness when facing apologies from others, giving them positive forgiveness.
In summary, the responses to apologies from two cultures precisely reflect that in Chinese, when someone apologizes, the recipient of the apology usually shows humility and politeness, and may say words没兑䒺a”s ơ “你不用这样” to show understanding and tolerance. This reflects the values of harmony, emphasis on collective interests in Chinese culture. In English culture, "It's OK" or "Don't worry about it" are used to express understanding and acceptance of an apology. This response sty reflects the cultural values of individualism, direct expression, and self-worth in Western culture.
This difference reflects people's different understandings a behavior in two different cultural backgrounds.

5 The Reasons for the Differences in Apology Speech Act Between
5 道歉言论法差异的原因

English and Chinese 英文和中文

In the context of apology in English and Chinese, cultural factors are one driving forces that lead to language differences, as well as factors such as high context culture and low context culture, personal personality, gender, etc., which can even be considered normal physiological expressions in English culture as reasons for apology. In the Chinese context, it is a very normal phenomenon that does not require too much attention. U differences helps to better engage in cross-cultural communication, enhanc

skills, and achieve good communication outcomes.

5.1 Cultural Differences
5.1 文化差异

The cultural differences between English and Chinese apology express reflected in the following aspects:
Firstly, in English culture, people have a higher level of independence and place emphasis on politeness and respect. Even people with high levels of intimacy o speech act of apology. On the contrary, Chinese culture emphasizes emotional connections and mutual understanding between people, and apologies to acquaintances and family members are often a simple "I'm sorry" or even not said.
Secondly, in terms of status, China is more sensitive to status. Superiors generally do no apologize to subordinates, and the speech act of apology is often simple and frequency of apologies from subordinates to superiors is sign apologies are generally adopted. In English culture, it is more emphasized th equal, and status has little influence on whether to apologize or not. The choice strategy mainly depends on the level of offense.
In addition, in the eyes of British and American people, apologies are a tool to highl respect for personal interests. They consider apologizing as an ac However, in the eyes of Chinese people, the attitude of apologizing is equivalent to the degree of offense, so the number of apologies by Chinese people is far less than tha American people.
In terms of specific language use, there are also various ways of expressing apologies English and Chinese. Depending on the degree of offense, a more formal or simple method can be chosen. For example, in Chinese, “对不起” and “不好意思” is a common simple apology method, while in English, "I'm sorry." is also a common apology term.
In summary, the cultural differences between English and Chinese apology expressions are mainly reflected in their independence, status, frequency of use, and specific language Understanding these differences helps to better engage in cross-cultural communication, enhance communication skills, and achieve good communication outcomes.

5.2 Thinking Modes 5.2 思维模式

The differences in thinking patterns between English and Chinese apology expressions are mainly reflected in the differences between high-context cultures and low-context cultures.
China belongs to a high context cultural country, emphasizing the speaker's context and the meaning expressed. Information is usually conveyed through implied meaning, and speech acts are highly influenced and constrained by context. When apologizing, on attention to interpersonal relationships and the other person's emotions, and tries to avoid direct conflicts.
However, UK belongs to a low-context cultural country and places greater emphasis on the information content in dialogue, emphasizing individualism apologizing, one tends to directly acknowledge mistakes or offen apology.
This difference in thinking patterns leads to differences in the specific

frequency of the speech act of apology between English and Chinese. For example, people may apologize through euphemistic and indirect expressions to avoid direct conflict and damage to the other party's face. British people, on the other hand, t apologies directly and use simple and clear apology speech act.
Overall, the differences in thinking patterns between English and Chinese apology speech acts are mainly reflected in the characteristics of high-context cultures and low-context cultures, as well as the resulting differences in apology methods Understanding these differences helps to better engage in cross-cultural communication, enhance communication skills, and achieve good communication outcomes.

5.3 Personal Factors 5.3 个人因素

In terms of personal factors, there are also certain differences in the speech act of apology between English and Chinese.
Firstly, personality factors have a certain influence on the use of the speech act of apology in both English and Chinese. For example, in English culture, people tend to express apologies directly, which may be related to their open and straightforward personality traits. In culture, people pay more attention to implicit and introverted expressions, so they may be more inclined to use euphemistic and indirect methods when apologizing.
首先,人格因素对中英文道歉言语行为的使用有一定的影响。例如,在英国文化中,人们倾向于直接表达道歉,这可能与他们开放和直率的性格特征有关。在文化中 ,人们更注重含蓄和内向的表达方式,因此在道歉时可能更倾向于使用委婉和间接的方法。
Secondly, gender factors also have an impact on the use of the speech act of apology in both English and Chinese. In English culture, women are often considered the more polite and polite party, so they may use apologies more frequently. In Chinese culture, men usually p attention to etiquette and politeness in social situations, so they may be more incline more formal and solemn expressions when apologizing.
In addition, age also has an impact on the use of the speech act of apology in English and Chinese. In English culture, young people are often seen as the more direct and frank party, so they may prefer to use simple and clear expressions when apologizing. In Chinese culture, older people usually pay more attention to etiquette and rules, so they may be more inclined to more solemn and respectful expressions when apologizing.
Overall, personal factors have a certain impact on the use of the speech act of apology in English and Chinese, including personality, gender, and age. Understanding these d helps to better engage in cross-cultural communication, enhance commun achieve good communication outcomes.

5.4 Other Factors 5.4 其他因素

In addition to personal factors such as personality, gender, and age, there are al other differences in the speech act of apology between English and Chinese. For example, fc some physiological symptoms that are considered normal, such as hiccups, sneezing, coughing, farting, etc., it may also be a reason for apology in English culture, while in Chinese culture it may not be necessary to apologize.
In summary, there are various differences in the speech act of apology between English and Chinese, including cultural differences, thinking mode, personal f Understanding these differences helps to better engage in cross-cultural communication, enhance communication skills, and achieve good communication outcomes.

6 How to Effectively Apologize in Cross-Cultural Communication
6 如何在跨文化交际中有效道歉

In cross-cultural communication, how to effectively apologize or communicate effectively has always been a challenge worth exploring. Simple and direct, expressing sincer responsibility, requesting forgiveness, avoiding repetition, and differences. No matter which language you use, it is necessary to express yourself language, avoiding twists and turns, so that the other party can directly understand your apology. Secondly, when apologizing, the tone must be sincere, showing a sincere attit apology. Apologizing alone is not enough. It is very important to show that you are willing th take responsibility, which can make the other party fe responsibility. The ultimate purpose of apologizing is to request forgiveness, which can ease the relationship between both parties, so do not ignore its role. Due to cultural differences, the most important thing is to respect each other's cultural habits and not belittle any culture of different races. This is the fusion of cultural diversity and the exchange and collision between differe cultures.

6.1 Simple and Direct
6.1 简单直接

When apologizing simply and directly between English an expressions can be used in English is "I'm sorry." And in Chinese is"对不起”.
This simple expression can directly express one's apologies without excessive explanation or embellishment. In English, "I'm sorry" is a universal expression of apology that can be used in various occasions, including apologizing, expressing gratitude, exp Chinese对不起” is also a very common apology term, which can directly expre apologies and gubimetimes a simple "sorry" can directly resolve a conflict betwee people and make the other person not alingtke first episode of Friends, "You spit on me, man." and the other party directly used "I'm sorry." to alleviate the conflict.
这种简单的表达方式可以直接表达一个人的歉意,无需过多的解释或修饰。在英语中,“对不起”是道歉的通用表达,可以在各种场合使用,包括道歉、表达感激之情、exp 中文对不起“也是一个很常见的道歉词,它可以直接表达歉意,而一句简单的”对不起“可以直接化解人与人之间的冲突,让对方不高兴《老友记》第一集, “你向我吐口水,伙计”,而对方直接用“对不起”来缓和冲突。
In addition to this basic way of apologizing, other appropriate expression chosen based on the specific situation and occasion. It should be noted that in some cultures, the expression of apology may be more tactful or implicit, while in other cultures it may be mor direct and franler. Therefore, in cross-cultural communication, it is important to understand the other party's cultural habits and expressions to avoid misunderstandings and conflicts.

6.2 Expressing Sincerity
6.2 表达诚意

Express sincerity between English and Chinese apologies. Firstly sincere. Whether in English or Chinese, when apologizing, the tone must be sincere, showing a sincere attitude and inner apology. Avoid using a cold or perfunctory tone to avoid making the other person feel that your apology lacks sirfomieyimes, they are not really angry, they just want to see if your attitude towards this matter is sincere. When Hu Yifei invited her friends to add creativity to her gallery style hoplot ine, ther friends only gave her very bizarre ideas and pictures. She was very angry when she saw them and expressed understanding when her friends said, “对不起啊,一菲,我们的创意有限”。
用英文和中文表达诚意的道歉。首先是真诚的。无论是英文还是中文,道歉时,语气一定要真诚,表现出诚恳的态度和内心的歉意。避免使用冷冰冰或敷衍的语气,以免让对方觉得你的道歉缺乏诚意,他们并不是真的生气,他们只是想看看你对这件事的态度是否真诚。当胡 Yifei邀请她的朋友为她的画廊风格hoplot ine添加创意时,其他朋友只给了她非常奇怪的想法和图片。当她看到他们时,她非常生气,当她的朋友说“对不起啊,一菲,我们的创意有限”时,她表示理解。
Secondly, it is important to express in detail. When apologizing, be specific a mistake and behavior, and avoid using vague or ambiguous language. Specifically exp their mistakes can make the other person feel their sincerity and sense of responsibility.
Another point is to explain the reason for the apology. When apologizing, explaining reason for your mistake can help the other party better understand your situation and thoughts. But be careful not to make excuses for your mistakes, so as not to make the other person fee that they are shirking responsibility.
Finally, they need to propose remedial measures and indicate that they will no longer make mistakes. When apologizing, proposing remedial measures can make the other party feel yo sincerity and sense of responsibility. You can propose some specific remedial measures, such as compensating for losses, correcting errors, etc.
And ensuring to the other party that you will avoid repeating mistakes can dem your determination and sincerity. At the same time, you can also express gratitude to the other party, acknowledging their understanding and support.

6.3 Responsibility 6.3 责任

It is very important to express willingness to take responsibility w English and Chinese, as this can make the other party feel your responsibility.
In English, expressions such as "I will take responsibility for it" or "I will make doesn't happen again" can be used to assume responsibility. In Chinese, expressior “我会负责到底” or “我会确保不再发生类似的事情” can be used to assume responsibility. In episode 19 of Friends, when Phoebe apologized for losing her earrings instead of Rachel, she said "I will replace it, I promise. I feel so territory."
在英语中,诸如“I will take responsibility for it”或“I will make doesn't happen again”之类的表达方式可以用来承担责任。在中文中,表达“我会负责到底”或“我会确保不再发生类似的事情”可以用来承担责任。在《老友记》第 19 集中,当菲比为丢失耳环而不是瑞秋而道歉时,她说:“我会更换它,我保证。我感觉很有领地感。
In addition to directly assuming responsibility, specific remedial meas proposed, such as compensating for losses, correcting errors, etc. This can make the other person feel that you are willing to take responsibility for your mistakes and take action to correct them.
In short, expressing willingness to take responsibility when apologizing can enhan other party's trust and identification, and also help maintain interpersona reputation. Therefore, when engaging in cross-cultural communication betw Chinese, it is important to understand each other's cultural habits and expressic smooth communication and exchange.

6.4 Request for Forgiveness
6.4 请求宽恕

In the expression of apology in English and Chinese, requesting forgiveness can ease th relationship between both parties. Sentences such as "I hope “我希望你能原谅我” are usually used. This expression can directly express one's requests and wishes, hoping that the other party can understand one's mistakes and actions.
In English, "I hope you can forgive me" is a relatively euphemistic expression that can be used to request forgiveness from the other party. In C笺狶望你能原谅我” is also a relatively gentle expression, which can directly express your requests and wishes. In addition to this basic way of expression, other appropriate expressions can also be chosen based on specific situations and occasions. For example, in English, expressions such as "I sincerely ask for your

forgiveness" or "I humbly beg for your forgiveness" can also be used to request forgiveness; In Chinese, expressions such as “恳求您的谅解” or “请求您的宽恕” can also be used to express a request for forgiveness.
It should be noted that in some cultures, the expression of requesting forgiveness may be more tactful or implicit, while in other cultures it maydedirect and frank. Therefore, in cross-cultural communication, it is important to understand the other party's cultural habits and expressions to avoid misunderstandings and conflicts.

6.5 Avoiding Repetition 6.5 避免重复

In the expression of apology in English and Chinese, repeating the same content may make the other party feel that your apology lacks sincerity or respect. To avoid this situation, techniques can be used in expression to change ideas or statements.
Firstly, one can express their apologies using different words. vocabulary or sentence structures, and express the same meaning by changing different words, making the entire apology content more diverse and diverse.
Secondly, one can explain their mistakes from different perspectives. Explaining the issue from different perspectives can help explain one's mistakes from different perspectives, making the entire apology more comprehensive and in-depth.
Thirdly, a humorous tone can be used appropriately. Using humor at the appropriate time can make the entire apology content more relaxed and enjoyable, while also easing the atmosphere. But be careful not to use overly offensive or inappropriate humor.
In short, avoiding repetition is very important in the expression of English and apology speech act. Different words, perspectives, or humor can be used to chan statements, making the entire apology content more divers enjoyable.

6.6 Paying Attention to Cultural Differences
6.6 关注文化差异

In English and Chinese apology speech act, due to cultural differences, it is necessary respect the cultural habits of the other party. In the expression of apolc Chinese, one should respect the cultural habits and expression methods of the other party. Also pay attention to the tone and attitude of apology. In the expression of an apolo attitude are very important. We should express our apologies in an appropriate tone and attitude to show respect and sincerity.
Furthermore, it is necessary to avoid using language that is derogatory or aggressive. In the expression of English and Chinese languages, one should avoid using language that is derogatory or aggressive. We should express our apologies in appropriate language and wording to s respect and friendliness.
The most important thing is to consider the other person's feelings. In the express apology in English and Chinese, one should consider the other person's feelings. express our apologies in warm and caring language to show our concern and care for the other party.
In short, in the expression of the speech act of apology in English and necessary to pay attention to the existence of cultural differences. We should respect the cultural

habits and expressions of the other party, pay attention to tone and attitude, avoid using language that is derogatory or aggressive, and consider the other party's feelings. Only in this way better communication and understanding be achieved in cross-cultural communication.
Apologizing is an important social skill in cross-cultural communication. Due to culi differences, how to effectively express apologies and gain understanding from others has become a topic worth exploring. Only by respecting and understanding each other in communication can its charm be demonstrated on the stage of cross-cultural communication.
道歉是跨文化交际中的一项重要社交技能。由于 culi 的差异,如何有效地表达歉意并获得他人的理解已成为一个值得探讨的话题。只有在交际中相互尊重、相互理解,才能在跨文化交际的舞台上展现出它的魅力。

7 Conclusion 7 结论

To sum up, firstly, the thesis points out the significant influence of cultural background and social environment on apology behavior. English culture tends towards individualism and direct expression, emphasizing independence and autonomy, whi collectivism and euphemism, emphasizing the maintenance of social harmony and interpersonal relationships. These cultural differences directly affect people's choices and expressions apologizing. Secondly, the thesis analyzes the expression forms and structural characteristics of English and Chinese apology expressions from a linguistic perspective. English apology speech act is usually more direct and specific, expressing apologies while taking responsibility, wh Chinese apology speech act is more euphemi,s tiscingdud pipde expressions to convey apologies. In addition, the paper also explores the differences in pragmatic between English and Chinese apology expressions, such as direct and indire implicit. Finally, the paper summarizes the main causes of differences in th apology between English and Chinese, including factors such as cultural factors, high and low context culture, personal personality, gender, and physiological manifestations. interact with each other and together affect the performance and acceptance of apology behavior in different cultures.
After comparative analysiis is foundthat there arsignificant differences in expression, usage context, and cultural factors between English and Chinese apology expressions. In terms of expression, English tends to use direct and specific apology methods, while Chinese is more implicit and tactful. In terms of usage context, the frequency of using apology spee English is higher than that in Chinese, and in some situations, apology speech act may be used in English, while other speech acts may be used in Chinese. In terms of cultural factors, Westerr culture emphasizes individualism and independence, collectivism and harmony. These cultural differences have led to differences in the speech act of apology between English and Chinese. Cultural differences are a key factor in the emergence of contradictions or conflicts between two languages, so the key to solving problems is to focus on the backgrounds of two different cultures, habits and expressio contextual factors of different cultures, and so on. By comparing and analyzing the differences in apology language between English and Chinese, it can help people improve their understanding and comprehension of apology behavior in cross-cultural com characteristics and differences of apology behavior in different cultural backgrounds, help people communicate better in cross-cultural communication, establish good interpersonal relationships,

and avoid misunderstandings and conflicts caused by language and cultural differences.
It should be noted that the research reports so far are limited, and there is still a lot of room for further research. The differences in the speech act of apology between English and Chinese are the result of the combined effects of language characteristics and cultural factors. In order to improve cross-cultural communication skills, English and Chinese learners should und and respect these differences. At the same time, teachers should pay attention students' cross-cultural awareness and sensitivity in teaching, in order to improve their ability to cope with cross-cultural communication. In addition, this thesis provides useful references further deepening the comparative study of English and Chinese language and culture.
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