这是用户在 2024-5-1 24:24 为 https://app.immersivetranslate.com/pdf-pro/e3db6ac0-9647-4244-bb5d-5cf7163bf9bf 保存的双语快照页面,由 沉浸式翻译 提供双语支持。了解如何保存?
2024_05_01_efe089d9b9ad823f1bfeg

4.1 Solubility  4.1 溶解度

Terms you should know. Creating flash cards may help you memorize these terms.
你应该了解的术语。制作单词卡可能有助于你记忆这些术语。
1
Homogeneous
mixture
Mixtures in which the components are uniformly
组分均匀分布的混合物
distributed. (Typically these are clear and may be
(通常这些是透明的,可能是
coloured or colourless).
有色或无色)。
2
Heterogeneous
mixture
Mixtures in which the components are
组分在静止时分离的混合物。
segregated when at rest. (Typically these are
(典型情况下这些是
cloudy before they are at rest and have two
在休息之前是多云的,有两个
distinct phases when they are at rest. They may
明显的阶段当它们休息时。它们可能
be coloured or colourless).
是有色的或无色的)。
3 Solution
A combination of two or more substances that
两种或两种以上物质的组合,形成均匀混合物。
exist as a homogeneous mixture.
存在的均匀混合物。
Example : Sodium Chloride in water.
例子:水中的氯化钠。
4 Solute
The substance of lesser quantity in a
在均匀混合物中数量较少的物质。
homogeneous mixture. 均匀混合物中的物质。
Example: The Sodium Chloride portion of the
Sodium Chloride in water solution.
水溶液中的氯化钠。
5 Solvent
The substance of greater quantity in a
在均匀混合物中数量更多的物质。
homogeneous mixture. 均匀混合物中的物质。
Example: The water portion of the Sodium
例子:氯化钠水溶液中的水部分
Chloride in water solution.
溶液中的氯化钠
6 Solubility
A measure of the amount of solute that will
一种测量将溶质溶解在溶剂中的量的方法
dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a
在指定温度下在给定溶剂中溶解
specified temperature. Usually measured in units
通常以摩尔/升、{{0}}或{{1}}为单位测量
of moles/liter, , or .
在指定温度下在给定溶剂中溶解
7 Concentrated A relatively large amount of solute to solvent.
溶质相对较多的溶剂。
8 Dilute A relatively small amount of solute to solvent.
溶质相对较少的溶剂。
9
Saturated
solution
A solution in which a maximum quantity of solute
溶液中溶质达到最大量。
has been dissolved. 已被溶解。
10 Precipitate
An insoluble product that may form when a
在溶液中发生化学反应时可能形成的不溶性产物。
chemical reaction occurs in solution. (ie. The solid
(例如:固体
that causes a cloudy appearance and eventually
导致浑浊外观并最终
settles to the bottom of the container).
沉积到容器底部)。
11 Miscible Unlimited ability to mix in solution.
无限的溶液混合能力。
12 Immiscible
Limited ability to mix in solution, or say
溶液中混合能力有限,或者说
"substances that are insoluble in each other".
"彼此不溶的物质"。
13 Soluble
Any solution whose concentration is greater than
任何浓度大于
or equal to .
小于或等于
14 Insoluble
Any solution at equilibrium whose concentration
在平衡时,任何浓度低于{{0}}的溶液。
is less than .
小于

Ponderings 沉思

White bear in the ocean, struggling to swim shouts "HELP! I'm dissolving!"
海洋中的白熊挣扎着游泳喊道“救命!我正在溶解!”
The brown bear on the shore shouts back "Don't worry, bears are insoluble."
岸边的棕熊回应道“别担心,熊是不溶解的。”
Ponderings
White bear in the ocean, struggling to swim shouts "HELP! I'm
海洋中的白熊挣扎着游泳喊道“救命!我
dissolving!"
The brown bear on the shore shouts back "Don't worry, bears are
岸边的棕熊回应道“别担心,熊是
insoluble."
The white bear shouts back "Easy for you to say, you're not
白熊回应道“你说得轻松,你不是
POLAR!"
Consider a slightly soluble substance such as:
考虑稍微溶解的物质,例如:
0 0
(negl.)
1.0
Note that is considered negligible if it is less than of the starting amount. Since we are told the substance is slightly soluble we can assume less than will dissolve here. This is why we are able to say that the is still 1.0
请注意,如果 小于起始量的 ,则被视为可以忽略不计。由于我们被告知物质稍微溶解,我们可以假设少于 会在这里溶解。这就是为什么我们能够说 仍然是 1.0
Since solubility is a measure of the amount of capable of dissolving at a given temperature, the solubility must equal in the above chart. This is to say that the solubility equals the amount of solid which did dissolve, or say it equals the concentration of either or ions which did appear.
由于溶解度是在给定温度下能够溶解的 量的度量,所以上述图表中的溶解度必须等于 。这意味着溶解度等于溶解的固体量,或者说它等于出现的 离子的浓度。
The solubility of any solid will equal the concentration of any ion produced in a 1:1 ratio with the solid in the dissociation reaction.
任何固体的溶解度将等于在解离反应中与固体以 1:1 比例产生的任何离子的浓度。
Furthermore the equilibrium constant for a dissociation equation is called a solubility product constant and is abbreviated Ksp. You have a table of Ksp values in your data booklet.
此外,解离方程的平衡常数称为溶解度积常数,简称为 Ksp。您的数据手册中有 Ksp 值的表格。
The basic formula for Ksp is identical to that for Keq. However the reactant for any Ksp formula will always be a solid and remember the factor for a solid defaults to a value of 1 . This means a Ksp formula will only every use the products of the dissociation.
Ksp 的基本公式与 Keq 的公式相同。然而,任何 Ksp 公式的反应物始终是固体,并且请记住固体的因子默认值为 1。这意味着 Ksp 公式将仅使用解离的产物。
In this example: 在这个例子中:
We will refer to this reaction as a 1:1:1 reaction.
我们将把这个反应称为 1:1:1 反应。

For any dissociation reaction whose components are in a 1:1:1 ratio:
对于任何组分比例为 1:1:1 的解离反应:
Ksp Lesson Ksp 课程
Or: solubility  或:溶解度
And this example will be referred to as a 1:2:1 reaction:
这个例子将被称为 1:2:1 反应:
For any dissociation reaction whose components are in a 1:2:1 or a 1:1:2 ratio:
对于任何组分比例为 1:2:1 或 1:1:2 的解离反应:
Or: solubility  或:溶解度
While this example will be referred to as a 1:1:3 reaction:
虽然这个例子将被称为 1:1:3 反应:
For any dissociation reaction whose components are in a 1:1:3 or a 1:3:1 ratio
对于任何组分比为 1:1:3 或 1:3:1 的解离反应
Ksp (solubility)
Ksp (溶解度)
Or: solubility  或:溶解度
Always write phase symbols for all components in all reactions in this unit as phase is now the central topic.
在这个单元中,对于所有反应中的所有组分,始终编写相位符号,因为相位现在是中心话题。
Also always be aware of which form a reaction is in,
同时,始终注意反应处于哪种形式中,
(ie. 1:1:1 or 1:1:2 or 1:1:3 etc.).
(即 1:1:1 或 1:1:2 或 1:1:3 等)。
Solubility will often be shortened to just .
溶解度通常会被简称为
One of the most common mistakes students make is to confuse s and Ksp. They are related using the formulas above but they are not the same!
学生们经常犯的一个最常见的错误是混淆 s 和 Ksp。它们使用上面的公式相关,但它们并不相同!
Q. What do you call a tooth in a glass of water?
问:你怎么称呼杯子里的一颗牙?
A. A one molar solution!
一摩尔溶液!
Remember: 记住:
If you are not part of the solution, you are part of the precipitate!
如果你不是解决方案的一部分,那么你就是沉淀物的一部分!

Examples 示例

Example 1: Solve the question in your notebook then check your solution.
例子 1:在你的笔记本上解决问题,然后检查你的解决方案。
Write the Ksp expression for:
写出以下物质的 Ksp 表达式:
Colutinn 解决方案
Example 2: Solve the question in your notebook then check your solution.
例 2:在笔记本中解决问题,然后检查你的解决方案。
The of is at . Write the dissociation equation, then calculate its solubility.
时为 。写出解离方程式,然后计算其溶解度。
  1. Write the Ksp expression for...
    写出...的 Ksp 表达式

    a. (aq) a. (溶液)
b. (aq) b. (溶液)
c.
  1. The of is at . Write the dissociation equation, then calculate its solubility.
    时为 。写出解离方程式,然后计算其溶解度。
note this salt is , therefore
注意这种盐是 ,因此
Solubility the square root of
溶解度 的平方根
  1. The of is at . Write the dissociation equation, then calculate its solubility.
    时为 。写出解离方程式,然后计算其溶解度。
note this salt is ,
注意这个盐是
therefore Solubility the cube root of
因此溶解度 的立方根
  1. The solubility of is at . Write the dissociation equation, then calculate its .
    的溶解度在 时为 。写出解离方程式,然后计算它的
note this salt is ,
注意这个盐是
therefore,  因此,
  1. The solubility of is at . Write the dissociation equation, then calculate its .
    的溶解度在 时为 。写出其解离方程式,然后计算其
note this salt is 1:1:2, therefore
注意这个盐是 1:1:2 的,因此
  1. The solubility of is at . Write the dissociation equation then calculate its .
    的溶解度为 ,在 时。写出解离方程,然后计算其