#define mapWidth 24
#define mapHeight 24
#define screenWidth 640
#define screenHeight 480
int worldMap[mapWidth][mapHeight]=
{
{1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,2,2,2,0,0,0,0,3,0,3,0,3,0,0,0,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,2,0,0,0,2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,2,0,0,0,2,0,0,0,0,3,0,0,0,3,0,0,0,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,2,0,0,0,2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,0,2,2,0,0,0,0,3,0,3,0,3,0,0,0,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,4,0,4,0,0,0,0,4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,4,0,0,0,0,5,0,4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,4,0,4,0,0,0,0,4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,4,0,4,4,4,4,4,4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
{1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1}
};

int main(int /*argc*/, char */*argv*/[])
{
double posX = 22, posY = 12; //x and y start position
double dirX = 1, dirY = 0; //initial direction vector
double planeX = 0, planeY = 0.66; //the 2d raycaster version of camera plane
double time = 0; //time of current frame
double oldTime = 0; //time of previous frame

screen(screenWidth, screenHeight, 0, "Raycaster");

while(!done())
{

for(int x = 0; x < w; x++)
{
//calculate ray position and direction
double cameraX = 2 * x / double(w)  1; //xcoordinate in camera space
double rayDirX = dirX + planeX * cameraX;
double rayDirY = dirY + planeY * cameraX;

deltaDistX = sqrt(1 + (rayDirY * rayDirY) / (rayDirX * rayDirX))
deltaDistY = sqrt(1 + (rayDirX * rayDirX) / (rayDirY * rayDirY))
But this can be simplified to:
deltaDistX = abs(rayDir / rayDirX)
deltaDistY = abs(rayDir / rayDirY)
Where rayDir is the length of the vector rayDirX, rayDirY (that is sqrt(rayDirX * rayDirX + rayDirY * rayDirY)): you can indeed verify that e.g. sqrt(1 + (rayDirY * rayDirY) / (rayDirX * rayDirX)) equals abs(sqrt(rayDirX * rayDirX + rayDirY * rayDirY) / rayDirX). However, we can use 1 instead of rayDir, because only the *ratio* between deltaDistX and deltaDistY matters for the DDA code that follows later below, so we get:
deltaDistX = abs(1 / rayDirX)
deltaDistY = abs(1 / rayDirY)
Due to this, the deltaDist and sideDist values used in the code do not match the lengths shown in the picture above, but their relative sizes all still match.
[thanks to Artem for spotting this simplification]
The variable perpWallDist will be used later to calculate the length
of the ray.
The DDA algorithm will always jump exactly one square each loop,
either a square in the xdirection, or a square in the ydirection.
If it has to go in the negative or positive xdirection, and the
negative or positive ydirection will depend on the direction of
the ray, and this fact will be stored in stepX and stepY. Those
variables are always either 1 or +1.
Finally, hit is used to determinate whether or not the coming loop
may be ended, and side will contain if an xside or a yside of a
wall was hit. If an xside was hit, side is set to 0, if an yside
was hit, side will be 1. By xside and yside, I mean the lines of
the grid that are the borders between two squares.
//which box of the map we're in
int mapX = int(posX);
int mapY = int(posY);
//length of ray from current position to next x or yside
double sideDistX;
double sideDistY;
//length of ray from one x or yside to next x or yside
double deltaDistX = (rayDirX == 0) ? 1e30 : std::abs(1 / rayDirX);
double deltaDistY = (rayDirY == 0) ? 1e30 : std::abs(1 / rayDirY);
double perpWallDist;
//what direction to step in x or ydirection (either +1 or 1)
int stepX;
int stepY;
int hit = 0; //was there a wall hit?
int side; //was a NS or a EW wall hit?

NOTE: If rayDirX or rayDirY are 0, the division through zero is avoided by setting it to a very high value 1e30. If you are using a language such as C++, Java or JS, this is not actually needed, as it supports the IEEE 754 floating point standard, which gives the result Infinity, which works correctly in the code below. However, some other languages, such as Python, disallow division through zero, so the more generic code that works everywhere is given above. 1e30 is an arbitrarily chosen high enough number and can be set to Infinity if your programming language supports assiging that value.
Now, before the actual DDA can start, first stepX, stepY, and the
initial sideDistX and sideDistY still have to be calculated.
If the ray direction has a negative xcomponent, stepX is 1, if
the ray direciton has a positive xcomponent it's +1. If the
xcomponent is 0, it doesn't matter what value stepX has since
it'll then be unused.
The same goes for the ycomponent.
If the ray direction has a negative xcomponent, sideDistX is the
distance from the ray starting position to the first side to the
left, if the ray direciton has a positive xcomponent the first
side to the right is used instead.
The same goes for the ycomponent, but now with the first side
above or below the position.
For these values, the integer value mapX is used and the real
position subtracted from it, and 1.0 is added in some of the cases
depending if the side to the left or right, of the top or the
bottom is used. Then you get the perpendicular distance to this
side, so multiply it with deltaDistX or deltaDistY to get the real
Euclidean distance.
//calculate step and initial sideDist
if (rayDirX < 0)
{
stepX = 1;
sideDistX = (posX  mapX) * deltaDistX;
}
else
{
stepX = 1;
sideDistX = (mapX + 1.0  posX) * deltaDistX;
}
if (rayDirY < 0)
{
stepY = 1;
sideDistY = (posY  mapY) * deltaDistY;
}
else
{
stepY = 1;
sideDistY = (mapY + 1.0  posY) * deltaDistY;
}

//perform DDA
while (hit == 0)
{
//jump to next map square, either in xdirection, or in ydirection
if (sideDistX < sideDistY)
{
sideDistX += deltaDistX;
mapX += stepX;
side = 0;
}
else
{
sideDistY += deltaDistY;
mapY += stepY;
side = 1;
}
//Check if ray has hit a wall
if (worldMap[mapX][mapY] > 0) hit = 1;
}

We don't use the Euclidean distance to the point representing player, but instead the distance to the camera plane (or, the distance of the point projected on the camera direction to the player), to avoid the fisheye effect. The fisheye effect is an effect you see if you use the real distance, where all the walls become rounded, and can make you sick if you rotate.
The following image shows why we take distance to camera plane instead of player. With P the player, and the black line the camera plane: To the left of the player, a few red rays are shown from hitpoints on the wall to the player, representing Euclidean distance. On the right side of the player, a few green rays are shown going from hitpoints on the wall directly to the camera plane instead of to the player. So the lengths of those green lines are examples of the perpendicular distance we'll use instead of direct Euclidean distance.
In the image, the player is looking directly at the wall, and in that case you would expect the wall's bottom and top to form a perfectly horizontal line on the screen. However, the red rays all have a different lenght, so would compute different wall heights for different vertical stripes, hence the rounded effect. The green rays on the right all have the same length, so will give the correct result. The same still apllies for when the player rotates (then the camera plane is no longer horizontal and the green lines will have different lengths, but still with a constant change between each) and the walls become diagonal but straight lines on the screen. This explanation is somewhat handwavy but gives the idea.
Note that this part of the code isn't "fisheye correction", such a correction isn't needed for the way of raycasting used here, the fisheye effect is simply avoided by the way the distance is calculated here. It's even easier to calculate this perpendicular distance than the real distance, we don't even need to know the exact location where the wall was hit.
This perpenducular distance is called "perpWallDist" in the code. One way to compute it is to use the formula for shortest distance from a point to a line, where the point is where the wall was hit, and the line is the camera plane:
However, it can be computed simpler than that: due to how deltaDist and sideDist were scaled by
a factor of rayDir above, the length of sideDist already almost equals perpWallDist. We just need
to subtract deltaDist once from it, going one step back, because in the DDA steps above we went one step
further to end up inside the wall.
Depending on whether the ray hit an X side or Y side, the formula is computed using sideDistX, or sideDistY.
//Calculate distance projected on camera direction (Euclidean distance would give fisheye effect!)
if(side == 0) perpWallDist = (sideDistX  deltaDistX);
else perpWallDist = (sideDistY  deltaDistY);

A more detailed derivation of the perpWallDist formula is depicted in the image below, for the side == 1 case.
Meaning of the points:
[Thanks to Thomas van der Berg in 2016 for pointing out simplifications of the code (perpWallDist could be simplified and the value reused for wallX).
[Thanks to Roux Morgan in 2020 for helping to clarify the explanation of perpWallDist, the tutorial was lacking some information before this]
[Thanks to Noah Wagner and Elias for finding further simplifications for perpWallDist]
Now that we have the calculated distance (perpWallDist), we can calculate the height of the line
that has to be drawn on screen: this is the inverse of perpWallDist,
and then multiplied by h, the height in pixels of the screen, to
bring it to pixel coordinates. You can of course also multiply it
with another value, for example 2*h, if you want to walls to be
higher or lower. The value of h will make the walls look like cubes
with equal height, width and depth, while large values will create
higher boxes (depending on your monitor).
Then out of this lineHeight (which is thus the height of the
vertical line that should be drawn), the start and end position of
where we should really draw are calculated. The center of the wall
should be at the center of the screen, and if these points lie
outside the screen, they're capped to 0 or h1.
//Calculate height of line to draw on screen
int lineHeight = (int)(h / perpWallDist);
//calculate lowest and highest pixel to fill in current stripe
int drawStart = lineHeight / 2 + h / 2;
if(drawStart < 0)drawStart = 0;
int drawEnd = lineHeight / 2 + h / 2;
if(drawEnd >= h)drawEnd = h  1;

//choose wall color
ColorRGB color;
switch(worldMap[mapX][mapY])
{
case 1: color = RGB_Red; break; //red
case 2: color = RGB_Green; break; //green
case 3: color = RGB_Blue; break; //blue
case 4: color = RGB_White; break; //white
default: color = RGB_Yellow; break; //yellow
}
//give x and y sides different brightness
if (side == 1) {color = color / 2;}
//draw the pixels of the stripe as a vertical line
verLine(x, drawStart, drawEnd, color);
}

//timing for input and FPS counter
oldTime = time;
time = getTicks();
double frameTime = (time  oldTime) / 1000.0; //frameTime is the time this frame has taken, in seconds
print(1.0 / frameTime); //FPS counter
redraw();
cls();
//speed modifiers
double moveSpeed = frameTime * 5.0; //the constant value is in squares/second
double rotSpeed = frameTime * 3.0; //the constant value is in radians/second

readKeys();
//move forward if no wall in front of you
if (keyDown(SDLK_UP))
{
if(worldMap[int(posX + dirX * moveSpeed)][int(posY)] == false) posX += dirX * moveSpeed;
if(worldMap[int(posX)][int(posY + dirY * moveSpeed)] == false) posY += dirY * moveSpeed;
}
//move backwards if no wall behind you
if (keyDown(SDLK_DOWN))
{
if(worldMap[int(posX  dirX * moveSpeed)][int(posY)] == false) posX = dirX * moveSpeed;
if(worldMap[int(posX)][int(posY  dirY * moveSpeed)] == false) posY = dirY * moveSpeed;
}
//rotate to the right
if (keyDown(SDLK_RIGHT))
{
//both camera direction and camera plane must be rotated
double oldDirX = dirX;
dirX = dirX * cos(rotSpeed)  dirY * sin(rotSpeed);
dirY = oldDirX * sin(rotSpeed) + dirY * cos(rotSpeed);
double oldPlaneX = planeX;
planeX = planeX * cos(rotSpeed)  planeY * sin(rotSpeed);
planeY = oldPlaneX * sin(rotSpeed) + planeY * cos(rotSpeed);
}
//rotate to the left
if (keyDown(SDLK_LEFT))
{
//both camera direction and camera plane must be rotated
double oldDirX = dirX;
dirX = dirX * cos(rotSpeed)  dirY * sin(rotSpeed);
dirY = oldDirX * sin(rotSpeed) + dirY * cos(rotSpeed);
double oldPlaneX = planeX;
planeX = planeX * cos(rotSpeed)  planeY * sin(rotSpeed);
planeY = oldPlaneX * sin(rotSpeed) + planeY * cos(rotSpeed);
}
}
}

#define screenWidth 640
#define screenHeight 480
#define texWidth 64
#define texHeight 64
#define mapWidth 24
#define mapHeight 24
int worldMap[mapWidth][mapHeight]=
{
{4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,7,7,7,7,7,7,7,7},
{4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,7,0,0,0,0,0,0,7},
{4,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,7},
{4,0,2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,7},
{4,0,3,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,7,0,0,0,0,0,0,7},
{4,0,4,0,0,0,0,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,7,7,0,7,7,7,7,7},
{4,0,5,0,0,0,0,5,0,5,0,5,0,5,0,5,7,0,0,0,7,7,7,1},
{4,0,6,0,0,0,0,5,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,5,7,0,0,0,0,0,0,8},
{4,0,7,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,7,7,7,1},
{4,0,8,0,0,0,0,5,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,5,7,0,0,0,0,0,0,8},
{4,0,0,0,0,0,0,5,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,5,7,0,0,0,7,7,7,1},
{4,0,0,0,0,0,0,5,5,5,5,0,5,5,5,5,7,7,7,7,7,7,7,1},
{6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,0,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6},
{8,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,4},
{6,6,6,6,6,6,0,6,6,6,6,0,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6},
{4,4,4,4,4,4,0,4,4,4,6,0,6,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3},
{4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,4,6,0,6,2,0,0,0,0,0,2,0,0,0,2},
{4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,6,2,0,0,5,0,0,2,0,0,0,2},
{4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,4,6,0,6,2,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,0,2,2},
{4,0,6,0,6,0,0,0,0,4,6,0,0,0,0,0,5,0,0,0,0,0,0,2},
{4,0,0,5,0,0,0,0,0,4,6,0,6,2,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,0,2,2},
{4,0,6,0,6,0,0,0,0,4,6,0,6,2,0,0,5,0,0,2,0,0,0,2},
{4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,4,6,0,6,2,0,0,0,0,0,2,0,0,0,2},
{4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,3}
};

int main(int /*argc*/, char */*argv*/[])
{
double posX = 22.0, posY = 11.5; //x and y start position
double dirX = 1.0, dirY = 0.0; //initial direction vector
double planeX = 0.0, planeY = 0.66; //the 2d raycaster version of camera plane
double time = 0; //time of current frame
double oldTime = 0; //time of previous frame
Uint32 buffer[screenHeight][screenWidth]; // ycoordinate first because it works per scanline
std::vector

screen(screenWidth,screenHeight, 0, "Raycaster");
//generate some textures
for(int x = 0; x < texWidth; x++)
for(int y = 0; y < texHeight; y++)
{
int xorcolor = (x * 256 / texWidth) ^ (y * 256 / texHeight);
//int xcolor = x * 256 / texWidth;
int ycolor = y * 256 / texHeight;
int xycolor = y * 128 / texHeight + x * 128 / texWidth;
texture[0][texWidth * y + x] = 65536 * 254 * (x != y && x != texWidth  y); //flat red texture with black cross
texture[1][texWidth * y + x] = xycolor + 256 * xycolor + 65536 * xycolor; //sloped greyscale
texture[2][texWidth * y + x] = 256 * xycolor + 65536 * xycolor; //sloped yellow gradient
texture[3][texWidth * y + x] = xorcolor + 256 * xorcolor + 65536 * xorcolor; //xor greyscale
texture[4][texWidth * y + x] = 256 * xorcolor; //xor green
texture[5][texWidth * y + x] = 65536 * 192 * (x % 16 && y % 16); //red bricks
texture[6][texWidth * y + x] = 65536 * ycolor; //red gradient
texture[7][texWidth * y + x] = 128 + 256 * 128 + 65536 * 128; //flat grey texture
}

//start the main loop
while(!done())
{
for(int x = 0; x < w; x++)
{
//calculate ray position and direction
double cameraX = 2*x/double(w)1; //xcoordinate in camera space
double rayDirX = dirX + planeX*cameraX;
double rayDirY = dirY + planeY*cameraX;
//which box of the map we're in
int mapX = int(posX);
int mapY = int(posY);
//length of ray from current position to next x or yside
double sideDistX;
double sideDistY;
//length of ray from one x or yside to next x or yside
double deltaDistX = sqrt(1 + (rayDirY * rayDirY) / (rayDirX * rayDirX));
double deltaDistY = sqrt(1 + (rayDirX * rayDirX) / (rayDirY * rayDirY));
double perpWallDist;
//what direction to step in x or ydirection (either +1 or 1)
int stepX;
int stepY;
int hit = 0; //was there a wall hit?
int side; //was a NS or a EW wall hit?
//calculate step and initial sideDist
if (rayDirX < 0)
{
stepX = 1;
sideDistX = (posX  mapX) * deltaDistX;
}
else
{
stepX = 1;
sideDistX = (mapX + 1.0  posX) * deltaDistX;
}
if (rayDirY < 0)
{
stepY = 1;
sideDistY = (posY  mapY) * deltaDistY;
}
else
{
stepY = 1;
sideDistY = (mapY + 1.0  posY) * deltaDistY;
}

//perform DDA
while (hit == 0)
{
//jump to next map square, either in xdirection, or in ydirection
if (sideDistX < sideDistY)
{
sideDistX += deltaDistX;
mapX += stepX;
side = 0;
}
else
{
sideDistY += deltaDistY;
mapY += stepY;
side = 1;
}
//Check if ray has hit a wall
if (worldMap[mapX][mapY] > 0) hit = 1;
}
//Calculate distance of perpendicular ray (Euclidean distance would give fisheye effect!)
if(side == 0) perpWallDist = (sideDistX  deltaDistX);
else perpWallDist = (sideDistY  deltaDistY);
//Calculate height of line to draw on screen
int lineHeight = (int)(h / perpWallDist);
//calculate lowest and highest pixel to fill in current stripe
int drawStart = lineHeight / 2 + h / 2;
if(drawStart < 0) drawStart = 0;
int drawEnd = lineHeight / 2 + h / 2;
if(drawEnd >= h) drawEnd = h  1;

//texturing calculations
int texNum = worldMap[mapX][mapY]  1; //1 subtracted from it so that texture 0 can be used!
//calculate value of wallX
double wallX; //where exactly the wall was hit
if (side == 0) wallX = posY + perpWallDist * rayDirY;
else wallX = posX + perpWallDist * rayDirX;
wallX = floor((wallX));
//x coordinate on the texture
int texX = int(wallX * double(texWidth));
if(side == 0 && rayDirX > 0) texX = texWidth  texX  1;
if(side == 1 && rayDirY < 0) texX = texWidth  texX  1;

// How much to increase the texture coordinate per screen pixel
double step = 1.0 * texHeight / lineHeight;
// Starting texture coordinate
double texPos = (drawStart  h / 2 + lineHeight / 2) * step;
for(int y = drawStart; y<drawEnd; y++)
{
// Cast the texture coordinate to integer, and mask with (texHeight  1) in case of overflow
int texY = (int)texPos & (texHeight  1);
texPos += step;
Uint32 color = texture[texNum][texHeight * texY + texX];
//make color darker for ysides: R, G and B byte each divided through two with a "shift" and an "and"
if(side == 1) color = (color >> 1) & 8355711;
buffer[y][x] = color;
}
}

drawBuffer(buffer[0]);
for(int y = 0; y < h; y++) for(int x = 0; x < w; x++) buffer[y][x] = 0; //clear the buffer instead of cls()
//timing for input and FPS counter
oldTime = time;
time = getTicks();
double frameTime = (time  oldTime) / 1000.0; //frametime is the time this frame has taken, in seconds
print(1.0 / frameTime); //FPS counter
redraw();
//speed modifiers
double moveSpeed = frameTime * 5.0; //the constant value is in squares/second
double rotSpeed = frameTime * 3.0; //the constant value is in radians/second

readKeys();
//move forward if no wall in front of you
if (keyDown(SDLK_UP))
{
if(worldMap[int(posX + dirX * moveSpeed)][int(posY)] == false) posX += dirX * moveSpeed;
if(worldMap[int(posX)][int(posY + dirY * moveSpeed)] == false) posY += dirY * moveSpeed;
}
//move backwards if no wall behind you
if (keyDown(SDLK_DOWN))
{
if(worldMap[int(posX  dirX * moveSpeed)][int(posY)] == false) posX = dirX * moveSpeed;
if(worldMap[int(posX)][int(posY  dirY * moveSpeed)] == false) posY = dirY * moveSpeed;
}
//rotate to the right
if (keyDown(SDLK_RIGHT))
{
//both camera direction and camera plane must be rotated
double oldDirX = dirX;
dirX = dirX * cos(rotSpeed)  dirY * sin(rotSpeed);
dirY = oldDirX * sin(rotSpeed) + dirY * cos(rotSpeed);
double oldPlaneX = planeX;
planeX = planeX * cos(rotSpeed)  planeY * sin(rotSpeed);
planeY = oldPlaneX * sin(rotSpeed) + planeY * cos(rotSpeed);
}
//rotate to the left
if (keyDown(SDLK_LEFT))
{
//both camera direction and camera plane must be rotated
double oldDirX = dirX;
dirX = dirX * cos(rotSpeed)  dirY * sin(rotSpeed);
dirY = oldDirX * sin(rotSpeed) + dirY * cos(rotSpeed);
double oldPlaneX = planeX;
planeX = planeX * cos(rotSpeed)  planeY * sin(rotSpeed);
planeY = oldPlaneX * sin(rotSpeed) + planeY * cos(rotSpeed);
}
}
}

//swap texture X/Y since they'll be used as vertical stripes
for(size_t i = 0; i < 8; i++)
for(size_t x = 0; x < texSize; x++)
for(size_t y = 0; y < x; y++)
std::swap(texture[i][texSize * y + x], texture[i][texSize * x + y]);

Uint32 color = texture[texNum][texSize * texX + texY];

//generate some textures
unsigned long tw, th;
loadImage(texture[0], tw, th, "pics/eagle.png");
loadImage(texture[1], tw, th, "pics/redbrick.png");
loadImage(texture[2], tw, th, "pics/purplestone.png");
loadImage(texture[3], tw, th, "pics/greystone.png");
loadImage(texture[4], tw, th, "pics/bluestone.png");
loadImage(texture[5], tw, th, "pics/mossy.png");
loadImage(texture[6], tw, th, "pics/wood.png");
loadImage(texture[7], tw, th, "pics/colorstone.png");

There are at least two issues holding back speed of the raycaster code in this tutorial, which you can take into account if you'd like to make a super fast raycaster for very high resolutions: