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01 02 03 04
Governance 4 Environment 环境 18 Product & Safety 产品与安全 52 People & Community 人与社区 77
 1.1 我们的使命
Our Mission

2.1 替代化石燃料
Displacing Fossil Fuels

3.1 让人们买得起电动汽车
Making EVs Affordable

4.1 培养可持续能源未来的劳动力
Preparing the Workforce for a
Sustainable Energy Future
 1.2 概述

2.2 我们产品的碳影响
Carbon Impact of Our Products

3.2 旅行自由
Freedom to Travel

4.2 以安全和参与为中心
Centering Safety and Engagement

1.3 重要性与 TCFD 的一致性
Materiality and TCFD Alignment

2.3 我们业务活动的碳影响
Carbon Impact of Our Operations
 3.3 安全最大化
Maximizing Safety

4.3 在内部培养我们的领导者
Developing Our Leaders Internally

1.4 隐私与安全
Privacy and Security

2.4 水、循环性和生物多样性
Water, Circularity and Biodiversity

3.4 建设未来电网
Building the Grid of the Future
 4.4 社会影响
Social Impact

Contents 目录

05 06
Supply Chain 供应链 103 Appendix 141
5.1 107 6.1 142
Supply Chain Decarbonization
5.2 110 6.2 143
Recycling SASB
5.3 113 6.3 144

Responsible Sourcing of
Battery Materials
United Nations SDG Alignment
5.4 127 6.4 146

Responsible Sourcing of Other
Priority Materials
Key Metrics 关键指标
5.5 131 6.5 152
Tools Management Assertion 管理主张

Governance 管理

Sustainability is Core to Our Mission

Our Mission ..... 05
我们的使命 .....05

Overview ..... 06 概述 .....06
Assessments ..... 08 评估 .....08
Privacy and Security ..... 13
隐私与安全 .....13

Our mission is to accelerate the world's transition to sustainable energy

Since Tesla's inception, our goals have centered on the
opportunities presented by the sustainable energy
transition. We have developed a clean energy ecosystem
that addresses the energy generation, energy storage and
transportation sectors. Through our zero direct emission
electric vehicles and energy products, we are accelerating
the world's transition to sustainable energy.

Governance Overview 管理概览

Management Involvement 管理层的参与

At Tesla, sustainability is everyone's job. Our Sustainability and Impact team, in collaboration with leaders from across the company, ensures the collection, preparation and analysis of data for content within this report.
Material issues and themes related to sustainability are presented to Tesla's Board of Directors (BoD) for review.

Board of Directors Overview

The BoD serves as a prudent fiduciary for shareholders and oversees Tesla's mission, purpose and strategy, as well as the effectiveness of our impact priorities, initiatives and programs. With those responsibilities in mind, the Board sets the highest standards for ethical behavior, corporate citizenship and corporate governance.
The BoD oversees risks related to environmental, social and governance ("ESG") issues, both at the full-board and committee levels. In particular, our Audit Committee oversees ESG risks as part of overall Enterprise Risk Management, including, among others, risks relating to climate, data privacy, cybersecurity, human rights and supply chain issues.

The Audit Committee also oversees our Impact Report and, as deemed appropriate, other ESG-related disclosures.
审计委员会还负责监督我们的《影响报告》,并酌情监督其他与 ESG 相关的信息披露。
Our Compensation Committee oversees human capita management, employee engagement and relations and our compensation philosophy and programs designed to align compensation to the performance of our company and success of our mission to accelerate the world's transition to sustainable energy
Our Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee oversees our governance framework and practices, board composition and diversity and engagement on ESG issues with shareholders

Our BoD continuously evaluates its composition, seeking to ensure the right mix of skills, experience, background and diversity to ensure the exceptional leadership necessary to fulfill our mission. We periodically add new, highly qualified independent directors to the BoD, such as Larry Ellison and Kathleen Wilson-Thompson in 2018 Hiromichi Mizuno in 2020, Joe Gebbia in 2022 and JB Straubel in 2023
我们的董事会不断评估其人员构成,力求确保技能、经验、背景和多样性的合理搭配,以确保实现我们的使命所需的卓越领导力。我们定期为董事会增添新的高素质独立董事,如 2018 年的拉里-埃里森(Larry Ellison)和凯瑟琳-威尔逊-汤普森(Kathleen Wilson-Thompson)、2020 年的水野弘一(Hiromichi Mizuno)、2022 年的乔-格比亚(Joe Gebbia)和 2023 年的 JB 斯特劳贝尔(JB Straubel)。

Sustainability Assessment

In 2023, we conducted a sustainability assessment to determine areas material to the business and salient to society and the environment. This assessment resulted in the identification of 20 focus areas listed in the chart on this page.
2023 年,我们进行了一次可持续发展评估,以确定与业务相关、对社会和环境突出的领域。通过评估,我们确定了本页图表中列出的 20 个重点领域。
We started by surveying key global stakeholders, asking them to quantify the impact of certain topics on Tesla. Where appropriate, this was followed up with indepth interviews with participants to contextualize quantitative scores
Throughout the process, we partnered with a thirdparty expert. We will continue to evaluate the saliency of these risks and opportunities periodically to inform our overall strategy.
Note: the following focus areas are ranked relative to each other and not relative to overall importance. We also recognize this as a snapshot in time. As we continue to grow and the world changes, the degree of impact could naturally shift.

Final Findings - Our Employees - Our Supply Chain - Our Environment - Our Governance
最终结果 - 我们的员工 - 我们的供应链 - 我们的环境 - 我们的管理

TCFD Alignment TCFD 接轨

Managing Climate Risk 管理气候风险

The Sustainability and Impact team works with executives from across Tesla to make decisions affecting the business with consideration to our climate change strategy. The Vice President of Environmental, Health, Safety and Security (EHS&S) leads these interactions and is responsible for our GHG emissions strategy, its implementation and TCFD alignment.
可持续发展与影响团队与特斯拉各部门的高管合作,在制定影响业务的决策时考虑到我们的气候变化战略。环境、健康、安全和安保(EHS&S)副总裁领导这些互动,并负责我们的温室气体排放战略、其实施和 TCFD 协调。
The Sustainability and Impact team at Tesla reports directly to the VP of EHS&S and meets regularly with stakeholders from Engineering and Design, Finance, Investor Relations, Legal, Policy, Supply Chain, among others to present megatrends and climate change updates. The VP of EHS&S reports events directly to the BoD.
特斯拉的可持续发展与影响团队直接向 EHS&S 副总裁汇报工作,并定期与来自工程与设计、财务、投资者关系、法律、政策、供应链等部门的利益相关者举行会议,介绍大趋势和气候变化的最新情况。EHS&S 副总裁直接向董事会报告各项活动。
Tesla conducts an annual Enterprise Risk Assessment (ERA) that integrates ESG-related risks by engaging in interviews and surveys with members of management across the organization, including key stakeholders in sustainability. Through this exercise, climate-related risks would be flagged to the relevant leadership team for management.
Beginning with Gigafactory Berlin-Brandenburg and Gigafactory Texas in 2021, we initiated site-specific reviews to identify physical climate-related risks that were then addressed during the design process of those factories. In 2022, this was followed by a systematic assessment of our entire manufacturing portfolio and any new locations.
从 2021 年的柏林-勃兰登堡 Gigafactory 工厂和德克萨斯 Gigafactory 工厂开始,我们启动了针对具体地点的审查,以确定与气候相关的实际风险,然后在这些工厂的设计过程中加以解决。2022 年,我们对整个生产组合和任何新地点进行了系统评估。
Today, we continue to ensure that our current and future sites are prepared for the potential physical impacts of climate change by integrating assessments into considerations for site design and future expansion plans.
Using the results from these analyses, Tesla is actively working to harden our current and planned manufacturing portfolio against medium and long-term climate impacts. Over time, we will begin to evaluate other assets such as our Sales, Service and Delivery network as well as our charging infrastructure and other relevant assets.

As regulations around emissions management evolve, we may need to make further capital investments that are different from or accelerated relative to existing plans, which may impact profitability. Policy changes may impact certain practices or infrastructure potentially reducing installed capacity because the technology used-such as with die casting or the paint shop-cannot be fully decarbonized.
随着 排放管理条例的发展,我们可能需要进一步进行与现有计划不同或相对于现有计划加速的资本投资,这可能会影响盈利能力。政策变化可能会影响某些做法或基础设施,从而可能降低装机容量,因为所使用的技术(如压铸或喷漆车间)无法完全脱碳。

Physical Climate Risk Assessment

new manufacturing sites.
We assessed these sites using the following scenarios, which incorporate the science from the latest IPCC report: Business as usual, Emissions peak in 2040 and Parisaligned-a combined approach using the latest Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs).
我们采用以下情景对这些地点进行了评估,这些情景包含了 IPCC 最新报告中的科学内容:一切照旧"、"2040 年排放量达到峰值 "和 "与巴黎接轨"--一种采用最新的 "共享社会经济路径"(SSPs)和 "代表性浓度路径"(RCPs)的综合方法。
This includes physical risks related to combined physical risk, flooding, wind risk, heat stress, wildfire, precipitation risk and drought. We assess these hazards against the three scenarios across short- (2025), medium- (2030) and long-term (2050) time horizons.
这包括与综合物理风险、洪水、风灾、热应力、野火、降水风险和干旱相关的物理风险。我们根据短期(2025 年)、中期(2030 年)和长期(2050 年)的三种情景对这些危害进行了评估。

Given the low likelihood of reaching a Paris-aligned scenario, we report results on business as usual and emissions peaking in 2040.
鉴于实现与巴黎接轨的可能性较低,我们报告了 "一切照旧 "和 2040 年排放量达到峰值的结果。
In the short term, drought poses the biggest risk to our manufacturing portfolio and, in the long term, heat stress will become the more severe climate hazard.

Human Rights Are Core to Our Mission

The ethical treatment of all people and regard for human rights is core to our mission of accelerating a sustainable future. Our Global Human Rights Policy is the
formalization of our commitment to uphold, respect and embed human rights and the values they represent throughout our business.
We endorse and base our definition of human rights on the United Nation's Universal Declaration for Human Rights (UDHR). The UDHR focuses on dignity, respect and equality, without discrimination, for all people. We also utilize the United Nation's Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises
We are committed to upholding and respecting all internationally recognized human rights throughout our direct operations and supply chain-including with respect to our employees, customers, shareholders, suppliers and the communities in which we live and operate. Tesla's Global Human Rights Policy outlines the company's salient human rights issues.
We seek to avoid causing or contributing to actual or potentially adverse human rights impacts, and we expect our suppliers to support and promote these values in their own operations and those of their suppliers
To learn more about our efforts in our supply chain, see pages

Assessing and addressing human rights risks is an ongoing effort that involves engaging with and incorporating input from external stakeholders, including those impacted by our operations and our supply chain, as well as reviewing and updating our policies and procedures where necessary.
We seek to remedy adverse impacts, track and measure our progress and report our findings in our disclosures where appropriate

Cybersecurity and Data Privacy

Data privacy is a shared responsibility that every employee and Board member is expected to uphold. Tesla has a large and diverse team of privacy and security professionals across our legal, engineering and product organizations who are dedicated to protecting customer data. Additionally, the Audit Committee of the Tesla BoD is regularly briefed on incidents, emerging trends, controls and corrective actions taken by Tesla to ensure we are living up to our obligations and Privacy Principles.

Our Privacy Principles 我们的隐私原则

We build privacy into our products from start to finish
We ensure privacy across all our products and services, from inception to roll out and beyond
We maintain trust through transparency
We are clear about the personal data we collect and how we use or share it.

We always give customers choices about their data
We put individuals in control by giving them clear and transparent ways to access, review, manage and delete their data.
We safeguard personal data
We implement rigorous controls and standards designed to protect the security, confidentiality and integrity of Tesla's data environment.

Privacy From Day One

Tesla's Privacy Principles and commitments are illustrated throughout all our products. For Tesla vehicles, customers personal data is protected from the moment they take delivery, ensuring that by default the vehicle data generated when driving is not associated with their account or vehicle identification number. We put customers in the driver's seat when it comes to data sharing by providing a dedicated in-vehicle menu to adjust preferences at any time. Additionally, energy products are designed to protect customer privacy. We aim to collect as little personal data as is required to provide an engaging in-app energy experience. To maximize transparency, Tesla has developed a seamless way for customers to download and access their energy and vehicle data at any time directly from the Tesla app.

Engaging the Security

We are also focused on ensuring that our vehicles are the most secure on the road. Our team of world-class engineers continuously improve our systems to ensure they are always as secure as possible. And while some of the best security engineers work at Tesla, we believe that in order to design and build inherently secure systems, we must work closely with the security research community and learn from their collective expertise and diversity of thought.

Embedding Security and Privacy

To uphold rigorous standards regarding the security

confidentiality and integrity of customer and employee

data, Tesla maintains a global privacy program as well as

an information security program (based on the industry-

recognized ISO 27001 framework), which includes
公认的 ISO 27001 框架),其中包括

written policies, processes and standards designed to

protect and secure Tesla's data environment.

Tesla maintains a current ISO/IEC 27001 certification
特斯拉保持当前的 ISO/IEC 27001 认证

that sets user security standards, for which we undergo

yearly audits. We evaluate the health and effectiveness

of our information security and privacy program through

ongoing assessments, monitoring and testing.

Global Privacy Program 全球隐私计划

Guides product development and business practices across Tesla to ensure regulatory compliance by maintaining effective and standardized controls across vehicle and energy products as well as insurance and financial services

Product Security 产品安全

A comprehensive approach to managing product

Third-Party Risk Management

Identify, mitigate and monitor risks from third parties such as vendors, suppliers and other business partners, including those in our supply chain who may require certain Tesla data to conduct operations

Infrastructure Security 基础设施安全

Prevention, detection and response to IT outages, security incidents or acts of nature to provide availability of underlying critical services and continuity of operations

The Future is Electric
环境 未来是电动的

Displacing Fossil Fuels ..... 19
取代化石燃料 .....19

Carbon Impact of Our Products ..... 27
我们产品的碳影响 .....27

Carbon Impact of Our Operations ..... 36
我们业务活动的碳影响 .....36

Water, Circularity and Biodiversity ..... 47
水、循环性和生物多样性 .....47

In 2023, Our Customers Avoided Releasing Over 20 Million Metric Tons of into Our Atmosphere
2023 年,我们的客户将避免向大气排放超过 2,000 万公吨的

The More Products We Deliver, the Faster We Accelerate Our Mission

Tesla Produced and Delivered Over
1.8 Million EVs Globally in 2023
2023 年特斯拉在全球生产并交付超过 180 万辆电动汽车

Although we are focused on our own deliveries, electric vehicle (EV) sales by all automakers need to increase. We hope that every vehicle manufacturer will strive to produce hundreds of thousands of EVs per year, as significant reductions in emissions will only be achieved with an industry-wide shift.
Emissions credit revenue is used for EV capacity expansion, which in turn displaces internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. In 2023, we generated almost billion in revenue selling zero-emission regulatory credits to other OEMs. While it is common practice today for ICE vehicle OEMs to purchase regulatory credits from other companies (such as Tesla) to offset their emissions, it is not a sustainable strategy. In order to meet increasingly strict regulatory requirements across the world, OEMs will be forced to develop truly competitive EVs.
排放额度收入用于电动汽车产能扩张,从而取代内燃机 (ICE) 汽车。2023 年,我们向其他原始设备制造商销售零排放监管额度的收入接近 亿美元。虽然内燃机汽车原始设备制造商从其他公司(如特斯拉)购买监管信用额度以抵消其排放量是当今的普遍做法,但这并不是一种可持续的战略。为了满足全球日益严格的法规要求,原始设备制造商将被迫开发真正具有竞争力的电动汽车。

To support our mission, we are making it as easy as possible for drivers to own and charge an EV. We opened our charging connector design to the world in 2022 and opened our Supercharger network in North America to more EVs starting in 2024. We are also sharing charge port technology with other OEMs to assist the transition of their vehicle designs to be compatible with the North American Charging Standard (NACS). This follows the opening of our network in other regions, including Europe and China.
为了支持我们的使命,我们正在尽可能方便驾驶者拥有电动汽车并为其充电。我们于 2022 年向全球开放了充电连接器设计,并于 2024 年开始向更多电动汽车开放北美超级充电站网络。我们还与其他原始设备制造商共享充电接口技术,以帮助他们的汽车设计过渡到兼容北美充电标准(NACS)。这是继我们在欧洲和中国等其他地区开放网络之后的又一举措。

Current Emissions Frameworks Weren't Built for a Company Like Tesla

We continue to drive the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from energy and transport through use of our products by our customers-this will continue to be the most impactful thing we can do to achieve our mission. The popular frameworks for measuring and reducing GHG emissions continue to not recognize this impact. They were written by and developed for well-established companies with polluting products. These frameworks do not account for the impact of emissions that are avoided through the sale of zero direct emission products (referred to in this report as "avoided emissions").
我们将继续通过客户使用我们的产品,推动减少能源和运输产生的温室气体排放(GHG)--这将继续是我们为实现使命所能做的最具影响力的事情。测量和减少温室气体排放的流行框架仍然没有认识到这种影响。这些框架是由拥有污染性产品的老牌公司编写和开发的。这些框架没有考虑到通过销售零直接排放产品而避免的排放(在本报告中称为 "避免的排放")所产生的影响。
As we continue to grow, Tesla will need to build many more factories to support production of our products. Each one of these products will avoid many tons of e throughout its life.
随着我们的不断发展,特斯拉将需要建立更多的工厂来支持我们产品的生产。每件产品在其整个生命周期中都将避免产生数吨 e。

Even as Tesla constructs more efficient factories with maximum renewable energy utilization, there will undoubtedly be incremental emissions from our growing factory footprints in the near term as we work to decarbonize all industrial processes and supply chain inputs.
There is a lot of work left to do to build a GHG-accounting system that holds polluters accountable and highlights the work being done by companies to build zero direct emission products and achieve the goal of decarbonizing the economy.

We Make Products That
Displace Fossil Fuel Alternatives

We design and manufacture a fully integrated ecosystem
for energy and transportation. Our products work
together to maximize their impact.

Electric Vehicles 电动汽车

Air Pollution From Burning Fossil Fuels Leads to Premature Deaths

Each Tesla on the Road Avoids
About 51 Tons of
每辆行驶在路上的特斯拉可避免约 51 吨的二氧化碳排放

After approximately three years of driving, a Tesla EV's lifetime emissions are lower than those of a comparable ICE vehicle. While EVs today still emit more GHGs during the manufacturing phase, including emissions from the supply chain, it takes about three years' worth of driving for the total emissions from a Tesla vehicle to fall below that of a comparable ICE vehicle.
After 17 years of driving-the average life of a vehicle in the U.S.-a single Tesla vehicle will avoid about 51 tons of . This number is conservative for two reasons: it assumes no improvement in grid emissions over time and an ICE vehicle maintains its fuel efficiency throughout its lifetime.
一辆特斯拉汽车在行驶 17 年(美国汽车的平均寿命)后,将避免排放约 51 吨的 。这个数字比较保守,原因有二:一是假定电网排放不会随着时间的推移而改善,二是内燃机汽车在整个生命周期内都能保持其燃油效率。

NEDC, WLTP or EPA Testing Cycles Do Not Represent Real-World Fuel or Electricity Consumption
NEDC、WLTP 或 EPA 测试周期并不代表真实世界的燃油或电力消耗量

Lifecycle Analysis Glossary

By examining every stage of a product's lifecycle, from raw extraction to disposal, a lifecycle assessment (LCA) helps identify environmentally taxing hotspots, allows for targeted improvements and enables resource use efficiencies. The per-mile lifecycle emissions of our vehicles include emissions from upstream supply chain, electricity consumption and direct emissions from manufacturing and use-phase emissions when charged from a grid with a generation mix that reflects the geographic distribution of Model 3 and Model Y deliveries in the U.S., Europe and China. This year, we are presenting the standard-range RWD versions of Model 3 and Model and have significantly improved GHG emissions data accuracy. As we strive to get more real and granular data, we will continue to update our long-range and other product LCAs for future reports.
生命周期评估 (LCA) 通过对产品生命周期中从原材料提取到废弃处理的每个阶段进行检查,有助于发现对环境产生不利影响的热点问题,从而有针对性地进行改进,提高资源利用效率。我们车辆的每英里生命周期排放量包括上游供应链的排放量、制造过程中的电力消耗和直接排放量,以及从电网充电时的使用阶段排放量,其发电组合反映了 Model 3 和 Model Y Y 在美国、欧洲和中国交付的地理分布。今年,我们展示了 Model 3 和 Model 的标准范围 RWD 版本,并大幅提高了温室气体排放数据的准确性。随着我们努力获取更真实、更细化的数据,我们将继续为未来的报告更新长距离和其他产品的生命周期评估。
To the right are the scenarios and assumptions we're using for our analysis.

Model 3/Y 模型 3/Y
Personal Use Grid Charged
Emissions per mile if Model principally charged at home from the grid
如果 型主要在家中用电网充电,每英里的排放量

Personal Use Solar Charged
个人使用 太阳能充电

Emissions per mile if Model principally charged at home using a solar system and energy storage
如果 型主要在家中使用太阳能系统和储能装置充电,每英里的排放量

Average Premium ICE 内燃机车平均保费

Based on an average of mid-size premium sedans and mid-size premium crossover SUVs, with a real-world fuel economy of
基于中型高级轿车和中型高级跨界 SUV 的平均值,实际燃油经济性为
FIn 2023, we followed the same methodology as 2022 to present the LCA as a weighted average of Model 3 and Model Y based on production share in each region (for use-phase emissions). Given that Model 3 and
在 2023 年,我们采用了与 2022 年相同的方法,根据每个地区的生产份额(使用阶段的排放量),将 LCA 作为 Model 3 和 Model Y 的加权平均值。鉴于模型 3 和

have -plus parts commonality and share many manufacturing
- plus parts commonality and share many manufacturing


Lifecycle Emissions 生命周期排放
Lifecycle Emissions using solar panels and Powerwall exclusively to charge Model adds emissions to the manufacturing phase and reduces use-phase emissions to as low as zero,
生命周期排放 使用太阳能电池板和 Powerwall 专门为 型充电,增加了制造阶段的排放,并将使用阶段的排放降至零、
No additional renewable energy capacity on the grid during the life of the vehicle-the shape of the renewable energy adoption curve is still up for debate.
Manufacturing-phase emissions for Model in the U.S. represent a Fremont-made vehicle, while manufacturing-phase emissions in Europe and China represent a China-made vehicle.

Average Lifecycle Emissions

United States  美国
Model 3/Y Standard Range (RWD)
车型 3/Y 标准系列(RWD)
Personal Use 个人使用
Solsonal Use Solsonal 使用
Personal Use 个人使用
Grid Charged 电网充电
Average 平均
Premium ICE 高级 ICE
Vehicle 车辆

New York  纽约
Shift to Greener Grid

个人使用 太阳能充电
Personal Use
Solar Charged

Personal Use
Grid Charged

Premium ICE

Average Lifecycle Emissions

Europe  欧洲
Model 3/Y Standard Range (RWD)
车型 3/Y 标准系列(RWD)
Personal Use 个人使用
Personal Use 个人使用
Solar Charged 太阳能充电
Personal Use 个人使用
Grid Charged 电网充电
Average 平均
Premium ICE 高级 ICE
Vehicle 车辆
France  法国
Shift to Greener Grid

个人使用 太阳能充电
Personal Use
Solar Charged

Personal Use
Grid Charged

Premium ICE
Premium 高级
Vehicle 车辆

Average Lifecycle Emissions

China  中国
Model 3/Y Standard Range (RWD)
车型 3/Y 标准系列(RWD)
Personal Use 个人使用
Solar Charged 太阳能充电
Personal Use 个人使用
Grid Charged 电网充电
Average 平均
Premium ICE 高级 ICE
Vehicle 车辆
Sichuan Province
Shift to Greener Grid

Personal Use
solar Charged

Personal Use
Grid Charged

Premaim ICE

The Carbon Impact of ICE Vehicles
Remains the Same Every Year of Use

U.S. Electricity Grid Generation Mix

Greater Efficiency Than a Prius, Performance of a Porsche

More efficient vehicles equals less lifetime energy use.
Tesla vehicles are among the most efficient EVs built to
date. Model Y All-Wheel Drive (AWD) achieves 3.8 EPA
日期Y 型全轮驱动(AWD)车型的 EPA 为 3.8
miles/kWh, making it the most efficient electric SUV ever
英里/千瓦时,使其成为有史以来最高效的电动 SUV
made. While achieving the best-in-class energy
efficiency, our AWD models also provide impressive
acceleration and speed. 加速度和速度。
Model  模型
Long Range AWD 长距离全轮驱动
Top Speed 最高速度
Model 3 模型 3
Long Range AWD 长距离全轮驱动
Top Speed 最高速度

We Make the Most Efficient
Electric SUV on the Road
我们制造路上最高效的电动 SUV

Electrifying Heavy-Duty Trucks is Critical to Our Mission

Combination trucks account for about of U.S. vehicle emissions-Semi helps change that. With less than per mile of energy consumption, Semi can travel up to 500 miles on a single charge, fully loaded. Charging with electricity is approximately 2 times cheaper per mile than refueling with diesel. Operators can see estimated fuel savings of up to within their first three years of ownership.* With remote diagnostics, over-the-air software updates and fewer moving parts to maintain, operators will spend less time at service centers and more time on the road. of U.S. Vehicle Fleet
联合卡车的排放量约占美国汽车排放量的 ,而 Semi 可帮助改变这一状况。每英里的能耗不到 ,Semi 满载一次充电可行驶 500 英里。用电充电每英里的成本大约是用柴油加油的 2 倍。运营者在使用的头三年内,预计可节省燃油高达 。* 通过远程诊断、空中软件更新和较少的活动部件维护,运营者在服务中心花费的时间更少,而在路上花费的时间更多。 美国汽车车队
  • Combination Trucks - Rest of Fleet
    联合卡车 - 其余车队
of U.S. Vehicle Emissions

Our Batteries are Designed for Miles of Driving
我们的电池专为 英里的行驶里程而设计

We minimize the carbon impact of our operations with our decarbonization strategy

Decarbonization at Tesla

Tesla strives to achieve net-zero GHG emissions across our full product lifecycle, from mining and production through use and end of life recycling. While we have made progress in reducing our emissions intensity in the near term and made meaningful progress on building a plan to achieve net-zero emissions as soon as possible, there remains work to do to finalize this plan. Our goal is to set a target that is both meaningful and thoughtful.
With a mission to accelerate the world's transition to sustainable energy, decarbonization is at the heart of everything we do. An ambitious stance on GHG emissions reduction is necessary to continue moving the world toward a sustainable energy economy.
We are prepared to continue our decarbonization journey, acknowledging the constantly changing landscape of technological advancements and sustainable energy markets. As we evolve, we strongly believe that starting with an ambitious strategy is not just wise, but necessary. With the sustainable energy sector ascendant, we anticipate a rising demand for zero direct emission products across energy and transportation. Despite this, our dedication to meticulously tracking and reducing our GHG emissions remains unwavering, alongside our commitment to nurturing innovation-a fundamental aspect of our organizational identity.
In addition, we aim to transition our operational electricity load to renewable electricity well before we achieve our net-zero emissions goal and to continue matching of our Supercharger electricity load annually with renewable electricity.
此外,我们的目标是在实现净零排放目标之前,将我们的运营电力负荷过渡到 可再生能源电力,并继续每年将我们超级充电站的电力负荷与 可再生能源电力相匹配。
For more information, please see our supply chain decarbonization strategy starting on page 107. soon as possible
欲了解更多信息,请参阅第 107 页开始的我们的供应链去碳化战略。

Our Data-Driven Approach to Measure and Track Our Emissions

Tesla has been measuring the GHG emissions from our full value chain in accordance with the GHG Protocol for several years, starting with our supply chain and manufacturing processes through our Sales, Service and Delivery activities. Each year, our data collection process becomes increasingly refined, prioritizing the collection of primary data over database estimates that don't accurately reflect our emissions. We've built an inhouse data collection system with integrated controls that will evolve over time with our business.

We're evolving the standard approach to Scope 3 GHG emissions management
我们正在改进范畴 3 温室气体排放管理的标准方法
Scope 3 GHG emissions calculations are often highly academic-even when they conform to popular frameworks like the GHG Protocol. They rely on large estimations and assumptions that often lead to figures that don't reflect the true impact. Tesla is in a unique position for two reasons: we obtain primary data from the use of our products and our high level of vertical integration and direct sourcing relationships enable us to collect primary data from upstream activities, such as sourcing.
范畴 3 温室气体排放量的计算通常具有很强的学术性--即使它们符合《温室气体议定书》等流行框架。它们依赖于大量的估算和假设,而这些估算和假设往往导致得出的数字无法反映真实的影响。特斯拉处于一个独特的位置,原因有二:我们从产品的使用中获得原始数据,我们的高度垂直整合和直接采购关系使我们能够从上游活动(如采购)中收集原始数据。

We use primary data to calculate emissions from our products
With data from over six million vehicles on the road and a fleet of solar and storage products, we can calculate our emissions at a much higher level of accuracy than most manufacturers and can therefore develop emissions-reduction solutions accordingly. This also means that we can measure our use-ofproduct emissions year-over-year instead of estimating their lifetime value.
我们拥有 600 多万辆在路上行驶的汽车以及太阳能和储能产品车队的数据,因此可以比大多数制造商更精确地计算排放量,从而制定相应的减排解决方案。这也意味着,我们可以逐年测量产品使用过程中的排放量,而不是估算其生命周期价值。

Our Data-Driven Approach to Measure and Track Our Emissions (Cont'd)

We advance innovative approaches to end-of-life emissions

Our approach to understanding the end-of-life impact of our products goes beyond standard frameworks and emission factors. Our circular solutions programming offers an avenue to obtain primary data for the end-of-life of our products. This includes gathering data on the carbon footprint of our recycling processes, allowing for more precise calculations of emissions compared to relying solely on standard global carbon footprint methodologies for battery recycling. Recognizing that our products will reach their end-of-life far in the future, we also forecast regional grid mixes to accurately model future energy scenarios.

This innovative methodology ensures that we reflect the true environmental impact of our products, setting a higher standard for GHG emissions management in the industry.
Continuously enhancing the granularity of our data collection processes across all Scope 3 categories is a priority. Given that Scope 3 emissions make up most of an OEMs' total footprint, leveraging real and accurate data empowers us to begin implementing impactful emissions reduction strategies.
我们的当务之急是不断提高范围 3 各类数据收集流程的粒度。鉴于范围 3 排放占 OEM 总足迹的大部分,利用真实准确的数据,我们就能开始实施有影响力的减排战略。

Powering Our Supercharger
Network With Renewables

We're powering our vehicles with renewable energy
Our global Supercharger network was renewable again in 2023, achieved through a combination of onsite resources and annual renewable electricity matching. We also continue to match some of our customers' home charging in California with renewable electricity, matching annually.
我们的全球超级充电站网络在 2023 年再次实现了 可再生能源,这是通过现场资源和年度可再生能源电力匹配相结合实现的。我们还继续在加利福尼亚州为部分客户的家庭充电匹配 可再生能源电力,并每年进行匹配。
For 3 years in a row, our global Supercharger network was renewable
我们的全球超级充电器网络连续 3 年 可再生能源

Generating More Energy
Than is Consumed

Building Sustainability into
Facility Design

Natural Gas Reductions Across Operations

We also maintain an ongoing commitment to enhancing the efficiency of our manufacturing processes across existing factories, with a focus on natural gas consumption. In 2023, we implemented optimization controls in our plastics and body paint shops at Gigafactory Texas, aimed at increasing the efficiency of natural gas usage and thereby curbing overall consumption. Additionally, strategic adjustments to temperature, fan speed and nozzle placements in our Gigafactory Texas paint shop ovens have yielded natural gas reductions. This proactive approach extends beyond Gigafactory Texas. The evaluation and efficiency of natural gas usage across our global operations will continue to be a priority as we work to reduce emissions from this energy source.
我们还持续致力于提高现有工厂的生产流程效率,重点关注天然气消耗。2023 年,我们在德克萨斯州 Gigafactory 工厂的塑料和车身喷漆车间实施了优化控制措施,旨在提高天然气的使用效率,从而降低总体消耗。此外,对德克萨斯州 Gigafactory 涂装车间烤箱的温度、风扇速度和喷嘴位置进行战略性调整,也减少了天然气的使用。这种积极主动的方法不仅适用于德克萨斯州的 Gigafactory 工厂。在我们努力减少天然气这一能源排放的过程中,我们将继续优先评估全球运营中的天然气使用情况并提高其效率。

Increasing Our Operational
Renewable Electricity Load

Procuring More Renewables for Operations
In addition to on-site renewable electricity, we are matching our operational energy usage through the procurement of more renewables. We buy electricity directly from a mix of renewable energy projects through long-term Power Purchase Agreements ("PPAs") on the grids where we operate. Spanning California, Texas and Germany, we've secured almost of clean energy generation capacity with a majority coming online between 2023 and 2024.
除现场可再生能源电力外,我们还通过采购更多的可再生能源来匹配我们的运营能源使用量。我们通过长期购电协议("PPA")直接从我们运营所在地的电网中购买可再生能源项目的电力。在加利福尼亚州、德克萨斯州和德国,我们已经获得了近 的清洁能源发电能力,其中大部分将在 2023 年至 2024 年期间投产。
As we expand our operations and footprint, we plan to match remaining operational energy consumption through renewable energy purchases.
of Gigafactory Berlin- 柏林 Gigafactory 工厂
Brandenburg's energy usage was matched with renewable electricity in 2023
2023 年,勃兰登堡州的能源使用量与可再生能源电力相匹配

Greening Our Fleet and Logistics

As a company that produces inherently sustainable products, we see an opportunity to deploy Tesla vehicles to help reduce Tesla's carbon footprint. In 2020, EVs made up of our Mobile Service fleet. By year-end 2023, we increased this figure to almost . We also added 300 Tesla-owned EVs to our operational fleet in 2023.
作为一家生产固有可持续产品的公司,我们看到了部署特斯拉汽车以帮助减少特斯拉碳足迹的机会。2020 年,电动汽车占我们移动服务车队的 。到 2023 年底,我们将这一数字提高到近 。2023 年,我们的运营车队还将增加 300 辆特斯拉电动汽车。
We've started to expand our product use into upstream and downstream logistics as well. In 2023, we began using our Semis to deliver inbound battery packs from Reno to supply Fremont Factory. The lifetime internal fleet miles has reached approximately 800,000 miles, which has allowed us to avoid emitting almost 650 metrics tons of into the atmosphere. We aim to grow the integration of our Semis for the delivery of our products to customers.
我们还开始将产品应用扩展到上游和下游物流领域。2023 年,我们开始使用我们的 Semis 将进货电池组从里诺运送到弗里蒙特工厂。车队终生内部行驶里程已达到约 800,000 英里,这使我们避免了向大气中排放近 650 公吨的 。我们的目标是进一步整合我们的 Semis,用于向客户交付我们的产品。

Reducing Our Carbon Footprint Even Further

Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency

In 2023, Al Control for HVAC was expanded from Nevada and Texas to now include our factories in Berlin and California. Additionally, the number of controls in Nevada increased to nearly half of the total HVAC infrastructure, The AI Control policy enables HVAC systems within each Gigafactory to work together to process sensor data, model Gigafactory dynamics and apply control actions that safely minimize the energy required to support production. Al Control is primarily deployed on systems that heat or cool critical Gigafactory production spaces and equipment. To ensure safe operation, Al Control continuously communicates with the preexisting standard control logic of each system. In the event of any Al Control error, each system seamlessly reverts to standard control. As a result, as of 2023 , there have been zero safety incidents or production interruptions related to Al Control.
2023 年,针对 HVAC 的 Al Control 从内华达州和德克萨斯州扩展到了柏林和加利福尼亚州的工厂。此外,内华达州的控制数量增加到了整个 HVAC 基础设施的近一半。人工智能控制策略使每个 Gigafactory 内的 HVAC 系统能够协同工作,处理传感器数据,建立 Gigafactory 动态模型,并采取控制措施,安全地将支持生产所需的能源降至最低。Al Control 主要部署在加热或冷却关键 Gigafactory 生产空间和设备的系统上。为确保安全运行,Al Control 不断与每个系统的现有标准控制逻辑进行通信。如果 Al Control 出现任何错误,每个系统都会无缝恢复到标准控制。因此,截至 2023 年,与 Al Control 相关的安全事故或生产中断为零。

Optimizing Battery Cell Manufacturing

In order to reduce the cost of our vehicles and batteries, we also need to use less energy to produce them. Tesla has an innovative approach to manufacturing cells using a dryelectrode process. Current electrode production processes involve mixing liquids with cathode or anode powders and using massive machinery to coat and dry the electrode. Since this process involves large ovens, today's cell production consumes a lot of energy. The dryelectrode process allows for the direct transition from a cathode or anode powder to an electrode film, reducing energy consumption in the overall cell manufacturing phase by more than based on our latest analysis.
为了降低汽车和电池的成本,我们还需要使用更少的能源来生产它们。特斯拉采用干电极工艺制造电池,这是一种创新方法。目前的电极生产工艺包括将液体与阴极或阳极粉末混合,然后使用大型机械对电极进行涂覆和干燥。由于这一工艺需要使用大型烘箱,因此当今的电池生产需要消耗大量能源。干电极工艺可将阴极或阳极粉末直接转化为电极薄膜,根据我们的最新分析,整个电池生产阶段的能耗可减少 以上。

We Minimize Water Usage
Throughout Our Operations

Water is becoming increasingly scarce as the
climate changes
We are reducing our water usage throughout our
operations as much as possible, prioritizing direct use in
manufacturing. In the following section, we outline
initiatives we are taking at Gigafactory Berlin-Brandenburg
and Gigafactory Texas to reduce water consumption per
vehicle (including in the production of battery cells).
Producing an EV requires less water than producing
an ICE vehicle
Each automaker may draw their boundaries slightly

differently, depending on how vertically integrated they

are. According to the latest publicly available figures,

Tesla withdrew less water at facilities dedicated to

vehicle manufacturing per vehicle produced than the

majority of established automakers.
Tesla is a very small industrial water consumer in Brandenburg
Gigafactory Berlin-Brandenburg was designed to consume as little water as possible. Compared to other industrial companies near the factory in East Brandenburg, Tesla consumes very little water, despite producing hundreds of thousands of vehicles per year. In fact, while Tesla has a contractual allowance to consume 1.4 million cubic meters of water per year, we only consumed a fraction of that -0.45 million cubic meters-in 2023. We continue to find ways to minimize our water usage, including through the launch of an industrial water recovery and recycling plant onsite that recycles up to of the factory process waste water. See our latest video for more information.
柏林勃兰登堡的 Gigafactory 在设计上尽可能减少用水量。与东勃兰登堡工厂附近的其他工业公司相比,尽管特斯拉每年生产数十万辆汽车,但耗水量却非常低。事实上,根据合同规定,特斯拉每年需要消耗 140 万立方米的水,但到 2023 年,我们只消耗了其中的一小部分--45 万立方米。我们将继续想方设法最大限度地减少用水量,包括在现场启动工业用水回收和循环利用工厂,回收高达 的工厂工艺废水。更多信息,请观看我们的最新视频。

Selected Industrial Water Consumption Local to Gigafactory Berlin-Brandenburg
柏林-勃兰登堡 Gigafactory 当地的部分工业用水情况

Setting a New Standard for
Water Use per Vehicle

Water-Intensive Process Optimization
We are constantly optimizing or eliminating water
intensive production processes across our operations.
At Gigafactory Berlin-Brandenburg, we implemented
在柏林-勃兰登堡的 Gigafactory 工厂,我们实施了
hybrid cooling towers, eliminated quench tanks in
casting and introduced cascade rinsing systems in the
paint shop and battery can wash process. In 2023, we
喷漆车间和电池罐清洗工艺。2023 年,我们
introduced various efficiency processes within our
water-intensive paint shops to reduce overall water
consumption at Gigafactory Texas.
德克萨斯州 Gigafactory 工厂的消耗量。

Rainwater and Condensate Harvesting and Reuse

We are planning to capture at least of roof runoff in a central underground storage system in Gigafactory Texas. Rainwater will be recycled for use in the cooling of manufacturing equipment. In an average year, such systems should save an estimated 14 million gallons of potable city water. Additionally, as hot, humid outdoor air is conditioned, water condenses out of the air. Typically, this condensate is discarded as wastewater. At Gigafactory Texas, we plan to use this condensate in our cooling towers and process water systems to offset incoming site water. Based off latest estimates, this could result in 13.6 million gallons of water conserved annually.
我们计划在德克萨斯州 Gigafactory 的中央地下存储系统中收集至少 的屋顶径流。雨水将被回收用于冷却生产设备。这样的系统平均每年可节省约 1400 万加仑的城市饮用水。此外,在调节室外湿热空气时,空气中会凝结出水。通常情况下,这些冷凝水会作为废水被丢弃。在德克萨斯州的 Gigafactory 工厂,我们计划在冷却塔和工艺水系统中使用这些冷凝水,以抵消进厂用水。根据最新估计,每年可节约 1360 万加仑的水。

Reclaimed and Recycled Water

The "cooling tower makeup" is the single biggest contributor to water usage in a vehicle factory after paint operations. As water that cools machinery evaporates, it needs to be topped up regularly. The total cooling tower makeup could be offset entirely by non-potable sources such as rainwater or wastewater. Using locally treated wastewater could result in offsetting the entire annual "cooling tower makeup" water demand with non-drinkable uses. We have started using reclaimed water for our landscape irrigation needs at Gigafactory Texas. Once fully deployed, we expect this to save just under 150 million gallons of potable city water annually.
冷却塔补水 "是汽车厂用水量最大的部分,仅次于喷漆作业。由于冷却机器的水会蒸发,因此需要定期补充。冷却塔的总用水量可以完全由雨水或废水等非饮用水源抵消。使用当地处理过的废水可以抵消每年 "冷却塔补充水 "的全部非饮用水需求。我们已经开始使用再生水满足德克萨斯州 Gigafactory 的景观灌溉需求。一旦完全投入使用,我们预计每年可节省近 1.5 亿加仑的城市饮用水。

As We Build More Efficient Factories, Our Waste per Vehicle Decreases

Waste per Vehicle Produced at Gigafactory Shanghai vs. Fremont Factory
上海 Gigafactory 工厂与弗里蒙特工厂每辆车产生的废料对比
kg of Waste per Vehicle Produced
Gigafactory Fremont
Gigafactory 弗里蒙特
Shanghai Factory 上海工厂

Circular Solutions 循环解决方案

In our commitment to circularity within our value chain, we prioritize recycling materials to minimize waste. The vast majority of generated waste-such as paper, plastics metals and even water-is recyclable. At Gigafactory Shanghai, for example, just of total waste generated in 2023 was not recycled.
我们致力于在价值链中实现循环,优先考虑回收材料,最大限度地减少废物。产生的绝大多数废物,如纸张、塑料、金属甚至水,都是可以回收利用的。例如,在上海 Gigafactory 工厂,2023 年产生的废物总量中仅有 未被回收利用。
At Gigafactory Texas, we initiated a recycling program aimed at optimizing the reuse of scrap metals in our manufacturing processes. Particularly, we recycle aluminum scrap for use in our castings in Model Y. Model castings can use primary aluminum and a diversified feedstock of recycled aluminum, including scrap from our operations as well as recycled components from non-Tesla vehicles, such as aluminum wheels.
在德克萨斯州的 Gigafactory 工厂,我们启动了一项回收计划,旨在优化生产过程中废金属的再利用。特别是,我们回收废铝用于 Y 型车的铸件。 铸件可以使用原铝和多样化的回收铝原料,包括我们运营中产生的废料以及非特斯拉汽车的回收部件,如铝车轮。
Central to our circularity efforts is a strategic focus on battery recycling. We continue to enhance our measurement and tracking of minerals from extraction to the end-of-life of our products. As our operations expand, we will strategically identify additional recycling opportunities.
We know that collaboration with external stakeholders is crucial to our circular solutions journey. We partner with stakeholders outside Tesla to increase accuracy around the carbon impact of our materials.
See page 108 for more information on supplier engagement. See pages 110-112 for more information on our battery recycling efforts 90 % recycled in 2023
有关供应商参与的更多信息,请参见第 108 页。有关我们电池回收工作的更多信息,请参见第 110-112 页 2023 年回收 90%

At Gigafactory Texas, all battery manufacturing waste (from cell to battery pack) was recycled in 2023
2023 年,德克萨斯州 Gigafactory 工厂回收了所有电池制造废料(从电池芯到电池组)。

Biodiversity 生物多样性

our Gigafactories. At Gigafactories Texas, Nevada and Berlin-Brandenburg we've taken steps to improve the surrounding ecosystems while minimizing our own footprint. Initiatives have focused on reintroduction of native species in areas previously disrupted ta our sites.
In Texas, for example, the land now used for our factory was previously a sand and gravel mine dating back to the 1970's. Following mining operations, the land was left with vast areas devoid of vegetation. The land required significant reclamation to restore the area to a more stable and ecologically functional state.
例如,在得克萨斯州,我们工厂现在使用的土地以前是一个砂石矿,可以追溯到 20 世纪 70 年代。采矿作业结束后,这片土地上留下了大片没有植被的区域。这块土地需要进行大量的复垦,才能恢复到更加稳定和具有生态功能的状态。

Current initiatives at Gigafactory Texas are focused on fostering diverse plant and animal life and restoring ecological balance to allow for the natural recovery of the site.
德克萨斯州 Gigafactory 工厂目前的工作重点是培育多样化的动植物,恢复生态平衡,使厂区得以自然恢复。
Gigafactory Nevada partnered with a team of ecologists at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas to conduct habitat surveys to better understand and manage biodiversity on site. We recognize the need to continue taking action to restore, maintain and enhance our local ecosystems.
内华达州 Gigafactory 工厂与拉斯维加斯内华达大学的生态学家团队合作进行栖息地调查,以更好地了解和管理现场的生物多样性。我们认识到有必要继续采取行动,恢复、维护和改善当地的生态系统。
At Gigafactory Texas, over 30 native plant species were planted
在德克萨斯州的 Gigafactory 工厂,种植了 30 多种本地植物物种

Product & Safety
Better in Every Way

Making EVs Affordable ..... 53
让人们买得起电动汽车 .....53

Freedom to Travel ..... 57
自由旅行 .....57

Maximizing Safety ..... 61
安全最大化 .....61

Building the Grid of the Future ..... 71
构建未来电网 .....71

We make products that people love

Consumers are unlikely to buy products just because they
have a low lifetime carbon footprint. They need to be
better in every way-safer, more affordable, faster and
more fun. We are not just trying to build "green" products;
更多乐趣。我们不仅要制造 "绿色 "产品;
we are committed to building the best products, period.

Model is Priced Below
the Average New Vehicle 平均新车in the U.S. 在美国

The accessibility of our products is fundamental to our mission. Model is priced on par with premium ICE
产品的可及性是我们的基本使命。 型号的价格与高级内燃机车相当。
vehicle equivalents and below the average new car selling price in the U.S. Unfortunately, most other EVs on the market today are often priced at over a premium compared to their direct ICE vehicle equivalents. Even our most affordable Model 3 comes standard with superior equipment and software-such as Autopilot, over-the-air software updates, 4G connectivity and, in our view, the best infotainment system on the market.
不幸的是,目前市场上大多数其他电动汽车的售价往往比直接内燃机汽车高出 以上。即使是我们最经济实惠的 Model 3,也标配了卓越的设备和软件,如自动驾驶、空中软件更新、4G 网络连接,以及我们认为市场上最好的信息娱乐系统。

Model Y Total Cost of
模型 Y 的总成本
Ownership per Mile is Similar
to Mass-Market ICE Vehicles

While the "sticker price" of Model is similar to an
虽然 型号的 "贴纸价格 "与一辆
equivalent BMW or Audi, the lifetime running costs of
EVs are lower than those of ICE vehicles due to lower maintenance costs and cheaper electricity.
Electric vehicles are less expensive to fuel than gasoline powered vehicles. The cost of electricity to power Model is up to 3 times lower than a comparable ICE vehicle. This results in approximately of fuel savings over 5 years and 60,000 miles.
电动汽车的燃料成本低于汽油动力汽车。为 型电动汽车提供动力的电力成本比同类内燃机汽车低 3 倍。因此,在 5 年和 60,000 英里的行驶里程中,可节省约 的燃油。

Model  模型
Long Range (RWD) 远程(RWD)

Making EVs Even 让电动汽车更均衡More Affordable 更实惠

Our goal is to displace fossil fuels by selling as many Tesla products as possible. To achieve this goal, we need to make our products even more accessible. Affordability begins with how much it costs us to produce our vehicles. We were able to reduce the cost to build a single vehicle by almost since 2018 with the introduction of Model 3 and Model as well as the deployment of new, more efficient factories. And we aren't done yet. During 2023 Investor Day, we outlined our goal of reducing costs even further with the introduction of new vehicle and manufacturing technologies.
我们的目标是通过销售尽可能多的特斯拉产品来取代化石燃料。为了实现这一目标,我们需要让我们的产品更容易获得。可负担性从我们生产汽车的成本开始。自 2018 年以来,随着 Model 3 和 Model 的推出以及部署更高效的新工厂,我们能够将单辆汽车的制造成本降低近 。而且我们还没有完成。在 2023 年投资者日期间,我们概述了通过引入新的汽车和制造技术进一步降低成本的目标。

People Use Their Tesla as Their Primary Vehicle

Our data shows that our customers drive Tesla vehicles more than the average vehicle in the U.S., suggesting that they use their Tesla as their primary vehicle. Surveys show that range and charging concerns (real or perceived) are a key reason why many people do not replace their ICE vehicle with an EV. The more confident owners are that their EV can be used for errands, commuting and long road trips, the less they will feel the need to supplement their EV with an ICE vehicle.

Average Annual Miles Driven (United States)
13,768 Model  13,768 型号
Average Vehicle 平均车辆

Freedom of Travel is the
Reason People Buy Vehicles
in the First Place 首先

Incredibly Fast Charging Times for V3 and V4 Superchargers
V3 和 V4 超级充电器令人难以置信的快速充电时间

Superchargers can 增压器可以

recover up to 恢复到

In about 大约
minutes of charging 充电时间
Chargers That Just Work

Average Uptime of Supercharger Sites*

We Design Our Vehicles to
Be as Safe as Possible

All Tesla safety features come standard

Tesla vehicles are engineered to be some of the safest in the world. Our vehicles are equipped with specifically designed crumple zones, airbags and pretensioning seatbelts-among many other technologies. Beyond the star ratings, we push ourselves to learn more and more about passive and active safety from our fleet. Our safety principles are:

All Tesla vehicles built since October 2016 come with a suite of external cameras, additional sensors and onboard computing that enable advanced safety features like Automatic Emergency Braking, Lane Departure Warning, Forward and Side Collision Warning, Obstacle-Aware Acceleration, blind spot warnings, vulnerable road-user detection and more-all of which continue to improve over time through over-the-air software updates. We deploy these updates to our vehicles at our customers' convenience without a trip to a Service Center, Connectivity is a hallmark of Tesla ownership and software updates continually enhance the customer experience.
自 2016 年 10 月以来生产的所有特斯拉汽车都配备了一套外部摄像头、附加传感器和车载计算装置,可实现自动紧急制动、车道偏离警告、前方和侧面碰撞警告、障碍物感知加速、盲点警告、易受伤害道路使用者检测等先进的安全功能,所有这些功能都将通过空中软件更新不断改进。我们在客户方便的时候为车辆部署这些更新,无需前往服务中心。

Not All Active Safety Systems are Created Equal

Exceeding Safety Standards Across Four Continents

Model 3 模型 3

2022 年最佳安全人选
2022 TOP

同类最佳 2019
Best in Class

2019 年最佳表现
Top Performer

最高评级乘员安全主动安全 2021
Top Rating
Occupant Safety
Active Safety
Model Y 型号 Y

同类最佳 2022
Best in Class

Top Performer

最高评级 乘员安全 行人安全 主动安全 2021
Top Rating
Occupant Safety
Pedestrian Safety
Active Safety
Model S S 型

同类最佳 2022
Best in Class
Model X X 型

同类最佳 2019
Best in Class

2019 年最佳表现
Top Performer

Exceeding Safety Standards

Across Four Continents (Cont'd)

Model  模型

5-Star Safety Euro NCAP, 2022 Top Safety Pick+ Rating IIHS, 2023
欧洲新车安全评鉴协会(Euro NCAP)五星安全评级,2022 年,美国公路安全保险协会(IIHS)顶级安全评级+,2023 年
Miles Driven Before One Accident Million Miles (2023)
事故发生前的驾驶里程 百万英里(2023 年)
Total 总计
U.S. Vehicle Fleet 美国车队

Safety Score Incentivizes Safe Driving

Customers who choose to be part of our Tesla Insurance program receive a Safety Score . Instead of determining a driver's insurance premium from demographic information (gender, age, education, or marital status) and financial history (credit score), our algorithm calculates Safety Score based on actual driving behavior. Our data shows a lower rate of collision for the cohort of customers who have enabled Safety Score . As the vehicle's Safety Score increases, the number of collisions per mile decreases and insurance premiums reduce. The behaviors we monitor include:
选择加入特斯拉保险计划的客户将获得安全分数 。我们的算法不是根据人口统计信息(性别、年龄、教育程度或婚姻状况)和财务记录(信用评分)来确定驾驶员的保险费,而是根据实际驾驶行为来计算安全分数 。我们的数据显示,启用安全分数 的客户群碰撞率较低。随着车辆安全分数 的增加,每英里碰撞次数减少,保险费也随之降低。我们监控的行为包括
Forward Collision Warnings Hard Braking
前撞警告 硬制动
Aggressive Turning 积极转弯
  • Unsafe Following (Tailgating)

    Forced Autopilot Disengagement Late-Night Driving Excessive Speeding Unbuckled Driving
    强制解除自动驾驶深夜驾驶 超速 未系安全带驾驶

    Safer Driving, Higher Safety Scores, Fewer Collisions
Safety Score Collision Rate
安全得分 碰撞率

Automatic Emergency Braking Continues to Improve

Vehicles equipped with Tesla Vision-our camera-based, vision-only detection system-can recognize and react to encroaching vehicles far outside the field of view of traditional sensors. These developments have been validated through extensive testing and millions of fleet miles through the use of shadow mode.
配备了特斯拉视觉系统(Tesla Vision)--我们基于摄像头的纯视觉检测系统--的车辆可以识别传统传感器视野之外的车辆并做出反应。这些开发成果已经通过大量测试和使用影子模式行驶数百万英里得到验证。

Turning into the path of a pedestrian crossing the road
Traveling toward a vehicle on a perpendicular path

Using New Data to Improve
Pre-Crash Safety

We can learn from any crash

Whether simulated or real, we can learn from any crash to help optimize the protection of occupants and reduce the likelihood of injury. This fundamental philosophy is one of the reasons our vehicles perform at industry leading levels in regulatory and consumer crash tests globally. Because our vehicles are connected to Tesla, we can further leverage this philosophy by deploying new safety capabilities and improvements over-the-air as a software update

Injury Studies 伤害研究

We leverage our ever-growing data set to help ensure occupants receive the best possible restraints (such as seat belts and airbags) for the impact they are involved in and design innovative restraint systems. Our safety analysis engineers evaluate simulation studies to enhance our understanding of the complex impacts that occur in the field. The pace with which we can conduct these studies has accelerated by automating our data pipelines and leveraging machine learning to analyze large data sets. As the capability of driver assistance advances, the nature of the crash exposure to our fleet will change.

Moving to Tesla Vision increases performance

In 2021, we removed radar from our sensor suite. This improved safety while simultaneously simplifying engineering by removing a noisy signal. Model 3 scored better in both pedestrian (including nighttime tests) and urban crash avoidance scenarios under the Euro NCAP protocols with Tesla Vision only
2021 年,我们将雷达从传感器套件中移除。这在提高安全性的同时,还通过去除噪声信号简化了工程设计。在欧洲 NCAP 协议下,Model 3 在行人(包括夜间测试)和城市碰撞规避场景中的得分均高于仅使用特斯拉视觉系统的车型

Over-The-Air Software Updates
Allow for Low-Touch Continuous Improvement

Furthermore, 99% of "recalls" of Tesla vehicles in 2023 were handled via over-the-air software updates-allowing our customers to skip a visit to our Service Centers, maximizing convenience and saving time.
此外,2023 年特斯拉汽车 99% 的 "召回 "都是通过无线软件更新处理的--这使我们的客户无需前往服务中心,最大限度地提高了便利性并节省了时间。

Leading the Industry in Fire Safety

We have always designed our batteries in a way that minimizes the chance of thermal runaway. Our battery packs are industry leading because they are designed to stop a cell runaway event from spreading to a fire. This is one of the many reasons why our rate of vehicle fires is about ten times less likely than an average vehicle. To support a safe transition to sustainable energy, we share safety techniques with the industry.
We publish updated fire safety statistics in our Vehicle Safety Report as they become available. As we rely on non-digital information for some of these cases, there can be a delay between when an incident occurs, when we are notified and when it is included in our statistics. We have developed new and improved methods of identifying and reporting incidents, which will be reflected starting with our 2022 report.
我们会在车辆安全报告中公布最新的消防安全统计数据。由于我们依靠非数字信息来处理其中的一些案例,因此从事故发生、通知我们到纳入我们的统计数据之间可能会有延迟。我们已开发出新的改进型事故识别和报告方法,并将从 2022 年的报告中反映出来。

Vehicle Fires Per Billion Miles Traveled In the U.S.

Grid Stability is Required for Decarbonization

As we decarbonize the economy and electrify everything, grid expansion and stability will be more important than ever. Pairing renewables with energy storage is the best way to stabilize and grow the grid while simultaneously making the required GHG emissions reductions needed to avoid the worst outcomes of climate change. Electrical disturbances in the U.S. are becoming more common, predominantly due to weather and natural disasters. According to the U.S Department of Energy, electrical disturbances cost businesses billion per year. It is not surprising that homeowners and businesses are increasingly turning to backup power supply options.
随着经济去碳化和一切电气化,电网的扩展和稳定将比以往任何时候都更加重要。将可再生能源与储能技术相结合,是稳定和发展电网的最佳方式,同时还能实现所需的温室气体减排,避免气候变化带来的最坏结果。在美国,主要由于天气和自然灾害造成的电力干扰越来越常见。根据美国能源部的数据,电力干扰每年给企业造成的损失高达 亿美元。因此,房主和企业越来越多地选择备用电源也就不足为奇了。

Reported Electrical Disturbances
In the U.S. 在美国
  • Weather or Natural Disaster Vandalism, Attack or Sabotage Other
    天气或自然灾害 故意破坏、袭击或破坏 其他

An Entire Ecosystem 一个完整的生态系统

We have an entire ecosystem of energy products including hardware and software across generation and storage. We also have project management capabilities and a strong deployment track record of getting projects done on time. Our energy products can serve many purposes, including reducing emissions, helping to prevent grid outages and acting as backup power if the grid does go down.
Renewable energy paired with battery storage will become the cheapest option available
We are committed to reducing the cost of our products to foster mass adoption. Ultimately, using renewable energy (such as solar and wind) with battery storage will become the cheapest energy option available, regardless of location. This is already the case in many locations around the world. As costs continue to decline, more customers will be able to financially benefit from turning to renewable energy.

Renewables and Energy Storage
Are Already Cost Competitive

Megapack is cheaper per MWh than many fossil fuel alternatives. A single Megapack XL has almost 4 MWh worth of battery storage capacity, and given its scalability, enables projects over 1,000 MWh. In 2022, in order to meet demand that is well in excess of supply for energy storage products, Tesla completed a new production facility, called Megafactory, capable of producing of energy storage per year. We also announced another Megafactory in China in early 2023.
与许多化石燃料替代品相比,Megapack 每兆瓦时的成本更低。单个 Megapack XL 的电池存储容量接近 4 兆瓦时,考虑到其可扩展性,可实现超过 1,000 兆瓦时的项目。2022 年,为了满足储能产品供不应求的局面,特斯拉建成了一座名为 Megafactory 的新生产设施,每年可生产 储能产品。我们还宣布将于 2023 年初在中国再建一座 Megafactory。
The largest energy storage projects deployed in 2023 approached in size. Today, Tesla is working with its customers on projects upwards of 3,000 MWh and expects total deployments in 2024 to grow by at least compared to 2023
2023 年部署的最大储能项目规模接近 。如今,特斯拉正与客户合作开展超过 3,000 兆瓦时的项目,预计 2024 年的总部署量将比 2023 年至少增长

Levelized Cost of Energy Comparison for Megapack and

Conventional Resources 常规资源
Subsidized Un-subsidized
有补贴 无补贴
Solar PV + Megapack 2 XL
太阳能光伏 + Megapack 2 XL
Natural Gas Peaker Plant
Nuclear Power Plant 核电站