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Design 设计

Just as we can assert that no product has ever been created in a single moment of inspiration . . nobody has ever produced a set of requirements for any product in a similarly miraculous manner. These requirements may well begin with an inspirational moment but, almost certainly, the emergent bright idea will be developed by iterative processes of evaluation until it is thought to be worth starting to put pencil to paper. Especially when the product is entirely new, the development of a set of requirements may well depend upon testing initial ideas in some depth.
正如我们可以断言,没有任何产品是在单一的灵感时刻中创造出来的... 没有人曾以类似的奇迹般的方式为任何产品制定一组需求。这些需求可能起初是由灵感而来,但几乎可以肯定,这个新颖的想法会通过迭代评估的过程不断发展,直到被认为值得开始动手落实。特别是对于全新的产品,制定需求集很可能取决于对最初的想法进行深入测试。
The Plan is the generator. Without a plan, you have lack of order and willfulness. The Plan holds in itself the essence of sensation.
Le Corbusier 勒·柯布西耶
Towards a New Architecture, 1931
走向新建筑,1931 年


4.1 Introduction 4.1 简介
4.2 Organizational Support for Design
4.2 设计的组织支持
4.3 The Design Process
4.3 设计过程
4.4 Design Frameworks 4.4 设计框架

4.5 Design Methods 4.5 设计方法

4.6 Design Tools, Practices, and Patterns
4.6 设计工具、实践和模式
4.7 Social Impact Analysis
4.7 社会影响分析
4.8 Legal Issues 4.8 法律问题

4.1 Introduction 4.1 介绍

Design can be loosely defined as the outcome or the process of creating specifications for synthetic artifacts, such as products, services, and processes. All manufactured objects in the world - objects that were made by people and are not found in nature-are the result of some form of design process, whether a deliberate one or otherwise. User interfaces, which are very much synthetic and decidedly do not occur in nature, are no exception. However, while early computer manufacturers were quick to enlist industrial designers to shape the physical form factors of the first computers, they were much less agile in recognizing the need for interaction design (Moggridge, 2007): the design of the digital interface itself. Now an established design discipline in its own right, interaction design is defined as making plans and specifications for digital objects, which include devices, interfaces, services, and information.
Every time designers create a new digital artifact, they make decisionsunconscious or not-on how the artifact will look, feel, and function. If they carefully consider how digital products and services are created, they can make appealing products and services that respond to human needs with user interfaces that are easy to learn, comprehensible, and efficient to use. Early computer applications were designed by programmers to be highly functional for the programmers themselves and their peers, but this approach quickly failed when the audience for computers grew to non-technical fields. Bill Moggridge (2007) calls this phenomenon being "kind to chips but cruel to people," and it was an early failing of interaction design.
每当设计师创建一个新的数字产品时,他们会在无意识或有意识的情况下决定该产品的外观、感觉和功能。如果他们认真考虑数字产品和服务的创建过程,他们可以制作出吸引人的产品和服务,这些产品和服务能够满足人们的需求,使用起来界面简单易学,易于理解和高效。早期的计算机应用是由程序员设计的,旨在对程序员自身和同行来说功能强大,但当计算机的用户群扩大到非技术领域时,这种方法很快失败了。Bill Moggridge(2007)称这种现象为“对芯片友好对人类残酷”,这是交互设计的早期失败之一。
The current generation of users for smartphones, social media, and ecommerce have vastly different backgrounds from programmers and engineers. They have no interest in obscure interfaces but are more oriented toward their professional or recreational needs and are less dedicated to the technology itself. Therefore, effective interaction design takes the intended user as its starting point and focuses on facilitating the function of the artifact. As a result, professional interaction designers carefully observe their users, iteratively refine their prototypes based on thoughtful analysis, and systematically validate their interfaces through early usability and acceptance tests. However, as for any design discipline, function is not the only important aspect of a digital object. Form is another aspect, and it sometimes comes in conflict with function. While on the one hand it can be argued that good form will facilitate function (since an aesthetically appealing artifact can invite use), it is also true that a highly convoluted form may inhibit it. Consider a kitchen cabinet door with no handles: slick and appealing according to contemporary design sense but lacking visual indications of how and where to open the door. In fact, it may not even be immediately obvious that a door
智能手机、社交媒体和电子商务的当前用户群与程序员和工程师有着截然不同的背景。他们对于晦涩的界面不感兴趣,而更关注他们的专业或娱乐需求,对技术本身的执着程度较低。因此,有效的交互设计以目标用户为出发点,专注于促进工具的功能。因此,专业的交互设计师会仔细观察用户,通过深入分析逐步完善原型,并通过早期可用性和接受性测试系统地验证界面。然而,就像任何设计学科一样,功能并不是数字产品的唯一重要方面。形式是另一个方面,并且有时会与功能相冲突。一方面,可以说良好的形式会促进功能(因为一个审美吸引人的工具会吸引使用者),但同时也可以说,过于复杂的形式可能会阻碍功能的发挥。 考虑一个没有手柄的厨柜门:根据当代设计理念,它可能很光滑和吸引人,但缺乏说明如何以及在哪里打开门的视觉指示。实际上,可能甚至不会立即显而易见地意识到一扇门

with no handles is in fact a door, let alone that it can be opened! The same is true for interfaces: It often makes sense to let form follow function (Sullivan, 1896). Tradeoffs between form and function are discussed in Chapter 12.
没有手柄,更不用说它可以被打开了!对于界面来说也是如此:让形式服从功能常常是有意义的(Sullivan, 1896 年)。形式和功能之间的权衡在第 12 章中讨论。
If there are several similarities between interaction design and other design disciplines, what is particularly unique about interaction design? One of the key characteristics of digital media is that they are freely reproducible without consuming the original copy or costing additional resources. They also have few of the physical requirements that real materials must obey, such as cost, ease of manufacturing, or physical robustness. In essence, information technology is thus a "material without qualities" (Löwgren and Stolterman, 2004). For software engineering, this fact has led to the global open source movement, where programmers, even professional ones, are willing to give away the results of their hard work for free. In the context of interfaces and interactions, digital media mean that designers work under few physical constraints compared to tangible artifacts. A digital button can be arbitrarily large or small, or it can be entirely gold- or diamond-plated, with no added or reduced cost to the overall project. In fact, the designer can freely experiment with any number of alternate designs during the process without incurring any other cost than time. However, this added freedom is a double-edged sword in that constraints can often be helpful in reducing the space of potential designs (also known as the design space) and even boosting the creativity of the designer; after all, necessity is said to be the mother of invention. With no such helpful constraints to reduce the design space for digital interfaces and objects, interaction designers are often left with a much more daunting problem than industrial designers working in the real world.
如果交互设计与其他设计学科之间存在一些相似之处,那么交互设计的独特之处是什么?数字媒体的一个关键特征是,它们可以自由复制,而不会消耗原始副本或产生额外资源成本。它们也没有真实材料必须遵守的一些物理要求,比如成本、制造便捷性或物理强度。实质上,信息技术因此成为了一种“无质量的材料”(Löwgren和Stolterman,2004)。对于软件工程而言,这一事实导致了全球开源运动,程序员,甚至专业程序员,愿意免费分享他们辛勤劳动的成果。在界面和交互的背景下,数字媒体意味着设计师在与有形物品相比工作时受到较少的物理限制。数字按钮可以任意大或小,或者可以完全镀金或镶钻石,而整个项目的成本不会增加或减少。事实上,设计师可以在过程中自由尝试任意数量的替代设计,而不会产生除时间之外的任何其他成本。 然而,这种额外的自由是一把双刃剑,因为约束通常有助于减少潜在设计空间(也称为设计空间),甚至可以提高设计师的创造力;毕竟,必需品被认为是发明之母。在数字界面和物体的设计空间中没有这样有用的约束,交互设计师通常面临比在现实世界中工作的工业设计师更为艰巨的问题。
The key to good design starts in the organization itself. The primary reason for this is that design is unpredictable, which requires an agile organizational structure as well as a comprehensive business strategy oriented around diverse design processes. In fact, some companies, such as Apple, Pepsi, Philips, and Kia Motors, have hired chief design officers (CDOs) in recognition of this unpredictability. Section 4.2 offers examples of such structures and strategies that managers can adapt to suit their organizations, projects, schedules, and budgets.
良好设计的关键在于组织本身。这主要原因在于设计是不可预测的,这需要一个灵活的组织结构以及一个围绕多样化设计流程的全面业务策略。事实上,一些公司,如苹果、百事可乐、飞利浦和起亚汽车,已经聘请了首席设计官(CDOs)来认识到这种不可预测性。第 4.2 节提供了这些结构和策略的示例,管理者可以根据自己的组织、项目、进度和预算进行调整。
This unpredictable and dynamic nature requires a robust and flexible design process. Section 4.3 describes a four-phase iterative design process consisting of requirements analysis (Phase 1), preliminary and detailed design (Phase 2), build and implementation (Phase 3), and finally evaluation (Phase 4, described in Chapter 5). This cycle is repeated until the outcome from the evaluation phase is acceptable given the requirements. The design cycle itself is part of a larger cycle that incorporates the entire life cycle of a product, including deployment, maintenance, and new updates to the system.
这种不可预测和动态的特性需要一个强大而灵活的设计过程。4.3 节描述了一个由需求分析(第 1 阶段)、初步和详细设计(第 2 阶段)、构建和实施(第 3 阶段)以及最终评估(第 4 阶段,第 5 章描述)组成的四阶段迭代设计过程。此循环将重复进行,直到评估阶段的结果符合要求。设计循环本身是整个产品生命周期的一部分,包括部署、维护和系统的新更新。
Design frameworks are discussed in Section 4.4 and permeate the entire design philosophy and design methods used in the process. Three specific frameworks are of particular interest to interaction designers: agile and rapid prototyping, user-centered design, and participatory design. The exact choice of which design framework to use depends on the organization, the project team, and the product being designed.
设计框架在 4.4 节中讨论,并贯穿了整个设计哲学和设计方法。对互动设计师而言,三个特定的框架具有特殊的兴趣:敏捷和快速原型制作,以用户为中心的设计,和参与式设计。选择使用哪种设计框架取决于组织、项目团队和正在设计的产品。
If frameworks provide the high-level structure, then the design methods are the building blocks that are used to populate the structure. Section 4.5 reviews popular interaction design methods for each phase of the design process, including ethnographic observation and sketching (Phase 1), storyboarding and scenario development (Phase 2), and paper mockups and prototyping (Phase 3). Evaluation methods for Phase 4 are described separately in Chapter 5.
如果框架提供了高层次的结构,那么设计方法就是用来填充结构的构建模块。第 4.5 节回顾了每个设计阶段流行的交互设计方法,包括人种学观察和素描(第 1 阶段)、故事板和情节发展(第 2 阶段)、以及纸质模型和原型制作(第 3 阶段)。第 4 阶段的评估方法在第 5 章单独描述。
Design is a challenging activity and is difficult to learn in a purely theoretical setting, particularly for newcomers but also for seasoned designers entering a new domain. Section 4.6 offers several practical, hands-on best practices to facilitate the design process, including UX prototyping tools, UX guidelines documents, and the notion of design patterns for interaction design and UX. Originally derived for as disparate areas as urban planning (Alexander, 1977) and software engineering (Freeman et al., 2004), design patterns are concrete and reusable solutions to commonly occurring problems. The section shows how such design patterns can be applied to interaction design.
设计是一项具有挑战性的活动,在纯理论设置中学习起来很困难,尤其是对于新手来说,也适用于进入新领域的经验丰富的设计师。第 4.6 节提供了几种实用的,动手操作的最佳实践,以促进设计过程,包括 UX 原型工具,UX 指南文件,以及交互设计和 UX 的设计模式概念。最初来源于城市规划(Alexander, 1977)和软件工程(Freeman 等,2004)等不同领域,设计模式是常见问题的具体可重用解决方案。本节展示了这些设计模式如何应用于交互设计。
This chapter concludes with Section 4.7, which describes legal concerns that should be addressed in the design process, including topics such as privacy, safety, intellectual property, standardization, and certification.
本章以第 4.7 节结束,描述了在设计过程中应该解决的法律问题,包括隐私、安全、知识产权、标准化和认证等主题。

See also: 另请参阅:

Chapter 5, Evaluation and the User Experience
第 5 章,评估与用户体验
Chapter 12, Advancing the User Experience
第 12 章,推进用户体验

4.2 Organizational Support for Design
4.2 设计的组织支持

Most companies may not yet have chief usability officers (CUOs) or vice presidents for usability, but some companies are beginning to employ chief design officers (CDOs), which may help to promote usability and design thinking at every level. A case in point is Apple Inc., which was one of the first companies with a CDO and which accordingly has been praised for its innovative,

well-designed, and usable products. Even if a company has no CDO, organizational awareness can be stimulated by presentations, internal seminars, newsletters, and awards. However, resistance to new techniques and changing roles for software engineers can become a problem in traditional organizations.
Organizational change is difficult, but creative leaders blend inspiration and provocation. The high road is to appeal to the desire for quality that most professionals share. When they are shown data on shortened learning times, faster performance, or lower error rates on well-designed interfaces, managers are likely to be more sympathetic to applying usability-engineering methods. Even more compelling for e-commerce managers is evidence of higher rates of conversion, enlarged market share, and increased customer retention. For managers of consumer products, the goals include fewer returns/complaints, increased brand loyalty, and more referrals. The low road is to point out the frustration, confusion, and high error rates caused by current complex designs while citing the successes of competitors who apply usability-engineering methods.
Collecting momentum for organizational change can come from different sources. Major corporations almost always question the return on investment (ROI) for usability engineering and interaction design. However, the business case for focusing on usability has been made powerfully and repeatedly (Karat, 1994; Marcus, 2002; Bias and Mayhew, 2005; Nielsen, 2008). Claire-Marie Karat's (1994) business-like reports within IBM became influential documents when they were published externally. She reported up to payoffs for each dollar spent on usability, with identifiable benefits in reduced program-development costs, reduced maintenance costs, increased revenue due to higher customer satisfaction, and improved user efficiency and productivity. Other economic analyses showed fundamental changes in organizational productivity (with improvements of as much as ) when designers kept usability in mind from the beginning of development projects (Landauer, 1995).
组织变革的动力可以来自不同的来源。大型公司几乎总是质疑可用性工程和交互设计的投资回报率(ROI)。然而,专注于可用性的商业案例已经被强有力地反复提出(Karat,1994年;Marcus,2002年;Bias和Mayhew,2005年;Nielsen,2008年)。Claire-Marie Karat(1994年)在IBM内部的商业报告在被外部发布时成为有影响力的文件。她报告称,每花费一美元在可用性上都会有可辨认的好处,包括降低程序开发成本、降低维护成本、由于更高的客户满意度而增加的收入,以及提高用户效率和生产率。其他经济分析显示,当设计师从开发项目的开始就考虑可用性时,组织生产力会发生根本性变化(Landauer,1995年),改善幅度高达
The necessary pressure for change may also come from the customers themselves. Corporate marketing and customer-assistance departments are becoming more aware of the importance of usability and are a source of constructive encouragement. When competing products provide similar functionality, usability engineering is vital for product acceptance. Today's customers are discerning and expect high quality, and their overall brand loyalty is steadily diminishing. Retaining as well as increasing its customer base can provide a powerful incentive for an organization to improve its focus on interaction design and usability engineering.
Finally, usability engineering is required for certification and standardization in some industries. For example, the aerospace industry has Human Systems Integration (HSI) requirements that deal with a combination of human factors, usability, display design, navigation, and so forth (National Research Council, 2007).