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 The Catcher in the Rye is a study in China

 Zhang Guixia
(School of Culture and Communication, Luoyang University. Luoyang, Henan 471023)


Abstract: On the basis of a comprehensive collection and collation of relevant research results, this paper reviews and summarizes the research on "The Catcher in the Rye" in China in the past 20 years, analyzes some of the existing problems, and predicts the trend of future research from four aspects: the multiple recourse of the value and meaning of the work, the continuous controversy of the theme of the work, the different interpretations of the protagonist Holden, and other perspectives.

Keywords: «The catcher in the Rye): Salinger; Holden; Research: China
 CLC Number: 1109.85
 Document Identifier: A

Article Number: 1001-8204(2004)05-0158-04

In 20th-century American Contemporary Literature. The Caveman in the Rye from the Wheat ( Mai: (Recognized as one of the greatest miracles in the history of literature: the work became the number one bestseller upon its publication. It is still being reprinted to this day. The first few months of its existence. There were no less than 200 reviews, and the number of reviews about the novel has since been dubbed a kind of "industry." In China, in the 60s of the 20th century, it was translated into Chinese by Mr. Shi Xianrong as a critical material, and circulated internally. In 1983, Mr. Shi Xianrong's translation was published by Lijiang Publishing House. After a period of silence, in 1988, Yu Jianhua's "A Scene Repeated: Life on the Cliff" (Journal of Shanghai Normal University: No. 1, 1988), Yin Dexiang and Lun (The Catcher in the Rye's Protagonist Holden Caulfield, Foreign Literature Review, No. 2, 1988), and Wang Hairu's A Rebel and the Fate of the Victims One by One (Nanjing Normal University Newspaper, No. 1, 1988) were published one after another, indicating that it began to attract the attention of critics. After 1992, the book was reprinted by Zhejiang Literature and Art Publishing House and Yilin Publishing House. Yilin Publishing House and Xinjiang University Press have also published English-Chinese versions of the book. With the expansion of the publication, from 1994 onwards. The number of reviews and introductions of the book in various academic journals and newspapers in China began to increase. In 2001 alone, 10 monographs were published, and there is no sign of decline since. The research trajectory in China over the past 20 years can be clearly divided into two stages: the translation before 1993, the preliminary research stage, and the research after 1994. A review of the development of Mai's introduction and research in China can almost witness the development trajectory of American literary studies in China in the past 20 years, that is, from the translation and introduction in the 811s to the flourishing of American literary studies that have become more and more obvious since the 90s. Specifically, the author has collected more than 60 articles in the research of "The Catcher in the Rye", in which the commentators have different positions and different methods. Opinions and wisdom, each with its own reason; Tradition and modernity, exploration and innovation, experiential reading and rational thinking, are intricately intertwined. This paper attempts to focus on several common research entry points of researchers. These research results are summarized and sorted out, hoping to provide some reference and help for future researchers.

 1. Multiple recourse to the value and meaning of the work

"Mai, one of the reasons that attracts critics is the long-term interest in reading and the long-lasting market sales of generations of young readers. With a content content of about 150,000 words, Salinger has only one successful work so far. After becoming famous, the author is like Mai, as Holden envisions when he is extremely lonely. I bought a large piece of land in New Hampshire and lived in seclusion. Although several short stories were published afterwards, they had little impact, and Salinger did not mention them, making it difficult for traditional studies of the author's work to be carried out calmly. Therefore, from the initial translation to the latest research, one of the hot topics of the continuous discussion is to analyze the reasons for its popularity with readers, and to analyze the value and significance of the novel in general. In this regard, there are generally the following views:

The earliest masterpiece of "Crossing a Generation". The first to put forward this view was Mr. Shi Xianrong's "A Brief History of Contemporary American Literature" published in 1982, Contemporary Foreign Literature, No. 4, 1982). Postscript to the 1983 edition. In particular, in Appendix 1, written in 1993 for the reprint of the Zhejiang Literature and Art Publishing House, he analyzed various aspects of the novel in detail. He points out Holden's contradictory personality. The "obvious existential characteristics" of his character, Relton's role as "one of the earliest anti-heroes in contemporary American literature", as well as the analysis of the artistic characteristics of his works, as well as the summary of relevant foreign reviews made by Mr. Shi on the title of "The Silent Protest of the Young Generation in America", have all been regarded as authoritative views and authoritative materials, and have been frequently cited by later researchers. A considerable number of the papers I have collected are based on Mr. Shi's comments or related to Mr. Shi's research. Overall, he argues that "Salinger and his character, Holden, are actually stepping over the molecule. It's just that it's not as powerful as the later "stepping off molecules" and "hippies", not to the level of drug addiction and social living, and deep down in their hearts they are still pursuing ideals and looking forward to a better future." Many textbooks in China have also accepted Mr. Shi's views to varying degrees.

A work of realism that criticizes American society. Essays that hold this view generally adopt the traditional socio-historical analysis and believe that the work is a critique of the hypocrisy, depravity, and callousness of American society. There are a large number of essays in this part, but the focus of criticism is different, such as Zhang Jieming's "Resistance" and "Return": Interpretation (The Catcher in the Rye) ("Masterpiece Appreciation", No. 3, 2002), Li Zhengrong's "Escape and Rebellion" (Foreign Literature Studies, No. 3, 1997), Zhu Jing's "(The Catcher in the Rye": The "Modern Classic" of Rebellion, Corruption and Hypocrisy" (Journal of Social Sciences and Journal, Jilin University, No. 4, 2002), Zuo Yu's A generation of silent protests, a distant call" (Journal of Philology, No. 3, 2001), etc.

A psychological masterpiece that reproduces the mental condition of youth in the United States in the 50s. The largest number of papers in this area are generally based on socio-historical and psychoanalytic methods. The content covers a wide range. When analyzing the psychological world of the protagonist, there is a different emphasis. For example, Yu Jianhua believes that "one of the reasons for the success of Mai beyond the scope of literature is that the novel caters to the ambivalence of the youth of the 50s who are in the dilemma of "finding a way out" and "having no way out", and "Holden, the protagonist of the novel with disappointment, loneliness, fear and misanthropy, is a centralized, typical, and concrete artistic representation of the mental state of American youth in the post-war period." Zhang Zhihua argues in "The Struggle and Loss of a "Modern Disease" Patient (Journal of Panzhihua University, No. 6, 1998) that the reason why this novel resonates is that it reflects the "inner world" of the generation that "crossed out of the post-war United States". This paper focuses on the analysis of Holden's ambivalence of "the contradiction between external manifestations and latent desires", "the desire for understanding in loneliness", "the search for beauty in disgust", and "the search for the meaning of life in rebellion". In addition, Pan Li and Zhang Bizhu, "The Psychological Process of American Adolescents in the Postwar Period", Journal of the Institute of International Relations, No. 2, 1996) also hold similar views.

A novel that reveals the pains and dilemmas of growing up. Wang Hong, in "Growing Pains and Dilemmas" (Journal of Jiangsu Institute of Education, No. 4, 2001), compares Joyce's "Chance Encounters" and "The Catcher in the Rye". It is believed that the descriptions of the life experiences of adolescents in these two works show the common theme of growth in the Western literary tradition. The two works represent the two forms of "breaking free and returning" and "exploring and disappointing" in the process of growing up, but in revealing the dilemma of human growth. Joyce and Salinger share the same goal, and they invariably point their concern to revealing the commonality of human growth: the process of growth is the process of showing the paradoxes of life. It is the process of presenting the pain of life. Similar views include Zhang Ying's "A Preliminary Study of American Juvenile "Problem Novels"", Social Science Exploration, No. 2, 1996) and so on.

A classic of postmodern narrative texts. In "The Three Characteristics of Postmodern Narrative Texts in the Journal of Nanjing Normal University, No. 4, 2001", Wei Yan argues that Mai dissolves the boundary between high culture and popular culture with popular language, and "dissolves the elegance of art with the vulgarity of language". It shows a new cultural dimension. It's filled with the real world. Erases the boundaries between art and life. flattened the "depth mode" between the surface and the deep layer"; "Viewing the world from a unique adolescent perspective that breaks down the discourse of power and traditional aesthetics"; The "wordlessness" of impersonal narration "distracts truth and ultimate meaning." The charm of this work lies mainly in the fact that it reflects the aesthetic taste and artistic pursuit of people in the postmodern society. Salinger's work also greatly influenced the development of postmodern literary creation in the West in the second half of the 20th century. It is a classic of postmodern narrative texts. Zhang Qun's "The Evolution of Modernism to Postmodernism from the Novels of Salinger, Bellow and Other Writers" (West; Journal of the Institute of Foreign Languages, No. 4, 1999) analyzes the characteristics of Salinger's novels from many aspects from the perspective of literary history, through the analysis of the works of Salinger, Bellow and other writers.

Research borrowed from interdisciplinary theories. The great response of this work stems from the novel's extensive use of anthropological and mythological knowledge, which stirs up the "collective unconscious" of all people. This view was mainly put forward by Hu Yamin in the article "The Growth of Holden from the Perspective of Anthropology and Mythology" (Fujian Foreign Languages, No. 4, 1998). This paper carefully analyzes the time of the story, the plot setting and other factors, and argues: "First of all, the time when the story takes place is very symbolic. ... A 16-year-old boy seeks truth, tenderness and love in the depths of winter in December, during the coldest season of the year, alluding to the theme of finding the sun, which is all too common in the myths of various peoples. "In the process of seeking and receiving. Holden gradually matured, alluding to the "long, arduous, and disillusionment" ritual of human assembly that is common in the myths of various peoples. Thus, "the protagonist of the novel, although living in post-World War II America, retains many of his original beliefs, thoughts, and customs." Because all people have a "collective unconscious" that they don't perceive for themselves, this novel resonates so strongly and tugs at the heartstrings of countless people's subconscious."

It shows the contradictions and conflicts formed by the dissolution of the mainstream cultural code of the American youth in the 50s and the lack of correct return. It was mainly proposed by Yan Zhijun in "The Watchman in the Marking Field": The Unraveling and Returning of Cultural Codes" (Foreign Literature Studies, No. 2, 1999). Applying the post-structuralist theories of "deterritorialization" and "reterritorialization", this paper argues that "Holden spatially detaches from Pansy. It means that he is determined to break away from the cultural code of mainstream society. His upside-down red hunter hat is highly symbolic. represents a clear gesture of a rebel". The New York experience is a "dissolution within a homing", suggesting that Holden is also "simply unable to find a homing in the sub-culture that has crossed a generation". "The end of the novel. He does not smash one center to establish another center like the traditional dichotomy model, but further dissolves the domain on the basis of returning to the domain, neither abiding by the traditional hypocritical social norms, nor indulging in a decadent life, he is still seeking his ultimate destination. This ending "leaves the reader with endless conjectures." "Holden's experience is emblematic of the contradictions and conflicts between American teenagers in the 50s who dismantled the dominant cultural code of society and the lack of correct homing."

 2. Ongoing controversy over the theme of the work

As to what is the theme of "Mai", commentators have different perspectives of interpretation. Differing conclusions are often reached. The main interpretation horizons are:

Interpretation of the topic. When asked who the "catcher in the rye" is. It is generally believed that "The Catcher" refers to the protagonist Holden. However, Yang Qiurong believes that there should be three understandings in "Who is the Real "Watchman" Household (Journal of Beijing Institute of Education, No. 1, 1999): First, it refers to the adult world, and they are the "watchmen" who give up their duty to watch. Secondly, it refers to the protagonist Holden, who represents the self-imaginary "Watchman" character. Again, the deeper meaning of "watchman" refers to Philip, who alone is the true "watchman". In Holden's dangerous "game" of Exodus West, contrary to the general selfishness and indifference of the adult world, it is the younger sister Fei Mi from the children's world who "manages in time to dissuade Holden from the precipice with her extraordinary imagination in writing detective novels." Saved his brother from a dangerous story of falling off a cliff. Successfully pass the "hurdles" of adolescence". Thus, it was Phili, not Holden, who literally acted as a "catcher in the rye" in this exodus "game".

Showing the spiritual crisis of the younger generation. There are quite a few articles on this topic. The monograph on this topic is Zhang Yuxiao's "The Confusion of Life on the Edge of the Cliff", Journal of Shenyang Normal University, No. 1). This paper argues that this novel profoundly and artistically reproduces the contradictory mental state of the post-war American youth: the great abundance of material life and the emptiness of spiritual life, thus revealing the social theme of the spiritual crisis of the post-war American young generation.

Focusing on the existential dilemma of modern Westerners. Tian Jia's "The Confusion and Choice of Survival" (Journal of Sichuan University, No. 2, 1994) argues that "the uniqueness of this novel lies in the fact that it cuts into the important theme of the existential predicament of modern Westerners, has a strong sense of reality, and at the same time is known for its profound and detailed psychological analysis in terms of artistic description." Cai Hongmei and Fang Jun's "The Confusion of Individual Existence and the Exploration of the Way of Existence in Modern Civilization" (Journal of Heilongjiang Agricultural Teachers College, No. 4, 2001), through the overall analysis of Salinger's creation, believes that "Mai" shows the consistent theme of Salinger's novels: "the concern for the existence of individuals in modern civilization and the inquiry into the mode of existence of individuals". In addition, Liu Boxiang's "Portrayal of the Dilemma of Modern Life", Journal of Yangzhou Institute of Education, No. 4, 2002) and so on. In addition, Zhou Qian's "The Theme of Alienation in the Catcher in the Rye" (Journal of the College of Foreign Chinese Languages of Shandong Normal University, No. 1, 2001) explores the theme of alienation that exists in this work, and Wang Changcai's "Difficult Exploration of Love and Truth" (Journal of Rongzhou Normal College, No. 2, 2001) believes that the deep theme of this work is the search for love and truth.

 3. Different interpretations of the image of the protagonist Holden

As the sole protagonist of the work, the analysis and grasp of Holden's image is not only related to the value and significance of the work, but also related to the theme. So, to Holden

The analysis of images is naturally another hot topic of debate. There are mainly the following points of view:

The image of a rebel and a rebel in American society. There is a certain number of articles that hold this point of view. For example, Zhang Jieming's "The Eternal Mystery: Longing for Nature", Journal of Xiangtan University; No. 3, 2002) argues: "Holden, the novel's sole protagonist, is an unusual figure of a rebel. In addition to his madness, self-abandonment, and extreme cynicism as a means of resistance, he also rebelled against "hypocrisy" with "hypocrisy", and showed his spiritual superiority beyond his years with his yearning for nature, which was enough to make him one of the rebels who "returned to nature" in history. It has eternal significance. Similar views include Wang Hairu's "A Rebel and the Fate of a Sacrificer", Li Chuanfang's "A Rebellious Teenager Written by a Reclusive Writer", Journal of Guanjiang University, No. 4, 1998), and Chen Hui and Wang Wanbing's "The Rebellious Image of Students in the United States in the 50s" (Gansu Social Sciences, 1999).

The watchman of the spiritual pure land and the seeker of the spiritual homeland. This view has been covered in many papers. The monograph article is Pan Zhuqiong and Xiao Yihu's "Watching the Spiritual Pure Land and Pursuing the Spiritual Homeland" (Journal of Jingzhou Normal University, No. 4, 2001). The essay argues that Holden "is a rational seeker of the pain of melon independence wandering in a spiritual "wasteland": he defends childhood and protects innocence; Desire for love. seek understanding; Seek recognition

Despair, and eventually become a victim of fighting against society and sticking to ideals. But the failure of Holden's quest could not erase the dazzling light of his persistence, truthfulness, and kindness. In him, people see the image of a watchman of spiritual purity and a seeker of the spiritual homeland that stands in the history of world literature. ”

The image of the Independence in the History of Western Literature. Xiang Weiyi's "The Lonely Man of the 20th Century" (Northwest Normal University Newspaper, No. 4, 1996) compares the image of Holden in "Mai" with the image of Robinson Crusoe in "Robinson Crusoe" in the sense of the history of civilization. I think that although they are the same images of loners in the history of Western literature, they are fundamentally different." Robinson's loneliness is an objective state." Holden's loneliness is a kind of spiritual loneliness that will always be left out." Holden's loneliness is the inevitable result of the collapse of traditional Western values in the 20th century, which led to communication barriers, "the disease of Western civilization in the 20th century, and there is no cure". Liu Zhanbo's "Two Lonely Souls" (Journal of North China Electric Power University, No. 1, 1999) compares Quentin in "The Noise and the Tumult" with Holden in "Mai" from the aspects of "The Desert of Love" and "The Watchman's Feeble Resistance", and argues that the two modern classics were published far apart. The protagonists have different surnames and ages, but they have many similarities in revealing the psychological activities of adolescents and truly reflecting the spiritual bankruptcy of modern America and the disappointment, depression, loneliness, fear, anxiety, restlessness, numbness, loss, and rebellion of American bourgeois teenagers.

Agonized Awakened. Chai Gaiying and Li Jin, "The Awakened of Pain" (Journal of Shanxi University Teachers College, No. 3, 1998) From the three aspects of the background, the rather similar image of the protagonist, and the thought-provoking ending. The Catcher in the Rye: Comparing it to Diary of a Madman, Holden and Madman are both "painful awakeners" of their respective eras. They are both concerned about the fate of their children, and both have a thought-provoking tragic ending," two writers from different societies and eras. In a very similar way, it shook the societies in which they lived." In addition, Luo Shiping in (Perspective on Psychiatric Complex) (Journal of Sichuan University of Foreign Languages, No. 3, 1996). Taking Holden as a psychopath, from the perspectives of "psychology, consciousness, individual growth and the environment of the times", he reveals "the causes of Holden's psychosis and the deep implications of this complex". Another of his articles, "< Catcher in the Rye. The Image of the Outsider in China (Journal of Guizhou Normal University, No. 1, 1994) proposes Holden's image of the outsider.

 Fourth, research from other perspectives

Analysis of linguistic characteristics, Mr. Hou Weirui's "The Perfect Knot of Personality and Typicality (, Foreign Chinese, 1982, No. 10,000) is the most right: Mai; It reflects the linguistic typicality of this age group and social class. and has the distinctive personality of Holden himself". Later, Luo Shiping's "The Anti-Orthodox Cultural Language in 'The Catcher in the Rye)" (Foreign Literature Review, No. 1, 1994), from the perspective of cultural linguistics, through the analysis of a large number of attachments, grammatical errors, gross shifts, and slang in the Holden language, it is believed that "the Holden language is not purely a habitual language popular in the mouths of young people in post-war America, but should be a linguistic expression of the anti-orthodox cultural movement, and the language of anti-orthodox culture in post-war America." Cheng Jiao's "The Politics of Swear Words and Swearing" (Foreign Literature Review, No. 3, 2002) connects Holden's swear words with the politics of the times. It is believed that "it is a harmless gesture after the energy of social criticism has shifted from the realm of reality to the realm of symbolism".

Research on symbolism, narrative and other artistic expressions. In "The Interpretation of "Red" (Journal of Chengdu Teachers College, No. 2, 1998), Song Bing analyzes the "red" imagery that often appears in the novel, arguing that the color red symbolizes Holden's complex character. Through the use of the color red, Salinger profoundly and vividly shows the reader the rebellious, radical, enthusiastic, and at the same time a little hesitant and weak character traits of Holden, a representative of post-war American youth. Wang Wanbing's "A New Exploration of the Symbolic Art of < Catcher in the Rye" (Journal of Hexi University, No. 1, 2003) reviews this work from two levels: overall symbolism and partial symbolism. Liu Changjiang's "Narrative-Structure-The Perfect Unity of Image and Theme" (Journal of Sichuan Institute of Administration, No. 2, 2003) discusses the narrative characteristics, plot mode, and relationship between imagery and theme of The Catcher in the Rye, and believes that the strength of this novel comes from the perfect unity between these elements. Guo Jia and Chen Xianglan's "The Narrator and the Nominal Audience in 'The Catcher in the Rye)" (Journal of Danjiang Normal University, No. 4, 2002) and Yang Xu's "Novelty, Uniqueness, and Freedom: An Analysis of the Perspective Art of (The Catcher in the Rye)" (Journal of Changsha Electric Power Institute, No. 2, 2002) respectively analyzed the narrative art techniques of this work.

In addition, Feng Jiqing's "Special Discourse Markers and Semantic Indifference" (Foreign Literature Studies, No. 3, 2003) "From the special discursive markers of the two Outsiders and Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye, the narrative characteristics and meanings of the works are discussed, and it is pointed out that the biggest feature of them as narrative texts of the novel is that they reveal the duality of splicing together incompatible semantic values and cultural values, resulting in the indifference of values." The large number of words and semantics that express an eclectic stance in the work correspond to the deep structure and organization of a particular society and the decline of the post-war socio-linguistic environment due to ideological conflicts. With the anti-hero as the protagonist, he critiques the depreciation of the ideological central discourse and the falsity of the discourse of social power". Cai Qianrui's "Watch, Protection, Redemption" (Journal of Wenzhou Normal University, No. 4, 2003) takes the "act of love" as the point of view, and compares the three characters of Holden, Jia Baoyu, and Mei Sijin

Looking at the research on "The Catcher in the Rye" in China over the past 20 years, 1994 can be described as a turning point. Beginning in 1994, the number of papers began to break through the cold situation of only 6 in the previous 10 years. More importantly, with the increase of the number, the single socio-historical research method in the past has gradually been replaced by a comprehensive and multi-angle research perspective. Talking about Wei Yan's textual analysis, Hu Yamin's research using interdisciplinary theory, and Yan Zhijun's poststructuralist analysis. Yang Qiurong's interpretation of the theme, Luo Shiping's multi-faceted exploration of this work, as well as the current situation of a hundred schools of thought contending for this work, and the number of papers published that have been high, all show that the research on this work is moving towards a deep foundation in China. And this momentum will continue for a long time.

At the same time, the existing problems are also very prominent. First, the vast majority of researchers' results are single articles. There is a lack of sustained and in-depth research results. Empirical reading accounts for a considerable proportion, and the phenomenon of repeated research is obvious. Some of the opinions of the articles are very different, and some of the studies themselves are problematic. If we compare Holden with Jia Baoyu's image, there are traces of superficial understanding and far-fetched comparison of the characters in any case. Another prominent problem is the existence of a large number of hard-cut readings, which are manifested in the fact that the work is regarded as a footnote to some preconceived notions, arbitrarily cutting the text, taking it out of context, and even going beyond the text, taking one's own subjective speculation as the basis for making arguments. As is often seen, the teacher Androlini is affirmed as a "shameful homosexual", and that what he says is that "the mark of an immature man is that he is willing to die heroically for a cause, and the mark of a mature man is that he is willing to live a humble life for a certain cause", is to instill in Holden a "sleek, sophisticated" philosophy of life. In fact, in the text, even Holden himself cannot make a positive judgment on whether Andolini is gay or not. As for the two sentences that Adorini said, they are also explained in the book. It is a famous quote by the famous psychologist Wilham Starkel. It contains a profound philosophy of life. Andolini thinks these two sentences are helpful to Holden. Write it down and give it to Holden. Because most Chinese readers don't know about this psychologist. It's easy to skip this unfamiliar name that suddenly appears when reading. Misread it as a statement of Andolini's own philosophy of life. There are many reasons for this phenomenon, such as treating the characters and backgrounds in literary works as real. Ignoring the independence of literature, coupled with some pre-existing influence of critical logic that can be "hypocritical to hypocritical". So that some commentators think that it is possible to transcend the work. Cut the work to illustrate your own inherent point of view. This phenomenon is not confined to the study of Mai: the lack of a common cultural background, coupled with the translator's re-creation in the translation process. It is inevitable that a considerable number of domestic researchers will use the translation as a research foothold. TAKE, FOR EXAMPLE, THE TRANSLATION OF THE WORD "CATCHER" IN THE TITLE OF THE NOVEL, "THE CATCHER IN THE RYE." The meaning of "catcher" in the original text is a catcher in baseball who stands behind the batter and catches the ball thrown by the pitcher. For Americans who are passionate about baseball. The meaning needs no explanation. Available for the Chinese. When the original meaning is translated, there is a barrier to acceptance. Mr. Shi Xianrong based on his overall understanding of the work. Creatively translates it as "watchman." However, compared to the Taiwanese translation that translates it as "The Rye Catcher". There will definitely be a difference in the reader's reading experience. The existence of this problem also points out to us the future research trend or direction of "The Catcher in the Rye": the study of the translation of the study. Through the exchange and integration of the two cultures expressed in the process of translation and transformation, the cultural differences are analyzed, and cultural misunderstandings are eliminated. Examine the cultural elements of the work. Such as the writers and works involved. the education system, educational status of the 40.50s of the 20th century in the United States, etc.; Borrowing from modern literary theory. A multi-dimensional, continuous, and deeply perusive study of texts.

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 (Editor-in-charge: Xu Li)

 A study of the catcher in the wheat field in China

 Zhang Guixia

(Culture & Communication, Sihool, Luoyang University, Luoyang 471023.) China)

Key words: Watchman ; J. D. Salinger: Holden Caulfield: study: China

  1.  Received:

    About author: ZHANG Guixia( 1964 -), female, from Sanmenhuan, Henan. Lecturer at the School of Culture and Communication, Luoyang University, Master of Arts.

  2. Abstract: This paper is a summary of the research on wheat fields in China in the past 20 years, and also a prospect for future research.