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MAN6038 The Global Manager
MAN6038 全球經理

Introduction to the course aims and structure 

Introduction to the course - Main Aim 

  • Through active reflection and self-audit, development planning and application of theory, the module assists in developing skills whilst encouraging students to better appreciate key strategic, cultural, and organisational issues and opportunities in the global market. 

Learning Outcomes 

(as taken from the Modules specification) 
評估(用於人) 
  1. Evaluate the key traits of a global manager and analyse the relevance of adapting management styles in today's rapidly changing global environments. 
  2. Appraise an understanding of practical applications of intercultural competency. 
  3. Analyse the complexities of global organisations and cultural, ethical and value-based considerations for managers wishing to pursue global strategies. 
  4. Undertake a self-audit on to identify skills and competencies and based on audit findings, prepare a development plan. 

Assignment Brief 

Assignment method: 

An approximate -word portfolio weighting of the final mark 
  • Deadline: 
Class A: Saturday July 2024 
Class B: Saturday July 2024 

Required task: 

Using academic theories and a case study, evaluate and analyse key traits of a global manager from a global mindset perspective, include elements of cultural, ethical and value-based considerations, following which carry out a self-audit of your global mindset skills and a personal development plan. 

Assignment Brief 

Assignment indicative structure: 

  • Introduction. Clearly outline the structure of the work (approx. 100 words) 
  • Part 1. A literature review about key traits of a global manager and the importance of a global mindset in today's rapidly changing global environments (approx. 700 words) 2 pages 
Part 2. A literature review about cultural, ethical and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words) 

2pages 

  • Part 3. A case study about a business of your choice highlighting how the business has or has not benefited from elements related to cultural, ethical, and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words) 
  • Part 4. A self-audit, in which you score yourself on a scale of 1-10 about global mindset skills and competences, followed by a detailed personal development plan about how and by when you intend to develop these traits (approx. 700 words) 
  • Conclusion. Clearly summarise your work (approx. 100 words) 
  • List of references (not included in the word count). In-text citations and the list of references should follow BCU Harvard Referencing style. A minimum of 10-15 academic references are required. 

Reading List 

  • Main textbook: 
Lane & Maznevski (2014) 
Henry W. Lane and Martha L. Mazneuski 
  • Wider Reading List 

International Management Behavior 

  • Articles on Moodle page 

Module/Lectures Theme Overview 

  • Today's complex and highly dynamic global business environment 
  • Managers expected to possess and utilise requisite skills to meet goals 
  • Understanding of global issues affecting managers today 
  • Key Management and Leadership principles in the global context 
  • Intercultural competencies withing global business culture 
  • Ethical and value-based considerations in a global context 
  • Transferable employability skills - practitioner based approach 
  • Preparing you to be global managers of the future 

Additional Tutorials Theme Overview 

(these will be integrated into the weekly lecture sessions) 
  • How to write a literature review 
  • How to avoid plagiarism 
  • How to reference correctly 
  • How to do the self-assessment of a global mindset 
  • How to structure the assignment 

Introduction to the course - Referencing 

  • The tutorials include guidance about 
  • Finding and citing academic evidence 
  • How to develop a critical literature review 
  • Harvard referencing format requirements 
  • Plagiarism avoidance 

Session Plan indicative: changes in sequence possible 

 
Course
Session
Study Topics  Preparatory Work/ Revision 
1 An Introduction to the Course and to the Context 
 
Read book chapter and related
sources
2 Understanding culture Through the Looking Glass 
 
Read book chapter and other
sources
3 Cross-cultural Skill Development Tools for Global Managers 
 
Read book chapter and other
sources
4
 
Managing global teams and networks
Development of a global mindset
 
Read book chapter and other
sources, must read the provided
article (Bowen 2013 )
5 Implementing Strategy Structure and Systems / Value-based Considerations  Read the book chapter and other 
6 Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Effectiveness and Culture Shock and expats  Read the book chapter and other 
7 Leading Innovation and Change / further Value-based Considerations  Read the book chapter and other 
8 Competing with Integrity: Personal Integrity / Ethical Considerations  Read the book chapter and other 
9
 
Competing with Integrity Corporate Sustainability / More Ethical
Considerations
Read the book chapter and other 

BIRMINGHAM CITY
J3 University
MAN6038
The Global Manager
Session 1
An Introduction to the Context of Global Business Management 

Developing a Global Mindset this module's core concept/ "red thread" 

What is GLOBAL BUSINESS? 

Global business, also called international business, is the production and sale of goods and services between countries. The term can also encompass the nulances, politics, and dynamics of doing business in a 
Global business leads to high-level competition among businesses. When any company enters the foreign markets, they have to compete with the local business in that country. Therefore, the foreign businesses must produce high-quality products. 

What is GLOBALISATION? 

  • Globalisation is the word used to describe the growing interdependence of the world's economies, cultures, and populations, brought about by cross-border trade in goods and services, technology, and flows of investment, people, and information. 
  • McDonald's is the most prominent representation and symbol of globalization. Of all the fast-food chains in the fast-food industry, Mcdonald's is the largest one and is on the top of all global markets. 

Globalisation 

  • Globalisation of markets 
  • trade liberalisation, denationalisation, pressures to grow 
  • Globalisation of customers 
  • Globalisation of production & supply chains 
  • made possible by telecommunications, Internet and cheap transportation 
  • Global competitors 
  • Consolidation 
  • global joint ventures (i.e.Tesco in South Korea), global alliances, mergers & acquisitions 

Globalisation 

  • Cross border M&As, joint ventures and alliances fail about onehalf the time 
  • of bank mergers in the US failed to create significant value 
  • Cultural differences (35%) 
  • Poor planning & execution (20%) 
  • Unrealistic targets (13%) 
  • Inadequate due diligence (11%) Information research 
  • De-motivating employees (10%) 被收理公司員工 
  • Defection (8%) Business detection 
  • Other  

Is Company X a global company? 

In addition to and regional offices shown above - R&D and manufacturing facilities and distribution and education centers in The Netherlands, India, Germany, France, Ireland, Hong Kong, Mexico, UK, Australia, Italy, Argentina and Spain 

Global companies 

Only by operating in multiple locations is not globalisation 
  • Executing global strategy is done by people (on the ground) 
  • You don't globalise companies unless you "globalise" people 

What are some famous global companies that you know? 

  • Are they in almost every country in the world? 
  • In a specific region only? 
  • In very few countries? 
  • Have you heard if they do well or had any business troubles globally or regional or only at home? 
  • Are global companies always large? 
  • Which country/ies is/are headquarters to most of the global companies? 

Analysing « Globalization » at a micro level 

The Transnationality Index (TNI) is a means of ranking multinational corporations that is employed by economists and politicians. It is calculated as the arithmetic mean of the following three ratios (where "foreign" means outside of the corporation's home country).  
  • the ratio of foreign assets to total assets 
  • the ratio of foreign sales to total sales 
  • the ratio of foreign employment to total employment 
The Transnationality Index was developed by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.  

BIRMINGHAM CITY
University 

Ranking by:  Corporation  Home economy  Industry   Assets  Sales  Employment 
 
TNI
(Per cent)
 
Foreign
assets
Foreign  Total  Foreign  Total  Foreign   Total 
1 19 Hutchison Whampoa Limited  Hong Kong, China  Diversified  85721 103715 24222 31339 206986 250000 80,9
2 93 CITIC Group 中信  China  Diversified  78602 565884 9561 55487 25285 17,1
3 16 Hon Hai Precision Industries  Taiwan Province of China  Electrical & electronic equipment  65471 70448 128650 132429 810993 1290000 84,3
4 70 Petronas - Petroliam Nasional Bhd  Malaysia  Petroleum expl./ref./distr.  49072 163275 71939 94543 46145 39,2
5 63 Vale SA  Brazil  Mining & quarrying  45721 131478 38326 47694 15680 85305 44,5
6 59 China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company  China  Transport and storage  43452 56126 19139 29101 4400 130000 48,9
7 91 China National Offshore Oil Corp  China  Petroleum expl./ref./distr.  34276 129834 21887 83537 3387 102562 18,6
8 58 América Móvil SAB de CV  Mexico  Telecommunications  32008 75697 37395 58950 67525 158719 49,4
9 67 Lukoil OAO  Russian Federation  Petroleum and natural gas  31174 98961 113801 139171 18144 120300 42,8
10 20 Cemex S.A.B. de C.V.  Mexico  Non-metalic mineral products  30730 36808 11717 14986 35387 45087 80,1
11 92 Petróleos de Venezuela SA  Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of  Petroleum expl./ref./distr.  27462 218424 46899 123223 4877 126945 18,2
12 80 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.  Korea, Republic of  Electrical & electronic equipment  26077 169702 19294 179060 123563 227000 26,9
13 39 Singapore Telecommunications Ltd  Singapore  Telecommunications  25768 32242 9541 14633 10496 23176 63,5
14 83 Hyundai Motor Company  Korea, Republic of  Motor vehicles  25443 113906 11754 75211 38318 98348 25,6
15 44 Jardine Matheson Holdings Ltd  Hong Kong, China  Diversified  24284 63460 29732 39593 217556 360000 57,9
16 54 Sabic - Saudi Basic Industries Corp.  Saudi Arabia  Petroleum expl./ref./distr.  23540 90089 33377 50422 25391 40000 51,9
17 85 Gazprom JSC  Russian Federation  Petroleum and natural gas  23425 396454 92016 153863 27400 431200 24,0
18 24 Wilmar International Limited  Singapore  Food, beverages and tobacco  23088 41920 33622 45463 90575 93000 75,5
19 2 China Resources Power Holdings Company Ltd  Hong Kong, China  Energy  22938 22938 8049 8049 38018 38118 99,9
20 42 Tata Motors Ltd  India  Automobile  21575 31281 26519 34765 20379 62716 59,2
21 17 Ooredoo QSC  Qatar  Telecommunications  20304 26104 7601 9303 15289 17130 82,9
22 88 Formosa Plastics Group  Taiwan Province of China  Chemicals  19994 101998 14405 78130 24287 102763 20,6
23 62 New World Development Ltd  Hong Kong, China  Diversified  19857 36918 2411 4582 14751 47000 45,9
24 100 China National Petroleum Corporation  China  Petroleum expl./ref./distr.  19284 541083 11296 425720 31442 1656465 2,7
25 29 CapitaLand Ltd  Singapore  Construction and real estate  18926 30885 1706 2642 10500 12000 71,1
Web table 28. The world's top 100 non-financial TNCs, ranked by foreign assets, (Millions of dollars and number of employees) 
Ranking by: 排名: Corporation  Home economy  Industry   Assets  Sales  Employment 
 
Foreign
assets
Foreign  Total  Foreign  Total  Foreign   Total 
1 79 General Electric Co  United States  Electrical & electronic equipment  338157 685328 75640 144796 171000 305000 52,5
2 32 Royal Dutch Shell plc  United Kingdom  Petroleum expl./ref./distr.  307938 360325 282930 467153 73000 87000 76,6
3 22 plc  United Kingdom  Petroleum expl./ref./distr.  270247 300193 300216 375580 69853 85700 83,8
4 77 Toyota Motor Corporation  Japan  Motor vehicles  233193 376841 170486 265770 126536 333498 54,7
5 28 Total SA  France  Petroleum expl./ref./distr.  214507 227107 180440 234287 62123 97126 78,5
6 45 Exxon Mobil Corporation  United States  Petroleum expl./ref./distr.  214349 333795 301840 420714 46361 76900 65,4
7 8 Vodafone Group Plc  United Kingdom  Telecommunications  199003 217031 62065 70224 78599 86373 e  90,4
8 62 GDF Suez  France  Utilities (Electricity, gas and water)  175057 271607 78555 124711 110308 219330 59,2
9 61 Chevron Corporation  United States  Petroleum expl./ref./distr.  158865 232982 132743 222580 31508 62000 59,5
10 64 Volkswagen Group  Germany  Motor vehicles  158046 409257 199129 247624 296000 533469 58,2
11 51 Eni SpA  Italy  Petroleum expl./ref./distr.  133445 185493 85867 163566 51034 77838 63,3
12 1 Nestlé SA  Switzerland  Food, beverages and tobacco  132686 138212 96849 98468 328816 339000 97,1
13 71 Enel SpA  Italy  Electricity, gas and water  132231 226878 65966 109098 37588 73702 56,6
14 48 E.ON AG  Germany  Utilities (Electricity, gas and water)  128310 185601 117973 169764 40535 72083 65,0
15 4 Anheuser-Busch InBev NV  Belgium  Food, beverages and tobacco  115913 122621 36013 39758 109566 117632 92,8
16 6 ArcelorMittal  Luxembourg  Metal and metal products  112239 114573 83996 84213 185319 244890 91,1
17 29 Siemens AG  Germany  Electrical & electronic equipment  111570 139252 87236 101604 250000 369000 77,9
18 36 Honda Motor Co Ltd  Japan  Motor vehicles  110142 144811 95792 118983 118923 187094 73,4
19 92 Mitsubishi Corporation  Japan  Wholesale trade  109657 153044 49052 243401 18915 40,6
20 98 EDF SA  France  Utilities (Electricity, gas and water)  103015 330582 38840 93470 30412 154730 30,8

BIRMINGHAM CITY
University 

1

Global MNEs 
of total sales 

BIRMINGHAM CITY
University 

Home-region based 
of total sales 

To conclude 

A GLOBAL industry: when competition takes place at the global level with high pressures on standardization(opposed to Multidomestic industry) 多國内市場行業 
全球影響力 
A GLOBAL company: with a global presence, i.e. in Triad / regional and emerging markets (opposed to local company) 
A GLOBAL strategy: with a global reach (opposed to local strategy) 

A company can be « global, » working in a « multidomestic » industry, developing « local » strategies! 

Again: What is Globalization? 

  • Globalization of markets 
  • trade liberalization, deregulation 
  • pressures to grow 
  • Globalization of customers 
  • Globalization of production & supply chains 
  • made possible by telecommunications, Internet and cheap transportation (e.g. HP) 
  • Global competitors 
  • Consolidation 
  • global joint ventures, global alliances & M & A's 

Then: What is deglobalization? 

  • Deglobalization or deglobalisation is the process of diminishing interdependence and integration between certain units around the world, typically nation-states. It is widely used to describe the periods of history when economic trade and investment between countries decline. 
  • Have we entered such period of deglobalization? 

What indicates a deglobalization trend? 

  • Trade Wars 
  • Increase of sanctions/ embargoes/ import tariffs 
  • Supply chain problems 
  • International mobility problems 
  • Increased protection of local labor (restrictions on work visas) 
  • Political (i.e.: “de-coupling") 
  • Other 

Globalisation is really about complexity 

- Complexity 

  • Multiplicity (M) 多傆性 
  • Interdependence (I) 互相恠頪 
  • Ambiguity (A) 不明维镖情 
  • And continuous, rapid change 

Implications of globalization 

  • Globalization is easy to talk about but difficult to accomplish 
  • Some people in the parent company are going to have to work with people from other cultures 
  • Someone in the company may have to travel to or live in another country 
  • Decisions have to be made about how to operate - our way, their way, a new way? 
  • "We" may have to change as well as "them" 

Global Mindset 

"The ability to develop and interpret criteria for personal and business decisions that are not dependent on the assumptions of a single country, culture or context; and to implement those decisions appropriately in different countries, cultures, and contexts" 

Four Types of Understanding Required to Develop a Global Mindset 

What do managers do in general? 

Mintzberg published his Ten Management Roles in his book, "Mintzberg on Management: Inside our Strange World of Organizations," in 1990 
Managerial roles  Differences across cultures 
Interpersonal roles 
Figurehead 
 
Figureheads have considerable symbolic value in some cultures; in
others, being described as a figurehead is not seen as a compliment.
Leader 
 
Individualistic cultures prefer highly visible "take charge" leaders;
collectivistic cultures prefer more consultative leaders.
Liaison 
 
Some cultures prefer informal contacts based on long-standing
personal relationships; others prefer to use official representatives.
Informational roles 
Monitor 
 
Culture often influences both the extent of information monitoring and
which specific information sources receive greatest attention.
Disseminator 
 
In some cultures, the context surrounding a message is more important
than the message itself; in others, the reverse is true.
Spokesperson 
 
Culture often influences who is respected and seen as a legitimate
spokesperson for an organization.
Decisional roles 
Entrepreneur 
 
Some cultures are highly supportive of innovation and change; others
prefer the status quo and resist change.
Disturbance handler 
 
Some cultures resolve conflict quietly; others accept and at times
encourage a more public approach.
Resource allocator 
 
Hierarchical cultures support differential resource allocations;
egalitarian cultures prefer greater equality or equity in distributions.
Negotiator 
 
Some cultures negotiate all items in a proposed contract
simultaneously; others negotiate each item sequentially.

What is a GLOBAL MANAGER? 

  • A global manager is defined by the work he or she is doing, frequently within a company with global presence or operations. 
  • A global manager is responsible for managing teams of employees or business operations across diverse cultures and time zones, calls for new skill sets and capabilities. 
  • Having a degree in global business management can help you develop problem-solving skills and make you able to think on a global scale. Pursuing courses in Global business management provides opportunities to establish your career in finance, international management, trade or in different multinational companies. 

How do you learn to conduct international business effectively? 

You need to acquire a set of skills that help you work across regional, national and subnational boundaries to propel your business forward. Those skills include the following: 
  • Overseas experience 
  • Deep self-awareness 
  • Sensitivity to cultural diversity 8 
  • Humility 
  • Lifelong curiosity 
  • Cautious honesty 
  • Global strategic thinking 
  • Patiently impatient 
  • Well-spoken 
  • Good negotiator 6 
  • Presence 

The Global Mindset 

"The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new
landscapes, but in having new eyes" 

Marcel Proust (French novelist, 1871-1922) 

Developing a Global Mindset 

Skill-Development for Global Managers (1) 

- OVERSEAS EXPERIENCE 

  • Many global executives understand what doing business in a flat world is like because they've lived overseas, sometimes for decades at a time. If you want to become a successful international business leader, transcending your own cultural perspective and learning how business is done in different contexts is essential. 

- DEEP SELF-AWARENESS 

  • Understanding your beliefs and knowing where they might differ from others' is critical to global executive success. Without this key characteristic, you will not be able to adapt to and tolerate the deepseated beliefs of others - and business opportunities will evaporate. Beware of the "I'm right; you're wrong" assumption. 

Skill-Development for Global Managers (2) 

- SENSITIVITY TO CULTURAL DIVERSITY 

  • Are you willing to eat raw fish? Snake? Raw monkey brains? Can you adjust your eating and sleeping habits to match the local executives' routines and patterns? In other countries, seemingly minor things can be off-putting, such as sticking your chopsticks in your rice or touching someone with your left hand. 
  • Much of this insight comes from experience. You must have an intense interest in the lives and cultures of others, recognizing that your culture and background are not inherently superior, to master the global business arena. 

- HUMILITY 

  • Being interested in other cultures and how people in those cultures do things, especially with regard to business, implies a certain humility. Humility here means a belief that other lands and cultures have figured out very interesting answers to life's problems. As a good international business person, you must be open to and fascinated by those answers. This trait requires a willingness and ability to listen well and with real intention. 

Skill-Development for Global Managers (3) 

  • LIFELONG CURIOSITY 
  • The world is constantly evolving. Without an intense curiosity and a desire to learn, you will be left behind and increasingly unable to converse, much less keep up, with your peers. Staying abreast of new learning opportunities requires a humble awareness that what you know is not enough and that you always have more to learn. 

- CAUTIOUS HONESTY 

  • Surprisingly, the definitions of "honesty" and "truth" vary widely in the business arena. People sometimes omit information or only tell the truth they think other people need to know. However you design your ethics and morality in your personal life, in global business settings, executives need to know they can count on you. If you don't deliver on your business promises, your reputation will suffer. Effective global leaders can balance the need to be cautious in different contexts while demonstrating they can follow through. 

Skill-Development for Global Managers (4) 

- GLOBAL STRATEGIC THINKING 

  • When you have a global perspective, you think strategically about managing business using the best people from around the planet. Much of your ability to do this comes from a lifetime of networking at the highest levels in global boardrooms and your aptitude for seeing how various pieces of global industries play out internationally. To make strategic decisions for your company, you need to understand how the business world works on a global scale. 
  • PATIENTLY IMPATIENT 
  • How do you become patiently impatient? You must be in a hurry and yet be patient enough to allow the local and regional processes to unfold as they are meant to. Time and pace are not the same in every country. Balancing the demands of hot competitive and technological trends with the pace of local cultures can be frustrating to the uninitiated. 
  • WELL-SPOKEN 
  • Given the challenges of working via interpreters or fumbling through conversations in more than one language, the ability to say clearly what you mean is a key global business skill. If you converse with others in their native language, you usually earn brownie points - however, if what you have to say is obscure or unintelligible, you'll quickly be in a deficit balance. Clear communication is a powerful leadership trait to have on the global stage. 

Skill-Development for Global Managers (5) 

- GOOD NEGOTIATOR 

  • Doing business across ethnic, national and regional boundaries requires strong negotiating skills. If you can add these skills to an innate enjoyment of the gamesmanship involved in negotiating, you will become a highly effective negotiator. 
  • PRESENCE 
  • A certain chatists as surrounds you if you are an influential global leader. Part of it - but only part - is position or title. The bigger portion is dress, self-confidence, energy level, interest in other people and comfort with the challenges at hand. You may not want to believe these things matter, but they do. 
  • As a global business leader, you must respect the identities and affiliations of others. Some people can do that; many or most cannot. Do you have what it takes to become a global business leader? 

Skill-Development for Global Managers 

  • Further suggestions about global management skill development can be found in the internet! 
  • For example here, but not limited to this only: 

Understanding of business management in a global context 

  • What works in one country might not work in the other 
  • What a message means in one country might not have the same meaning in another. 
  • Context matters. 
  • Knowing and understanding the context is pre-requisite when managing across borders. 

Traditional 'logic' of organization and management 

Different cultures have different expectations from their supervisors? Taken-for-granted! 

Example: Jepsen Company: Expatriates face Differences 

Rethinking management models 

Country  Percentage of managers who agree with each statement 
 
"Managers must have
the answers to most
questions asked by
subordinates"
 
"The main reason for a
chain of command is so
people know who has
authority"
 
"It is OK to bypass
chain of command to
get something done
efficiently"
China  74 70 59
France  53 43 43
Germany  46 26 45
Indonesia  73 83 51
Italy  66 - 56
Japan  78 50
Netherlands  17 31 44
Spain  - 34 74
Sweden  10 30 26
United Kingdom  27 34 35
United States  18 17 32
Country 
 
Manager's sense of drive
and initiative (percentage
of agreement by managers)
Country 
 
Manager's willingness to
delegate authority (percentage
of agreement by managers)
United States  74 Sweden  76
Sweden  72 Japan  69
Japan  72 Norway  69
Finland  70 USA 66
South Korea  68 Singapore  65
Netherlands  67 Denmark  65
Singapore  66 Canada  64
Switzerland  66 Finland  63
Belgium  65 Switzerland  62
Ireland  65 Netherlands  61
France  65 Australia  61
Austria  63 Germany  61
Denmark  63 New Zealand  61
Italy  62 Ireland  60
Australia  62 UK 59
Canada  62 Belgium  55
Spain  62 Austria  54
New Zealand  59 France  54
Greece  59 Italy  47
UK 58 Spain  44
Norway  55 Portugal  43
Portugal  49 Greece  38

Expatriates  

Frequent flyers 
Virtual managers 
Face-toface 

Virtual 

Types of global managers 

 
Characteristics
and management
challenges
Expatriates 

Types of global managers (cont'd) 

 
Characteristics
and management
challenges
Expatriates 

Obviously, global management is not that easy! 

  • Cross border M & A's, joint ventures and alliances fail about one-half the time. 
  • of bank mergers in the US failed to create significant value 
  • Cultural differences (35%) 
  • Poor planning & execution (20%) 
  • Unrealistic targets (13%) 
  • Inadequate due diligence (11%) 
  • De-motivating employees (10%) 
  • Defection (8%) 
  • Other (3%) 
\section*{The reasons why M&A's and joint ventures "fail"  
- May start at the top...  
- "M & A's are illusions" 
  • Paying attention to only half the challenge: 
strategy formulation (ideal, big picture) without execution (reality, details) 
What levels of global managers are involved? 

The reasons why M&A's and joint ventures "fail"(continued) 

  • Tendency to focus on "visible" inputs vs. "invisible" relationships 
  • legal, financial, market data vs. trust, commitment 
  • Ignoring culture (national and organizational) 
  • The "visible" issues are necessary but not sufficient for success 

Example: How Culture ended the DaimlerBenz Chrysler Merger 

The Daimler-Benz merger with Chrysler in 1998 is probably the most famous of all international mergers then ended in failure. 
Cultural differences and organisational culture are both acknowledged to have played their part. 
It was this failed partnership that first rang the alarm bells that cultural factors just cannot be ignored on a global level, especially not within mergers and acquisitions. 

Why the Daimer-Chrysler M&A failed 

  • Analysts agree that the cultural gap in corporate cultures was one of the main reasons for the Daimler-Chrysler failure. Daimler was a German company which could be described as "conservative, efficient and safe", while Chrysler was known as "daring, diverse and creating" (Appelbaum, Roberts and Shapiro, 2009:44) 
  • Daimler was a very hierarchical company with a clear chain of command and respect for authority. 
  • Chrysler, on the other cultural hand, favoured a more team-oriented and egalitarian approach. 
  • The other cultural difference lay in what the companies valued in terms of their clients. Daimler valued reliability and achieving the highest levels of quality, while Chrysler was placing its bets on catchy designs and offering their cars for competitive prices. These two factors resulted in conflicting orders and goals in different departments. American and German managers had different values which drove and directed their work. Different departments were heading in opposing directions. 
  • Employees on both sides felt reluctant to work with each other. During the initial stages of organisational integration, huge bulks of Chrysler's key executives either resigned or were replaced by Germans counterparts. 
  • Moreover, Daimler was much more imposing and tried to dictate the terms on which the new company should work (Appelbaum, Roberts and Shapiro, 2009:44). Such a situation didn't inspire trust in Chrysler's employees and raised some serious communication challenges. 
  • So to summarise the cultural factors in play here: 
    1. differences in corporate cultures and values 
  1. lack of coordination and severe lack of trust among the employees 
  • All three resulted in communication failures which in turn caused a sharp reduction in productivity. 

Example: Cultural Differences in the Daimler alliance with Mitsubishi 

  • One of the lesser known international cooperation blunders is that of the DaimlerChrysler-Mitsubishi alliance in 2000. 
  • Right after acquiring Chrysler, the newly merged DaimlerChrysler decided to gain a foothold in Asia as well. 
  • They saw Mitsubishi Motors as the golden ticket. 
  • The outcome, however, wasn't that successful. 

Why the Daimer-Mitsubishi Alliance failed 

  • In this case Daimler failed to acknowledge any local practices and principles of Japan business culture. 
  • In Japanese culture, trust and attention to others' feelings are essential. This means that Japanese business people value personal relationships more than dry facts. What is important is how you value your client and how you treat him. This differs greatly with a strictly fact-based and pragmatic approach of the German counterpart. 
  • Not paying any attention to the concept of "localization", Daimler appointed German managers who immediately started giving orders as if they were in Germany. As a result, Japanese subordinates felt extremely reluctant to take orders from them (Froese and Goeritz, 2007: 98), which in turn had a negative impact on overall efficiency. Moreover, most Germans were seen as guests which exacerbated the situation since guests usually don't have authority in Japan and on top of that it's hard to be "rude" to a guest. 
  • Cross-department communication was very weak as well. Apart from the R&D department, communication mechanisms weren't installed properly and a chain of command was not clearly defined (Froese and Goeritz, 2007: 101). 
  • The last cultural difference which will be mentioned here is the conflict between cultures that value long-term orientation over short-term orientation and vice-versa. One of the founders of the intercultural theoretical framework, Professor Hofstede, used this difference as one of the key dimensions of culture. Generally speaking, countries in the West tend to be more short-term goal oriented while the countries of the East strive for more long term goal orientation 
  • DaimlerChrysler after some time started feeling reluctant to make any further investments into Mitsubishi. They didn't see any short-time profits which eventually led to "pulling the plug" on their Japanese partner. Mitsubishi on the other hand, wasn't really concerned with the losses. They were more long-term oriented. They perceived the difficulties to be an obstacle to overcome, but not as a reason to dismantle the alliance. That is why, when DaimlerChrysler announced, that it refused to make any further investments, that the little shreds of trust dissapeared. 
  • The joint venture didn't work as intended because of the lack of consideration given to cultural factors. The inability to establish proper communication, build trust and recognise the goals of one's counterpart played a significant role in the outcome of the cooperation. 
  • Moreover, just as in the DaimlerChrysler merger, a German company was imposing its own terms on their partners. Once again this "bargaining in" and "do-it-our-way" attitude proved incapable of delivering results. 

Example: Success-Story of Tata's M&A of Jaguar Land Rover 

  • TATA Jaguar Land Rover In 2008, TATA finalised the deal and acquired Jaguar Land Rover (JLR). However, the outcome was quite different from the previous case studies which ended in failure. This one is a success story. 
One can attribute the difference in the outcomes to the difference in approaches to the merger, acquisition and integration process. TATA employed directly opposite methods to Daimler. The essence of this method lay in respecting the existing culture rather than imposing a foreign culture. 
  • At the start of the process the Managing Director openly stated that "change of ownership has little to do with the changing of culture". This had several consequences on TATA's management style. 
  • Firstly, TATA, in contrast with Daimler, decided to leave the existing management structure intact and leave the national British managers. There wasn't any attempt to impose Indian managers on JLR. All the key personnel retained their positions. 
  • Secondly, TATA didn't just leave the current managers on their own. TATA managed to motivate them through constantly challenging them and working with them. In other words, help was offered only when it was needed and existing practices remained in place, but at the same time managers couldn't afford to be idle because they had goals to reach and plans to implement. 
  • Thirdly, unlike in the DaimlerChrysler and Mitsubishi alliance, TATA managed to inspire trust in JLR. First of all, the fact that most of JLR's personnel were left on their positions showed that TATA trusts JLR, and believed that it is capable of solving their problems. Moreover, more than once in interviews the Managing Director stated that "it is TATA's responsibility" to take care of JLR and that "TATA won't shy away from investments, if it is required". Such clear statements of loyalty contributed positively on the cooperation between the companies. 
  • Finally, TATA kept an open-mind and never hesitated to listen to feedback from subordinates. TATA's top level officials often make trips to their factories and dealerships outside India and collect feedback from local employees. These opinions are being used in the developing company's strategy. 

Successful Global Managers must develop Cross-cultural effectiveness 

  • Cross-cultural effectiveness = ability to live and work effectively in the cultural setting of your assignment 
  • Effectiveness (professional expertise + adaptation + intercultural interaction + situational readiness) 
  • PAIS) 
  • To be effective we need to have an understanding of culture OURS and THEIRS. 

This course concentrates on the following global management issues: 

  • Impact of cultural differences and how to develop a global mindset 
  • Ethical issues / How to be an ethical player / What ethical dilemmas do global managers face and how do they/should they handle those? 
  • Value creation through globalization of markets, supply chain, labor force, financial markets to sell more, to safe cost, to increase profits, to enhance quality, to enhance innovation, etc. 
  • FINALLY: Self-evaluate your own global mindset. How would you further develop it? 

MAN6038 The Global Manager Session 1 SUMMARY 

Course Structure Overview 
What is Global Business 
What are typical Reasons for Failures of Global Alliances 
What are Differences between Global Managers and solely Local Managers 
Why is a Global Mindset so important for the Success of Global Managers 

MAN6038 The Global Manager 

Session 2 
Understanding culture through the looking glass 

Revision 

-What are the key take aways from the previous session? 
  • How does the content of the previous session relate to the assignment and global mindset development? 
  • Any relevant examples to share? 
  • Any clarifying questions? 

Once again: The Assignment Brief 

Assignment indicative structure: 

  • Introduction. Clearly outline the structure of the work (approx. 100 words) 
  • Part 1. A literature review about key traits of a global manager and the importance of a global mindset in today's rapidly changing global environments (approx. 700 words) 
  • Part 2. A literature review about cultural, ethical and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words) 
  • Part 3. A case study about a business of your choice highlighting how the business has or has not benefited from elements related to cultural, ethical, and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words) 
  • Part 4. A self-audit, in which you score yourself on a scale of 1-10 about global mindset skills and competences, followed by a detailed personal development plan about how and by when you intend to develop these traits (approx. 700 words) 
  • Conclusion. Clearly summarise your work (approx. 100 words) 
  • List of references (not included in the word count). In-text citations and the list of references should follow BCU Harvard Referencing style. A minimum of academic references are required. 
"Part 2. A literature review about cultural, ethical and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words) 
Part 3. A case study about a business of your choice highlighting how the business has or has not benefited from elements related to cultural, ethical, and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words) Part 4. A self-audit, in which you score yourself on a scale of 1-10 about global mindset skills and competences, followed by a detailed personal development plan about how and by when you intend to develop these traits (approx. 700 words)" 

The following sections are all full of valuable in-sights and concepts that you can use for your assignment and when choosing a relevant case. 

A definition of culture 

  • Culture is a commonly-held body of beliefs and values which define the shoulds and the oüghts of life for those who hold them. 
  • Researcher Geert Hofstede called it the 
  • "Software of the mind" that distinguishes members of one group from those of another. 

Culture is... 

Behaviors 
and artifacts. 
Visible, tangible. 
  • like an iceberg: is below the surface 
Usually not visible and rarely (if 

ever) questioned until a conflict. 

Culture 

  • Learned: acquired from our social environment so early that we are usually unaware of its influence 
  • Shared: a collective phenomenon 
  • Not random: patterns exist 
  • NOTE: CULTURE DOES NOT NECESSARILY MEAN COUNTRY 

Personality and culture 

  • Be aware of Stereoretyping. Be careful not to: 
  • Project from groups to individuals, or 
  • Project from individuals to groups 
  • Variations exist within cultures - not everyone is the same Free from stereotyping 
  • Personality is an individual characteristic 
  • Culture is a group characteristic 
Like fingerprints, you can still be unique and display characteristics of a larger cultural group 

Multicultural competence and managerial success 

Global leaders understand culture more deeply than the superficial differences 
  • It is important to recognizing and respect differences in greeting rituals, titles, business cards, meals, but it is not enough. 
  • Global leaders must understand deeper levels of culture, that influence how people approach work and collaborate with each other 

Global leaders need high Cultural Intelligence (CQ) 

  • Cultural Intelligence (CQ) 
  • The capacity to act effectively in multiple cultural environments 
  • System of interacting knowledge and skills linked by mindfulness 
  • Ability to adapt and work effectively and respectfully with people of other cultures while 
正念 maintaining one's own identity 
  • Is related to Emotional Intelligence (EQ) and adds the condition of working across boundaries 
  • CQ is a critical part of the global mindset 
  • Gives the cultural context of self- and other- awareness 
  • Has a knowledge and a skills component 
  • CQ requires two different types of cultural knowledge 
  • General cultural knowledge (examined in the first part): 
how culture works and how to observe and gain insights about the effect of culture in different settings 
  • Specific cultural knowledge (examined in the second part): 
a set of facts and information about a specific culture (e.g., China, India, Nigeria) 

Understanding cultures Part 1: How cultures work. 

Understanding culture: Through the Looking Glass 

Culture is a shared set of assumptions, beliefs and values. 

  • Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 
  • a shared, commonly held body of beliefs and values that define the "shoulds" and "oughts" of life 
  • "the culture of a country - or other category of people - 
  • is not a combination of the properties of the 'average citizen' 
  • is not a 'modal personality' 
  • is a set of likely reactions of citizens with a common mental programming" 
  • Hofstede 
  • "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes one group or category from another" 
  • Culture 
  • can be seen in norms and practices: language, clothing, behavior 
  • meaning and important influence much deeper 
  • shapes assumptions, perceptions, behavior 
  • is passed on through generations formally (school) and informally (stories and social reinforcement) 

All Groups Have Cultures 

  • For any group, culture 
  • Makes action more simple and efficient 
  • Provides an important source of identity for its members 
  • Culture and individuals interact 
  • Group culture defined by what group members share 
  • Individual members differ and subscribe to culture's assumptions and values to a greater or lesser extent 
  • Every individual belongs to different groups with their distinct cultures: national, regional, professional, organizational, age, gender, religion, hobby, etc. 
  • Culture provides an important context for people's behavior in a group 
  • Hall: culture is to people like water is to fish 
  • Fish out of water can't function normally... Fish does not now this till out of water 

Culture affects individuals within groups in many ways 

  • Individuals are usually unaware of their own culture 
  • In fact: Learned, shared assumptions and values provide context for interactions and influences 
  • What is considered to be successful and what not 
  • What are the priorities of the group 
  • How people should behave 
  • Simplifies action 
  • Provides source of social identity 
  • At the surface: Language, clothing, behavior 
  • An individual becomes much more aware of own culture when visiting other culture(s) 
  • Critical to leading in an international context 
  • Necessary to over come the "fish out of water" syndrome 
  • Is a group characteristic, but individuals are all different 
  • Individuals are rarely "typical" all the time 

Understanding culture is fundamental to being an effective global leader. 

  • Two fundamental characteristics distinguish "international management" from "normal" domestic management 
  • working across varying cultures 
  • strategic complexity 
  • To lead effectively in the complexity of globalization 
  • empower people to make decisions 
  • implement these in ways consistent with the company's priorities 
  • understand the relationship between 
  • people and organizations 
  • organizations and their context 
  • All of this complexity involves working across cultures effectively 

Are cultures converging? 

  • If cultures are converging, then it will become less important to understand cultural differences 
  • Is business the same everywhere? Are people basically the same all over the world? 
  • In some ways, yes: 
  • Jeans, Nike, PlayStation, Pokemon, Harry Potter, vuvuzelas, popular music 
  • Globally and instantly traded currencies, global norms and infrastructures for conducting business 
  • In some ways, no: 
  • Number of countries increasing 
  • Genres of music, movies, culture fragmenting 
  • The answer is "they are both converging and diverging" 
  • Convergence allows us to do business together 
  • Divergence manifests itself when people have to interact day-to-day 
  • "To say that we're (Chinese) becoming Westernized because McDonald's does well in Shanghai, is like saying that the U.S. is becoming Easternized because there are a lot of Chinese restaurants there." 

Why Focus on Country Cultures? 

  • In International Management we often focus on the role of country cultures 
  • institutions that carry culture are powerful and consistent with "country" 
  • one "official" language is taught in state schools, is the language of government, is used by most official and unofficial media 
  • one legal system 
  • system of government consistent across regions 
  • single relationship between church and state 
  • Beliefs and values associated with these institutions are taught to people early and unobtrusively 
  • through family norms and institutional practices 
  • most people are unaware of their influence 
  • It is important to remember that there are many other types of culture: regional, religious, local, professional, organizational, etc. 

Culture Influences How We See The World 

  • Assumptions and Perceptions influence our thoughts 
  • Some assumptions are deeply ingrained and it is difficult to ever surface them 
  • taken-for-granted beliefs about the world and how it works 
  • create our world view 
  • define the cognitive environment in which we work 
  • some are deeply 
  • Other assumptions are learned at various stages of our lives 
  • once learned they are taken for granted 

Dynamics of Differing World Views 

  • Our Assumptions influence our Perceptions (understanding) 
  • "We see what we want to see and hear what we want to hear" 
  • Or, "I'll see it when I believe it" rather than “'Ill believe it when I see it" 
  • For example 
  • The financial accountant focuses on financial ratios, earnings growth, dividends; may not focus on programs with long lead time that may enhance the company's reputation for social responsibility 
  • The advertising account manager will likely focus on product features that fit into assumptions about the target audience's motivation, may miss other features 
  • Assumptions are necessary 
  • They eliminate a constant need to inquire about the meaning of events and the motives of others 
  • The more we share assumptions with others, the more easily we interact and communicate effectively 

Clearer Vision With D-I-E Describe, Interpret, Evaluate 

  • Our actions are influenced by a cognitive process, filtered by our assumptions 
  • D: We notice something and describe / observe its characteristics 
  • I: We interpret, or give meaning to what we observed 
  • E: We evaluate the facts, characteristics, dimensions of what we observed and then we take action 
  • We perceive the world based on our assumptions through the D-I-E sequence 
  • When we cross cultural barriers we need to be aware that our D-I-E is based on assumptions that may not apply to the local conditions 
  • Spend more time on description, treat interpretations as hypotheses, defer evaluation until we have explored multiple possible interpretations 

Culture and Individual Behavior (fig. 2.1) 

When Cultures Meet:
Question the Other or Question Ourselves? 

When people from two or more cultures meet or work together they start from a different set of assumptions based on their value systems (cultures) that may direct them to 
  • notice the same characteristics of a situation or different ones 
  • describe the situation they notice differently 
  • interpret what they notice differently 
  • evaluate what they interpreted differentlv 
  • take different actions 

When Cultures Meet Question the Other or Question Ourselves? 

  • How to regain consistency? 
  • Question the other 
  • change our perception of the evidence to match the assumptions 
  • Question ourselves 
  • Change our assumptions to match the evidence 
  • It is generally easier to question the other 
  • less energy 
  • reinforced by others with the same assumptions (boss at headquarters) 
  • is less confusing 
  • we distort what we've perceived to make it fit our assumptions 
  • To question ourselves is less common and more difficult 
  • need to stand back and identify the holes in our own assumptions 
  • energy needed to change our assumptions and those of others too 
  • overcome a tendency to base one's own identity to one's culturally induced assumptions 
  • Key to effective communication: Fit between assumptions and perceptions 
  • no fit: 
  • cognitive inconsistency -> negative feeling, i.e., discomfort 
  • then, -> distortion of perceptions to achieve consistency with assumptions and false comfort 
  • i.e., we seek pleasure to avoid pain 
  • good fit: cognitive consistency -> justified "harmony, comfort" 
  • cross-cultural situations: assumptions are likely to have no fit with perceptions -> misunderstanding 
What's more important, rules or relationships? 
Global and local? 

Understanding Cultures Part 2: Acquiring & Organizing CultureSpecific Knowledge 

Understanding culture: Through the Looking Glass 

Cultural frameworks compare different 

aspects of culture 
Hall & Hall 
V
Hofstede 

Cultural Orientations Framework Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck 

  • Is one tool for "mapping" differing patterns of beliefs held by different cultures 
  • Highlights deep assumptions important for international management 
  • Can promote deeper cultural awareness 
  • BUT, must be used prudently 
  • Presupposes understanding of: 
  • concepts underlying culture 
  • assumptions underlying the framework itself (see next slide) 

The Cultural Orientations Framework is based on well-tested assumptions about culture. 

  • There are universal themes in the challenges that different societies face over time 
  • Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck identified six universal challenges faced by all societies, and a limited number of basic ways of responding to each of the challenges 
  • Different societies developed different shared preferences for coping with each of these issues 
  • The rank ordering of the society's preferences is what creates differences among cultures 
  • All variations of a particular value orientation exist in a given culture 
  • All variations provide good solutions and good ways forward for different situations; there is no such thing as a "better" cultural configuration 
  • People believe there are different ways to deal with a given situation; the society agrees there a preferred way to start 
  • The variation among individuals within a culture provides resources for cultural change and adaptation over time 
The Six Cultural Orientations: Questions every culture must answer, and categories of responses 
  • Environment: What is our basic relationship with the world around us? 
  • Harmony, Mastery, Subjugation 
  • Relationships: To whom and for whom do we naturally have responsibility? 
  • Collective, Hierarchical, Individual 
  • Activity: What is our basic or natural approach to activity? 
  • Being, Doing, Thinking 
  • Time: How do we think about time? 
  • Monochronic, Polychronic (from Hall & Hall) 
  • Human Nature: What is the basic nature of humans? 
  • Good, Evil, Mixed or Neutral 
The first four have the most impact on business interactions, and we focus our discussion on these. 
  • Space: How do we think about and use space? 
  • Public, Private, Mixed 

Relationship with the Environment: How should we work with the environment around us? 

Includes the physical, economic and social worlds. 
Two most influential responses in business are Mastery and Harmony (see text for Subjugation). Both are effective, but take different routes. 
  • Mastery: The environment is separate from us, and something to be managed. Our actions should influence and control the environment to get things to work well. 
  • Examples: Pioneering, colonizing. High pay for CEOs (assumption that the CEO should control / master the business). Goal setting to produce results. 
  • Harmony: The environment is a complex system of which we are one part. Our actions should keep the system in balance, then everything will work well. 
  • Examples: Traditional hunting and gathering. Business systems of engaging many small actions in a coordinated way to bring about a comprehensive result over time. Goal setting to try actions and get feedback. 

Relations among People: How should we think about relationships of power and responsibility? (Examples see next PPT slide) 

Three approaches to relationships combine differently in each society. All are effective, but take different routes. 
  • Collectivism: People in the group should be responsible for each other, and everyone is responsible to fulfil the group's needs. The group may be the extended family, the community, or any other large group. 
  • Examples: Ubuntu, extended families, strong company cultures, 
個人主義 
  • Individualism: Each of us should be responsible for him- or herself alone, and perhaps the immediate family if necessary. Society works better if everyone looks after him- or herself. 
  • Examples: Strict democracy, teams with specific and separate roles 
等級制 
  • Hierarchy: Power and responsibility are arranged such that those above have power over those below, and responsibility for them. Those below should obey the wishes of those above. 
  • Examples: Strict communication and responsibility through an organization chart, privileges by hierarchical level. 

Examples (real life stories) 

  • Collectivism vs Individualism: 
  • Example of International Joint venture of German MNC with Japanese Family Business: Top Management Meeting of the JV Partners 
  • German: direct, critical, individualistic 
  • Japanese: silent, consent seeking among peers, collectivistic 
  • Hierarchies: 
  • Example of German GM asking Chinese Accounting to prepare an analysis where he needs inputs from other departments 

Mode of Activity: What is the basic sequence of activity we agree to use together? (Examples see next PPT slide) 

Two most influential responses in business are Doing and Thinking. All societies engage in both modes, but prioritize them differently. 
  • Doing: We agree it is important to jump into action. When in doubt, do something. 
  • Examples: Quick pilot testing, short-term results focus, budgeting as a way to determine activities. 
  • Thinking: We agree it is important to plan carefully, before taking action. When in doubt, plan and analyze. 
  • Examples: Careful data analysis and re-analysis, planning of incremental milestones, budgeting as a way to engage in planning 

Examples (real life stories) 

  • Careful planning and preparation by German manager vs "flexibility" of Asian partners (i.e. Chinese supplier, Japanese sales executive) 

Approach to Time: Is it linear or flexible? 

How do we measure and use time in an ongoing way? 
  • Monochronic: We measure time in linear, equal units. We prefer to do one thing at a time, then move to the next. 
  • Examples: Punctuality, schedule-driven cultures, watches and clocks are important. 
  • Polychronic: We think of time as flexible, and we do many things at a time. 
  • Examples: Doing things in their time, adjust sequencing and schedules according to needs of the moment. 
  • Globalization is creating a shift towards monochronic time as the common language of time; however, many cultures operate polychronically within the culture. 
  • Remember? Where would you put the partners of the Daimler-Chrysler M&A? 

Cultural orientations contribute differently to task and process. 

Cultural Variable 
 
Contribution to Task
Focus on the immediate problem
 
Contribution to Process
- Drive to solution
Environment  Mastery 
Harmony 
 
- Understand the problem from a holistic
view
- Don't come to closure too quickly 
Relations  High Collectivism 
 
- See the problem from different
stakeholders' perspectives
- Help the group converge and commit 
Low Collectivism 
 
- See the problem from different individuals'
perspectives
 
- Help the group value minority
contributions
High Hierarchy  - Anticipate implementation challenges 
 
- Efficient communication, not endless
communication
Low Hierarchy  - Openly approach information sources  - Encourage ideas regardless of source 
Activity  Doing  - Suggest actions  - Pilot test, try it out 
Thinking  - Conduct in-depth analysis  - Team reflection, careful prototype 

Data from a multi-country study helps map cultural differences. 

  • Cultural orientations and variations study Measures Cultural Orientations 
  • Data gathered at IMD from 10,000+ businesspeople from around the world show differences among countries. 
  • Sample is businesspeople, about managers, MBA students; may not be representative of the general culture! 
  • Everyone included in the following charts was (a) born in their country, and (b) still lives there or lived there longest and (c) identifies with it most closely 
  • Warning: the smaller the sample size, the less reliable the map! 
  • Samples shown here are (with sample size in this database): Argentina (73), Australia (282), Austria (295), Bangladesh (393), Belgium (218), Brazil (328), Canada (967), Chile (50), China (709), Colombia (69), Czech Republic (39), Denmark (281), Finland (115), France (629), Germany (751), Greece (52), Hong Kong (258), India (592), Indonesia (45), Ireland (86), Israel (39), Italy (358), Japan (625), Malaysia (88), Mexico (248), New Zealand (66), Netherlands (493), Nigeria (81), Norway (473), Pakistan (34), Peru (44), Poland (67), Portugal (140), Romania (171), Russia (226), Saudi Arabia (45), Singapore (113), South Africa (212), South Korea (180), Spain (302), Sweden (143), Switzerland (478), Taiwan (134), Thailand (140), Philippines (75), Turkey (64), Ukraine (58), United Kingdom (785), United States (3557), Vietnam (48). 
Figure 2.3. Environment Orientation: Extent to which businesspeople prefer Mastery over Harmony. 
Figure 2.4. Lateral Relations Orientation: Extent to which businesspeople prefer Collectivism over Individualism. 
Figure 2.5. Vertical Relations Orientation: Extent to which businesspeople prefer Hierarchy. 
Figure 2.6. Activity Orientation: Extent to which businesspeople prefer Thinking over Doing. 

Remember, individuals within cultures varv greatly from each other... 

Distribution of Mastery Scores in 
... and countries vary in their level of cultural diversity. 
 
High Cultural
Homogeneity
 
Mod. Cultural
Homogeneity
Mixed 
 
Mod. Cultural
Diversity
 
High Cultural
Diversity
Belgium  Austria  Australia  Greece  Brazil 
Japan  Finland  Denmark  India  Canada 
Korea  France  Hong Kong  Ireland  China PRC 
Saudi Arabia  Germany  Italy  Switzerland  Philippines 
Singapore  Malaysia  UK Romania 
Taiwan  Mexico  USA Russia 
Thailand  Netherlands  South Africa 
New Zealand 
Nigeria 
Norway 
Spain 
Sweden 
New research: Diversity has implications for a country's competitiveness. Competitiveness highest with homogeneity on Individualism-Collectivism preference and diversity on Hierarchy preference.
新研究:多元化對國家競爭力有影響。在個人主義-集體主義偏好方面,同質性的競爭力最高;在等級偏好方面,多樣性的競爭力最高。

The map is not the territory!
地圖不是領土!

A cultural map is a snapshot of some aspects of the way people prefer to do things in the culture
文化地圖是人們喜歡的文化做事方式的某些方面的縮影
  • A great "first guess" to guide your expectations
    一個很好的 "初步猜測",為您的期望提供指導
  • A set of hypotheses to test as you meet unexpected responses
    當您遇到意想不到的反應時,有一套假設可供檢驗
  • Once your knowledge of the territory is better than the map, put the map away
    一旦你對領土的了解勝過地圖,就把地圖收起來吧
  • Bring it out again when you need to navigate again
    當您需要再次導航時,再把它拿出來
  • Using academic theories and a case study of your own choice, evaluate and analyse key traits of a global manager, such as, the appraisal of international culture, ethics and value-based considerations following which you should carry out a self-audit followed by a development plan.
    利用學術理論和自己選擇的案例研究,評估和分析全球經理人的關鍵特徵,例如對國際文化、道德和價值考慮的評估,然後進行自我評估,並制定發展計劃。
  • It requires for example (these are not yet all tasks):
    例如,它要求(這些還不是全部任務):
  • A critical literature review about international culture, ethics and values-based considerations (1200 words)
    關於國際文化、倫理和價值觀的重要文獻綜述(1200 字)
  • A case study about a business of your choice highlighting how the business has / not benefited from international culture, ethics and values-based considerations (1000 words)
    自選一家企業進行案例研究,重點說明該企業如何從國際文化、道德和價值觀中獲益(1000 字)

"Homework" "家庭作業"

  • On your way home today or on your way to work tomorrow, think about any situations you encountered at work or at holidays with people from other cultures and/or when traveling to other countries.
    在今天回家的路上或明天上班的路上,想想你在工作或假日與來自其他文化背景的人相處和/或去其他國家旅行時遇到的任何情況。
  • Have you noticed that they do something different from what you would have done or what you would have expected as "normal"? 
  • Tomorrow, we are interested in listen to some of your and your classmates' observations in encounters with other cultures. 
  • We will see how we can use the cross-cultural research models to explain these differences. We will find out if these models are useful and where their limitations are. 

MAN6038 The Global Manager Session 2 SUMMARY 

What are cultural differences 
What are problems arising from such differences 
How to apply cultural difference frameworks 
How do the frameworks help developing a global mindset? 

MAN6038 The Global Manager 

Session 3 
Cross-cultural skill development tools for global managers 

Revision 

-What are the key take aways from the previous session? 
  • How does the content of the previous session relate to the assignment and global mindset development? 
  • Any relevant examples to share? 
  • Any clarifying questions? 

Once again: The Assignment Brief 

Assignment indicative structure: 

  • Introduction. Clearly outline the structure of the work (approx. 100 words) 
  • Part 1. A literature review about key traits of a global manager and the importance of a global mindset in today's rapidly changing global environments (approx. 700 words) 
  • Part 2. A literature review about cultural, ethical and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words) 
  • Part 3. A case study about a business of your choice highlighting how the business has or has not benefited from elements related to cultural, ethical, and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words) 
  • Part 4. A self-audit, in which you score yourself on a scale of 1-10 about global mindset skills and competences, followed by a detailed personal development plan about how and by when you intend to develop these traits (approx. 700 words) 
  • Conclusion. Clearly summarise your work (approx. 100 words) 
  • List of references (not included in the word count). In-text citations and the list of references should follow BCU Harvard Referencing style. A minimum of academic references are required. 
"Part 2. A literature review about cultural, ethical and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words) 
Part 3. A case study about a business of your choice highlighting how the business has or has not benefited from elements related to cultural, ethical, and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words) Part 4. A self-audit, in which you score yourself on a scale of 1-10 about global mindset skills and competences, followed by a detailed personal development plan about how and by when you intend to develop these traits (approx. 700 words)"The following sections are all full of valuable in-sights 
and concepts that you can use for your assignment 
and when choosing a relevant case. 
The following sections are all full of valuable in-sights and concepts that you can use for your assignment and when choosing a relevant case. 

Presentation and discussion of "Homework" 

Using: https://www.hofstede-insights.com/product/compare-countries/ 

  • On your way home today or on your way to work tomorrow, think about any situations you encountered at work or at holidays with people from other cultures and/or when traveling to other countries. 
  • Have you noticed that they do something different from what you would have done or what you would have expected as "normal"? 
  • Tomorrow, we are interested in listen to some of your and your classmates' observations in encounters with other cultures. 
  • We will see how we can use the cross-cultural research models to explain these differences. We will find out if these models are useful and where their limitations are. 

Hofstede dimensions 

Dimensions  Scale anchors 
 
Power distance: beliefs about
the appropriate distribution of
power in society
 
Low power distance: belief
that effective leaders do not
need to have substantial
amounts of power compared
to their subordinates
 
High power distance: belief
that people in positions of
authority should have
considerable power compared
to their subordinates
 
Uncertainty avoidance: degree
of uncertainty that can be
tolerated and its impact on rule
making
 
Low uncertainty avoidance:
tolerance of ambiguity; little
need for rules to constrain
uncertainty
 
High uncertainty avoidance:
intolerance of ambiguity; need
for many rules to constrain
uncertainty
 
Individualism/collectivism:
relative importance of
individual versus group
interests
 
Collectivism: group interests
generally take precedence
over individual interests
 
Individualism: individual
interests generally take
precedence over group
interests
 
Masculinity/femininity:
assertiveness versus
passivity; material
possessions versus quality of
life
 
Masculinity: values material
possessions, money, and the
pursuit of personal goals
 
Femininity: values strong
social relevance, quality of life,
and the welfare of others
 
Long-term versus short-term
orientation: outlook on work,
life, and relationships
 
Short-term orientation: past
and present orientation; values
traditions and social
obligations
 
Long-term orientation: future
orientation; values dedication,
hard work, and thrift
 
Indulgence versus restraint:
Relative emphasis on
individual happiness, leisure
and personal control.
 
Indulgence: Societal
emphasis on enjoyment and
need gratification
 
Restraint: Strict societal
control to suppress or
regulate gratification
of uncertainty that can be tolerated and its impact on rule 
dididualism/collectivism 
elative importance of interests 
Masculinity/femininity 
assertiveness versus 
passivity; materia 
possessions versus quality of iff 
Long-term versus short-term and present orientation; values traditions and social obligations emphasis on enjoyment and need gratification 
Here is a tool to identify some possible (!) cultural differences: 
GO TO: 

https://brainmass.com/business/business-

management/case-study-analysis-communicating- 
between-cultures-403316 
Identify some cultural differences that affect the communication by using the Hofstede-insights-tool! 
Think what each of the involved managers should have done to improve communication to a more effective level! 
Mexico Netherlands  

FIGURE 4.1. LEADING 

Egalitarian cultures 

  • It's okay to disagree with the boss openly even in front of others 
  • People are more likely to move action without getting the boss's okay. 
  • If meeting with a client or supplier, there is less focus on matching hierarchical levels 
  • It's okay to e-mail or call people several levels below or above you. 
  • With clients or partners you will be seated and spoken to in no specific order. 

Hierarchical cultures 

  • An effort is made to defer to the boss's opinion especially in public. 
  • People are more likely to get the boss's approval before moving to action. 
  • If you send your boss, they will send their boss. If your boss cancels, their also may not come. 
  • Communication follows the hierarchical chain. 
  • With clients or partners you may be seated and spoken to in order of position. 

Directness: How straightforwardly do people typically communicate in this culture? 

Van den Bosch's intentions 

  • Cleaning up the email 
  • Sticking to facts and figures 
  • Being direct and clear about what steps are necessary to meet the client's needs. 
  • Insisting on having information on five items "today 

Menedez' possible perceptions 

  • Focusing on facts and figures, not on establishing an empathetic appreciation of difficulties the Mexican partner is probably facing 
  • Not asking any questions to understand the situation from Menendez's point of view 
  • Being treated like a subordinate by his Dutch equal 

Task-based v. relationship-based cultures 

FIGURE 2.2. EVALUATING 
FIGURE 2.3. 

The GLOBE Project Model Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness 

  • A unique large-scale study of cultural practices, leadership ideals, and generalized and interpersonal trust in 150 countries in collaboration with nearly 500 researchers. 
  • An attempt to develop an empirically based theory to describe, understand, and predict the impact of specific cultural variables on managerial and organisational processes and the effectiveness of these processes 
  • Conceived in 1991 by Professor Robert House, supported by Dr. Ali Dastmalchian and Prof. Mansour Javidan as the first to begin the data collection in the Middle East 
  • Has become a leader with award-winning books, more than 400 academic and practice-oriented journal articles, a massive database, and GLOBE has been adopted by university scholars, diplomats and consulting agencies around the world. 

The GLOBE Project Model 

  • Multi-country study and evaluation of cultural attributes and leadership behaviour 
  • Based on beliefs that: 
  • Certain attributes that distinguish one culture from others can be used to predict the most suitable, effective and acceptable organisational and managerial practices within that culture 
  • Societal culture has direct impact on organisational culture 
  • Leader acceptance stems from tying leader attributes and behaviours to subordinate norms 
  • Please visit GLOBE Project website for more information 

The GLOBE Project Model - 9 Cultural Dimensions 

  • Power distance 
  • Uncertainty avoidance 
  • Collectivism I: Social collectivism 
  • Collectivism II: In-group collectivism 
  • Gender egalitarianism 
  • Assertiveness 
  • Future orientation 
  • Performance orientation 
  • Humane orientation 
More about the 9 Culturall Dimensions you can find on the GLOBE Project webpage. 

The GLOBE Project Model 

  • Corresponds generally with those of Hofstede's Model (studied in other modules) 
  • However, different from Hofstede: 
  • many more researchers with varied perspectives were involved vs. Hofstede working alone 
  • and it studied many companies vs. Hofstede's IBM only 
  • GLOBE provides a comprehensive overview of general stereotypes that can be further analysed for greater insight 
  • A comparison of The GLOBE Project & Hofstede's Model 

The GLOBE Project Model - 9 Cultural Dimensions 

Dimension  Highest  Lowest 
Power distance 
 
Morocco, Argentina, Thailand, Spain,
Russia
 
Denmark, Netherlands, South
Africa-black sample, Israel, Costa
Rica
Uncertainty avoidance 
 
Switzerland, Sweden, Germany-
former West, Denmark, Austria
 
Russia, Hungary, Bolivia, Greece,
Venezuela
Institutional collectivism 
 
Sweden, South Korea, Japan,
Singapore, Denmark
 
Greece, Hungary, Germany-
former East, Argentina, Italy
In-group collectivism  Iran, India, Morocco, China, Egypt 
 
Denmark, Sweden, New Zealand,
Netherlands, Finland
Gender egalitarianism 
 
Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, Denmark,
Sweden
 
South Korea, Egypt, Morocco, India,
China
Assertiveness 
 
Germany-former East, Austria,
Greece, United States, Spain
 
Sweden, New Zealand, Switzerland,
Japan, Kuwait
Future orientation 
 
Singapore, Switzerland, Netherlands,
Canada-English speaking, Denmark
 
Russia, Argentina, Poland, Italy,
Kuwait
Performance orientation 
 
Singapore, Hong Kong, New Zealand,
Taiwan, US
 
Russia, Argentina, Greece,
Venezuela, Italy
Humane orientation 
 
Philippines, Ireland, Malaysia, Egypt,
Indonesia
 
Germany-former West, Spain,
France, Singapore, Brazil

The GLOBE Project Model 

Figure 4-9 
GLOBE Analysis: 
Managerial Perspectives 
in the United States and Brazil 

The GLOBE Project Model -9 Cultural Dimensions - Questions for Reflection 

  • Power distance 
  • How much unequal distribution of power should there be in organisations and society? 
  • Uncertainty-avoidance 
  • How much should people rely on social norms and rules to avoid uncertainty and limit unpredictability? 
  • Institutional collectivism 
  • How much should leaders encourage and reward loyalty to the social unit, as opposed to the pursuit of individual goals? 

The GLOBE Project Model -9 Cultural Dimensions - Questions for Reflection 

  • In-group collectivism 
  • How much pride and loyalty should individuals have for their family or organisation? 
  • Gender egalitarianism 
  • How much effort should be put into minimizing gender discrimination and role inequalities? 
  • Assertiveness 
  • How confrontational and dominant should individuals be in social relationships? 

The GLOBE Project Model -9 Cultural Dimensions - Questions for Reflection 

  • Future orientation 
  • How much should people delay gratification by planning and saving for the future? 
  • Performance orientation 
  • How much should individuals be rewarded for improvement and excellence? 
  • Humane orientation 
  • How much should society encourage and reward people for being kind, fair, friendly, and generous? 

The global manager as EXPATRIATE 

  • Managing subordinates and handling peers, customers, suppliers, institutions in most appropriate ways is best learned when living and working outside the own familiar cultural environment. 
  • People in other cultures do not necessarily take for granted what managers are used to assume in their own cultural environment. 
  • Managers who live and work in a different country/ in a different cultural environment than their familiar home, are called EXPATRIATES! 

Pros and Cons of using expatriates 

For Company  For Indiv. Expatriates 
Advantages 
 
- Transfer management
practices
- Bring expertise to host country
- Disseminate global vision
- Closer control & coordination
- Boundary spinning
- Develop personnel & future
executives
 
- Develop broader global
perspective
- Financial gain
- Career advancement
Disadvantages 
 
- High costs associate with
failure of international
assignments
- Increases the "foreignness" of
subsidiary
- Lower local-management
morale & motivation
 
- Problems of adaptability to
a foreign environment
- Personal and family
problems
- Career blockage
- Repatriation readjustment

Considerations in living and working globally 

Success for international assignment 

What Is challenging for expatriates? 

  • Host country language 
  • Lack of social network 
  • Unfamiliar customs & cultural norms 
  • Accommodation 
  • Transportation 
  • Healthcare 
  • Food 
  • Climate 
  • Family problems 
  • New work role 
  • Culturally-bound professional vocabulary 
  • Value incongruence 
  • Future career path 
  • Career blockage 

What helps them adjust more quickly and better? 

  • Supervisor support 
  • Coworker support 
  • Logistic support 
  • Cultural novelty 
  • Spouse adjustment 
  • Role clarity 
  • Role discretion 
  • Role conflict 
  • Role novelty 
  • Experience 
  • Language fluency 
  • Personality 
  • Competence 
  • Efficacy 
  • Acculturative strategy 
some previous culture-specific work experiences no previous culture-specific work experience 
Figure 4. Work adjustment trajectories for expatriates with high and low previous culture-specific work experience. 

Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ)
多元文化人格問卷 (MPQ)

Cultural empathy The ability to empathize with the feelings,
文化同理心 文化同理心是一種對情感感同身受的能力、

thoughts and behaviors of members from 
different cultural groups. 
Emotional stability A tendency to remain calm in stressful situations 
versus a tendency to show strong emotional 
reactions under stressful circumstances. 
Open mindedness An open and unprejudiced attitude towards 
outgroup members and towards different 
cultural norms and values. 
Social initiative A tendency to approach social situations in an 
active way and to take initiatives. 
Flexibility 
A tendency and ability to adjust one's behavioral 
strategies to different or more restricted 
circumstances within a foreign culture. 

Factors that influence the performance of international managers 

Expat management  HR Practive 
Expat selection 
 
- Establish a selection board of expatriates
-
Selection criteria: multicultural personality, efficacy, cultural sensitivity,
language fluency, prior experience (!)
Screen candidates' spouses and families
Expat training 
 
- Conduct training 9-12 months before assignment
- Cultural intelligence training
- At least some training should go to the expatriate's family
Expat development 
 
- Position the international assignment as a step toward advancement within
the firm
 
Expat reward
- Repatriation programme
- Rrovide career support for spouses
management 
 
- Provide a disposable income equivalent to what the expatriate would
receive at home
Provide an explicit "add-on" incentive for accepting an international posting
The MBI Model for High Performance 

The MBI Model: 

Managing Cultural Diversity for Personal and Team Effectiveness 
High Performance 

MAP

Understand the differences 
  • Cultural Orientations Framework 

BRIDGE 

Communicate across the differences 
-Prepare: 
Motivation, Confidence 
-Decenter: 
Perspective taking, Explain without blame 
-Recenter: 
Common view, common norms 

INTEGRATE Manage the
differences 

-Build Participation -Resolve Conflicts -Build on Ideas 
Differences 
Map differences as a foundation for understanding. 
  • Mapping is the skill of describing differences objectively 
  • ... without inherent judgment 
  • ... based on data, and changing with new observations 
  • ... comparing with a "you are here" point 
  • Remember that the Map is not the Territory, it is a tool to help you navigate the territory 
  • Stop using the Map once you understand the Territory well 
  • Chapter 2 of the textbook is about Mapping Culture 
Bridge gaps to communicate, transmit meaning as it was intended. 
Communicate effectively across differences by 
  • Preparing 
  • Motivation to understand and communicate across differences 
  • Confidence in the ability to communicate effectively and that the outcome will be positive 
  • Decentering without blame 
  • Blame-free explanations: attribute problems and 

B

conflicts correctly
Bridge 
Communicate 
  • De-centering: send and receive messages with the other person's "code" in mind 
  • Recentering 
  • Common reality: foundation for effective communication. Find something you can agree on. 
  • Common rules: agree on norms of behavior 

Integrate to get synergy - build from Maps and Bridges 

Bring the differences together in a synergistic way 
  • Engage participation 
  • Actively seek to involve people 
  • Establish routines to facilitate participation 
  • Vary the modes of participation 
  • Resolve conflicts 
  • Detect disagreement (indirectly expressed?) 
  • Resolve conflicts using bridging skills 
  • Agree on ways to avoid destructive conflict 
  • Build on ideas 
  • Explore differences; build on each other's ideas; try to invent new ideas 
  • Do more than combine and compromise 
You don't need to love each other, just bring out the best in each other! 
Good bridging is possible only with good mapping. 

Map-Bridge-Integrate 

  • Teams that engage in the MBI behaviors well: 
  • are more creative 
  • generate more and better alternatives and criteria for evaluating them 
  • perform better on complex, multi-faceted decision-making tasks 
  • create value through effective innovation and change 
Culturally diverse teams have great potential for performance. 
Diverse teams are creative (generate ideas), but don't necessarily turn the creativity into performance (viable business). 
Most culturally diverse teams suppress the diversity to avoid the problems. 
Manage cultural differences effectively to overcome the barriers and achieve the benefits 
  • Cultural diversity helps the divergent processes - this is obvious 
  • Cultural diversity makes it hard to get the convergent process, but good team and leadership processes can overcome this 
  • Culturally diverse teams tend to have higher satisfaction and motivation to be together than mono-cultural teams - this can be put to work 
  • People like to be in culturally diverse teams to learn, for variety 

MAN6038 The Global Manager Session 3 SUMMARY 

Practical applications of cultural difference frameworks 
Understanding factors, not only culture, that affect the performance of global managers 
MBI model 

MAN6038 The Global Manager
Session 3 TUTORIAL
How to find Academic Evidence for the Assignment 

Your assignment and how to deal with literature sources 

  • Using academic theories and a case study of your own choice, evaluate and analyse key traits of a global manager, such as, the appraisal of international culture, ethics and value-based considerations following which you should carry out a self-audit followed by a development plan. 
  • It requires for example (these are not yet all tasks): 
  • A critical literature review about international culture, ethics and valuesbased considerations (1200 words) 
  • A case study about a business of your choice highlighting how the business has / not benefited from international culture, ethics and values-based considerations (1000 words) 
  • In-text citations and the list of references should follow Harvard style. A minimum of 15 academic references are required. 

Your assignment and how to deal with literature sources 

Assignment indicative structure: 

  • Introduction. Clearly outline the structure of the work (approx. 100 words) 
  • Part 1. A literature review about key traits of a global manager and the importance of a global mindset in today's rapidly changing global environments (approx. 700 words) 
  • Part 2. A literature review about cultural, ethical and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words) 
  • Part 3. A case study about a business of your choice highlighting how the business has or has not benefited from elements related to cultural, ethical, and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words) 
  • Part 4. A self-audit, in which you score yourself on a scale of 1-10 about global mindset skills and competences, followed by a detailed personal development plan about how and by when you intend to develop these traits (approx. 700 words) 
  • Conclusion. Clearly summarise your work (approx. 100 words) 
  • List of references (not included in the word count). In-text citations and the list of references should follow BCU Harvard Referencing style. A minimum of 10-15 academic references are required. 

Evidence-Based Arguments 

  • What is valued in academic writing is that opinions are based on a sound understanding of the pertinent body of knowledge and academic debates that exist within, and increasing external to, your discipline. You need to support your opinion with evidence from scholarly sources. It should be an objective stance presented as a logical argument. The quality of your evidence will determine the strength of your argument. The challenge is to convince the reader of the validity of your opinion through a welldocumented, coherent, and logically structured piece of writing. This is particularly important when proposing solutions to problems or recommended courses of action. 

Ways to Construct a Compelling Argument 

Keep it simple. Keep your argument concise. 
Make your assumptions clear. 
Rest your argument on solid foundations. 
Use evidence your readers will believe. 
Avoid platitudes and generalisations, and be specific. 
Understand the opposing point of view. 

Creating an Introduction 

  • The argumentative essay begins with an engaging introduction that presents the general topic. The thesis typically appears somewhere in the introduction and states the writer's point of view. 
  • Avoid forming a thesis based on a negative claim. For example, "The hourly minimum wage is not high enough for the average worker to live on." This is probably a true statement, but arguments should make a positive case that affirms something. Instead of arguing something "is not...", an argument essay is stronger when it asserts something "is..." Returning to the example above, a stronger thesis could focus on how the hourly wage is low or insufficient. 

Acknowledging Opposing Ideas and Limits to Your Argument 

  • Because an argument implies differing points of view on the subject, you must be sure to acknowledge those opposing ideas. Avoiding ideas that conflict with your own gives the reader the impression that you may be uncertain, fearful, or unaware of opposing ideas. Thus, it is essential that you not only address counterarguments but also do so respectfully. 
  • Try to address opposing arguments earlier rather than later in your essay. Rhetorically speaking, ordering your positive arguments last allows you to better address ideas that conflict with your own, so you can spend the rest of the essay countering those arguments. This way, you leave your reader thinking about your argument rather than someone else's. You have the last word. 

Bias in Writing 

  • The strength of a personal bias is that it can motivate you to construct a strong argument. If you are invested in the topic, you are more likely to care about the piece of writing. Similarly, the more you care, the more time and effort you are apt to put forth and the better the final product will be. 
  • The weakness of bias is when the bias begins to take over the essaywhen, for example, you neglect opposing ideas, exaggerate your points, or repeatedly insert yourself ahead of the subject by using Itoo often. Being aware of all three of these pitfalls will help you avoid them. 

Fact and Opinion 

  • Facts are statements that can be definitely proven using objective data. The statement that is a fact is absolutely valid. In other words, the statement can be pronounced as true or false. For example, . This expression identifies a true statement, or a fact, because it can be proved with objective data. 
  • Opinions are personal views, or judgments. An opinion is what an individual believes about a particular subject. However, an opinion in argumentation must have legitimate backing; adequate evidence and credibility should support the opinion. Consider the credibility of expert opinions. Experts in a given field have the knowledge and credentials to make their opinion meaningful to a larger audience. 

Example of argument/conclusion based on academic journal sources 

  • Many researchers studied and assessed brand equity based on Aaker's (1991) four-dimensional theory and Keller's (1993) consumer-based brand equity model and their results supported Aaker's and Keller's findings (Cobb-Walgren et al., 1995; Pappu et al., 2005). Yoo et al., (2000) also opened up their study in evaluating brand equity. They combined the two attributes of brand awareness and brand association in Aaker's (1991) four-dimensional model into a threedimensional construct and employed the statistical method of confirmatory factor analysis for assessment. This three-dimensional construct was further finetuned through refining the dimensions. It was later confirmed and supported the three-dimensional brand equity theory for empirical studies (Yoo and Donthu, 2001; Washburn and Plank, 2002). 
  • By reviewing the previous literatures on brand equity evaluation, it is observed that different researchers proposed different approaches from different perspectives for estimating the brand value for different purposes. 
  • The purposes of brand equity valuation are ..... 

Example of argument relevant sources 

Examples of research on digital disruption or transformation are: 
Matzler, K., Friedrich Von Den Eichen, S., Anschober, M., & Kohler, T. (2018). 
The crusade of digital disruption. Journal of Business Strategy, 39(6), 13-20. doi:10.1108/jbs-12-2017-0187 
Zaki, M. (2019). Digital transformation: harnessing digital technologies for the next generation of services. Journal of Services Marketing, 33(4), 429435. doi:10.1108/jsm-01-2019-0034 
D'Ippolito, B., Messeni Petruzzelli, A., & Panniello, U. (2019). Archetypes of incumbents' strategic responses to digital innovation. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 20(5), 662-679. doi:10.1108/jic-04-2019-0065 
Choi, J. J., & Ozkan, B. (2019). Innovation and Disruption: Industry Practices and Conceptual Bases. In (pp. 3-13): Emerald Publishing Limited. 

How to recognize peer-reviewed (refereed) journals 

  • Universities often require that students utilize articles from "peerreviewed" journals. 
  • But what are peer-reviewed journal articles, and why do faculty require their use? 

What is peer review? 

  1. Joumal Editor includes in 

Three categories of information resources: 

  • Newspapers and magazines containing news - Articles are written by reporters who may or may not be experts in the field of the article. Consequently, articles may contain incorrect information. 
  • Journals containing articles written by academics and/or professionals Although the articles are written by "experts," any particular "expert" may have some ideas that are really "out there!" 
  • Peer-reviewed journals - Articles are written by experts and are reviewed by several other experts in the field before the article is published in the journal in order to ensure the article's quality. (The article is more likely to be scientifically valid, reach reasonable conclusions, etc.) In most cases the reviewers do not know who the author of the article is, so that the article succeeds or fails on its own merit, not the reputation of the expert. 

How do you determine whether an article qualifies as being a peer-reviewed journal article? 

  • Limiting a database search to peer-reviewed journals only. Some databases allow you to limit searches for articles to peer reviewed journals only. 
  • In some databases you may have to go to an "advanced" or "expert" search screen to do this. Some databases do not allow you to limit your search in this way. 
  • Or alternatively: Find the official web site of the journal on the internet, and check to see if it states that the journal is peer-reviewed. Be careful to use the official site (often located at the journal publisher's web site), and, even then, information could potentially be "inaccurate." 
  • And there are various lists in the internet, 

Trustable and relevant data sources 

  • Data presented in academic journal research articles 
(careful: do you use the raw data for your own argument or do you follow the interpretation/conclusion of the researcher?) 
  • Data from government / company / association websites 
  • Data from Wiki (?) 
  • Data from newspapers, magazines 
  • Data from internal sources (not public) 
  • Data gathered by yourself (primary) 

Identify the literature which is relevant to the study. 

Locate your present study/argument in relation to the literature. 
Different research areas and topics will have different quantities of relevant literature. 
In some areas the volume can be vast, in some relatively small. More than one body of literature might be relevant 
A good literature review needs to present the overall academic context and how it relates to the research theme. 
It must provide an overview of the history of the development of academic contributions from early theories up to recent research. 
Using theories from the 1960s or 1980s is not enough. Recent research publications (last 5-10 years) that refer to these theories need to be investigated. 

The literature review is a review and not a list of descriptions. 

It provides an overview of the key contributions of VARIOUS authors to the SAME key issue. 
Commonly the most popular or first contributor is cited and then other authors' additions, applications, critique or support are compiled to discuss the issue. 
Only re-telling a theory/research from one and the same source is not a literature REVIEW. 

Remember! LITERATURE REVIEW 

  • What are the relevant theories? 
  • How are these theories applied? 
  • What do they find? (i.e. their outcome) 
  • What evidence / data do they use? 
  • What are the controversial issues? (What does one author write and other author/s disagree or add?) 
  • How is your assignment going to be inspired by and link-up with the work you are reading? 

How to phrase in-text references: CHECKLIST OF WORDS (1) 

  • Peterson (2013) gave account for-give reasons for; explain why something happens 
  • Wiatt (2009) analysed - examine in very close detail; identify important points and chief features 
  • Horshel et al (1999) comment on - identify and write about the main issues, giving your reactions based upon what you have read or heard in lectures. Avoid purely personal opinion 
  • Trompenaars (1997) compared - show how two or more things are similar. Indicate the relevance or consequences of these similarities 
  • Michels and Blant (2010) contrast - set two or more items or arguments in opposition so as to draw out differences. Indicate whether the differences are significant. If appropriate, give reasons why one item or argument may be preferable 
  • Beer et al (1998) critically evaluated - weigh arguments for and against something, assessing the strength of the evidence on both sides. Use criteria to guide your assessment of which opinions, theories, models or items are preferable 
  • Schein (1960) defined - give the exact meaning of. Where relevant, show that you understand why the definition may be problematic 
  • Yin (1996) describe - give the main characteristics or features of something, or outline the main events 
  • Porter (2000) discussed - write about he most important aspects of (probably including criticism); give arguments for and against; consider the implications of 
  • Hofstede (1980) distinguished - bring out the differences between two (possible confusable) items 

CHECKLIST OF WORDS (2) 

  • Miller (1978) evaluated - assess the worth, importance or usefulness of something, using evidence. There will probably be cases to me made both for and against 
  • Stein et al (2010) examined - put the subject 'under the microscope', looking at it in detail. If appropriate, 'critically evaluate' its as well 
  • Wilkinson (2005) explains - make clear why something happens, or why something is the way it is 
  • French (2012) illustrates - make something clear and explicit, giving examples or evidence 
  • Block et al (2013) interpret - give the meaning and relevance of data or other material presented 
  • Julianek (2000) justifies - give evidence which supports an argument or idea; show why a decision or conclusions were made, considering objections that others might make 
  • Holtz (1999) narrates - concentrate on saying what happened, telling it as a story 
  • Vanders (2001) outlines - give only the main points, showing the main structure 
  • Marshal (2000) relates - show similarities and connections between two or more things 
  • Watson (1999) states - give the main features, in very clear English (almost like a simple list but written in full sentences) 
  • Raven (1985) summarises - draw out the main points only (see 'outline'), omitting details or examples 
  • Phatek (2000) points out to what extent - consider how far something is true, or contributes to a final outcome. Consider also ways in which the proposition is not true (the answer is usually somewhere between 'completely' and 'not at all') 
  • Harzing (2001) traced - follow the order of different stages in an event or process 


and
Wrap-Up WEEK 1 (Session 1 -3) 

What you should do in the next days before we continue with session 4: 

1.) Read the chapters in the assigned textbook! 
2.) Identify some major theories/concepts to manage cultural differences (summarize each to 1-2 sentences and write down the full HARVARD reference)! 
3.)Find (in the internet) a global company about which is something written about any cultural management problem or how they manage cultural differences well. Apply some theory (not all) to explain the case incident/s. 
4.) Reflect on your own global mindset: are you already fit to manage cultural diverse teams or to work in foreign countries? If not, what would you do to improve the skill level? 

MAN6038
The Global Manager 

Session 4a 
Managing global teams and networks 

Revision 

-What are the key take aways from the previous session? 
  • How does the content of the previous session relate to the assignment and global mindset development? 
  • Any relevant examples to share? 
  • Any clarifying questions? 

Once again: The Assignment Brief