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There Are Lots of Big Fish in This Pond: The Role of Peer Overqualification on Task Significance, Perceived Fit, and Performance for Overqualified Employees

Jia   University of Notre Dame

Berrin Erdogan 貝林·埃爾多安Portland State University and Koç University

Talya N. Bauer 塔莉亞·N·鮑爾Portland State University

Kaifeng Jiang 開封江University of Notre Dame 聖母大學

Songbo Liu and Yuhui Li
Renmin University of China

Abstract 摘要

Research has uncovered mixed results regarding the influence of overqualification on employee performance outcomes, suggesting the existence of boundary conditions for such an influence. Using relative deprivation theory (Crosby, 1976) as the primary theoretical basis, in the current research, we examine the moderating role of peer overqualification and provide insights to the questions regarding whether when, and how overqualification relates to employee performance. We tested the theoretical model with data gathered across three phases over 6 months from 351 individuals and their supervisors in 72 groups Results showed that when working with peers whose average overqualification level was high, as opposed to low, employees who felt overqualified for their jobs perceived greater task significance and person-group fit, and demonstrated higher levels of in-role and extra-role performance. We discuss theoretical and managerial implications for overqualification at the individual level and within the larger group context.
研究揭示了關於過度資格對員工績效結果影響的混合結果,表明存在這種影響的邊界條件。在當前研究中,我們以相對剝奪理論(Crosby,1976)為主要理論基礎,探討同事過度資格的調節作用,並提供關於過度資格如何與員工績效相關的問題的見解。我們通過對來自 72 個小組中 351 名個人及其主管的數據進行了為期 6 個月的三個階段的收集,測試了理論模型。結果顯示,當與平均過度資格水平較高的同事一起工作時,相對於水平較低的同事,感覺自己對工作過度資格的員工認為任務重要性和人-組合適配性更高,並表現出更高水平的角色內和角色外績效。我們討論了個人層面和更大群體背景下過度資格的理論和管理意義。

Keywords: overqualification, employee performance, task significance, person-group fit
Overqualification describes an employment situation in which employees feel that they possess surplus qualifications relative to what a job requires (Johnson & Johnson, 1996; Khan & Morrow, 1991). Overqualification is a common phenomenon in contemporary organizations. For example, Center for College Affordability and Productivity estimates that nearly half of all college graduates in the U.S. hold jobs that do not require a degree (Vedder, Denhart,
過度資格指的是一種就業情況,其中員工認為自己擁有相對於工作要求的過剩資格(Johnson&Johnson,1996 年;Khan&Morrow,1991 年)。過度資格是當代組織中常見的現象。例如,美國大學負擔能力和生產力中心估計,將近一半的美國大學畢業生擁有不需要學位的工作(Vedder,Denhart,)。
This article was published Online First December 29, 2014.
本文於 2014 年 12 月 29 日首次在線上發表。
Jia Hu, Department of Management, Mendoza College of Business, University of Notre Dame; Berrin Erdogan, School of Business Administration, Portland State University, and College of Administrative Sciences and Economics, Koç University; Talya N. Bauer, School of Business Administration, Portland State University; Kaifeng Jiang, Department of Management, Mendoza College of Business, University of Notre Dame; Songbo Liu and Yuhui Li, Department of Human Resources Management, School of Labor and Human Resources, Renmin University of China.
We thank the Action Editor Sturman and his review team for their constructive comments during the review process.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Songbo Liu, 59 Zhongguancun Street, Renmin University of China, Beijing, China, 100872. E-mail: liusb@ ruc.edu.cn
有關本文的通訊請寄至中國北京人民大學中國人民大學街 59 號,郵編 100872,劉松波收。電子郵件:liusbruc.edu.cn

& Robe, 2013), potentially resulting in feelings of overqualification. Similarly, of the workforce in the European Union is reported to be overqualified (Eurostat, 2011). Studies have shown that feelings of overqualification are related to negative work attitudes such as lower job satisfaction (Fine, 2007; Fine & Nevo, 2008; Johnson & Johnson, 1997, 2000; Johnson, Morrow, & Johnson, 2002; Maynard, Joseph, & Maynard, 2006), lower organizational commitment (Bolino & Feldman, 2000; Maynard et al., 2006), greater psychological distress (Johnson & Johnson, 1996), and higher turnover intentions (Erdogan & Bauer, 2009; Maynard et al., 2006). This line of research suggests that felt overqualification produces negative effects on employees.
& Robe, 2013),可能導致過度資格感。同樣,歐盟勞動力中報告有 被認為是過度資格(歐盟統計局,2011)。研究顯示,過度資格感與負面工作態度有關,如較低的工作滿意度(Fine,2007;Fine&Nevo,2008;Johnson&Johnson,1997,2000;Johnson,Morrow,&Johnson,2002;Maynard,Joseph,&Maynard,2006),較低的組織承諾(Bolino&Feldman,2000;Maynard 等,2006),較大的心理困擾(Johnson&Johnson,1996),以及較高的離職意向(Erdogan&Bauer,2009;Maynard 等,2006)。這一研究領域表明,感受到過度資格會對員工產生負面影響。
However, scholars have begun to question whether we have drawn an overly simplistic conclusion that overstates the costs of overqualification and neglects its potential value to employees and organizations (see Erdogan, Bauer, Peiró, & Truxillo, 2011a; Feldman & Maynard, 2011). This is a problematic omission, as overqualified employees have greater cognitive abilities, skills, and knowledge than required (Fine & Nevo, 2008) and thus have the potential to accomplish their organizationally delineated tasks (i.e., in-role performance) and contribute to the organization beyond the formal job requirements (i.e., extrarole performance, or organizational citizenship behavior [OCB]). Indeed, the existing literature
然而,學者們已經開始質疑我們是否得出了一個過於簡化的結論,誇大了過資格的成本並忽略了對員工和組織的潛在價值(參見 Erdogan,Bauer,Peiró和 Truxillo,2011a; Feldman 和 Maynard,2011)。這是一個問題性的遺漏,因為過資格的員工擁有比所需更大的認知能力、技能和知識(Fine 和 Nevo,2008),因此有潛力完成其組織明確界定的任務(即角色內表現)並為組織做出貢獻超出正式工作要求(即額外角色表現,或組織公民行為[OCB])。實際上,現有文獻

is unclear about whether overqualified employees necessarily cause harm to the organization by performing poorly. While some studies found overqualification to be negatively related to selfrated performance outcomes (Bolino & Feldman, 2000), others found that perceived overqualification was either unrelated to performance (Lobene & Meade, 2013) or positively associated with performance rated by self (Fine & Nevo, 2008), or managers (Fine, 2007; Fine & Nevo, 2008; Holtom, Lee, & Tidd, 2002; King & Hautaluoma, 1987), or assessed through objective metrics (Erdogan & Bauer, 2009).
To resolve the controversy in the existing findings and to further advance research on overqualification, a primary goal of the current study is to examine whether, when, and how (i.e., under what conditions) do employees who feel overqualified realize this positive potential, as opposed to being disengaged and demotivated at work. Consistent with relative deprivation theory (Crosby, 1984), the influence of overqualification on employee attitudes and performance does not occur in isolation, but is embedded within work groups, where peers shape the way individuals react to their own overqualification status. Indeed, due to the importance of peers, Erdogan, Bauer, Peiró, and Truxillo (2011b) suggest that "Examining overqualification by paying simultaneous attention to one's coworkers seems important" (p. 264). Thus, using relative deprivation theory as the theoretical foundation, we contend that overqualified individuals' reactions to the work environment and performance levels are contingent on whether there is a discrepancy between their own status and those of peers. Specifically, when peers of a focal employee also feel overqualified, the focal employee is more likely to see overqualification as legitimate within the group, react positively to their work, and perform better.
為了解決現有研究結果中的爭議並進一步推進過度資格研究,本研究的主要目標之一是檢驗感到過度資格的員工是否能實現這種積極潛力,而不是在工作中感到脫節和缺乏動力。與相對剝奪理論(Crosby,1984)一致,過度資格對員工態度和表現的影響並非孤立發生,而是嵌入在工作群體中,同事塑造了個人對自己過度資格狀態的反應方式。事實上,由於同事的重要性,Erdogan、Bauer、Peiró和 Truxillo(2011b)建議“通過同時關注同事來檢驗過度資格似乎很重要”(第 264 頁)。因此,我們認為,使用相對剝奪理論作為理論基礎,過度資格個人對工作環境和表現水平的反應取決於自身狀態與同事之間是否存在差異。 具體而言,當一位焦點員工的同事也感到過於過度合格時,該焦點員工更有可能將過度合格視為群體內的合法現象,對他們的工作做出積極反應,並表現更好。
Taken together, the current research aims to make three important contributions to the overqualification literature. First, the current study is an active effort to resolve the conflicting views of the overqualification-performance relationship and a response to recent calls for more attention to the context of overqualification (Erdogan et al., 2011a, 2011b; Sierra, 2011). Specifically, the current study grounds predictions in relative deprivation theory, identifies an important yet neglected factor-peer overqualification-as a contingency of the effects of employee overqualification on performance, and documents that overqualified employees may make valuable contributions to their organizations, especially when peer overqualification is also high. Second, while scholars have investigated the direct effects of overqualification on job performance, considerably less is known about the mechanisms through which overqualification relates to performance. The current research is among the first to provide theoretical and empirical accounts of a job- and motivation-related factor (i.e., task significance, the extent to which employees find their work meaningful and important, Hackman & Oldham, 1976) and an interpersonal factor (i.e., person--group fit, the extent to which employees perceive a fit with their groups, Kristof, 1996) as key mediating mechanisms that link overqualification to performance outcomes. Third, by including both in-role and extrarole performance, and both job-related and interpersonal perceptions, the current research provides a more integrated perspective of how overqualification influences behavioral outcomes and how such influence is shaped by the role of peers. Figure 1 depicts the overall theoretical model.
綜合而言,目前的研究旨在對過度合格文獻做出三項重要貢獻。首先,本研究是積極努力解決過度合格與績效關係的相互衝突觀點,並回應最近對過度合格背景更多關注的呼籲(Erdogan 等,2011a,2011b;Sierra,2011)。具體而言,本研究基於相對剝奪理論提出預測,識別了一個重要但被忽視的因素-同儕過度合格-作為員工過度合格對績效影響的條件,並記錄了過度合格員工可能對其組織做出有價值的貢獻,尤其是當同儕過度合格程度也很高時。其次,雖然學者們已經研究了過度合格對工作績效的直接影響,但對於過度合格與績效之間的機制了解較少。目前的研究是首批提供有關工作和動機相關因素(即...任務重要性,即員工認為工作具有意義和重要性的程度(Hackman&Oldham,1976 年),以及人際因素(即人-群體適應性,員工感知與其群體的適應性程度,Kristof,1996 年)作為將過度資格與績效結果相關聯的關鍵中介機制。第三,通過包括角色內和角色外績效,以及工作相關和人際感知,本研究提供了一個更綜合的觀點,說明了過度資格如何影響行為結果,以及這種影響如何受到同儕角色的影響。圖 1 描述了整體理論模型。
Figure 1. Proposed model. T1E variables rated by employees at Time 1; variables rated by employees at Time 2,3 months after Time 1 variables rated by managers at Time 3,6 months after Time 1 organizational citizenship behavior.
圖 1. 提出的模型。T1E 變數由員工在時間 1 評定; 變數由員工在時間 2 評定,時間 1 後 3 個月; 變數由經理在時間 3 評定,時間 1 後 6 個月; 組織公民行為。

Theory and Hypotheses 理論與假設

Perceived Overqualification

Perceived overqualification reflects the extent to which employees consider themselves possessing more education, experience, or skills than the required job qualifications (Johnson & Johnson, 1996; Johnson et al., 2002). Perceived overqualification is positively related to, yet distinct from objective overqualification, which is the gap between specific individual qualifications and stated job requirements. In fact, objective and perceived overqualification are regarded not as alternative operationalizations of the same construct, but different constructs altogether (see Maltarich, Reilly, & Nyberg, 2011). Perceived overqualification is more sensitive to actual differences in job content and individual qualifications. For example, two individuals who hold the same job title and possess the same level of education and experience may have different perceptions of overqualification, due to variation in actual job content from person to person and differences in the quality and type of their education and experience. As a result, perceived and objective measures are treated as separate constructs with different predictors and outcomes (Erdogan et al., 2011b Maltarich et al., 2011). For example, objective overqualification may more strongly predict mobility as it reflects actual ability to leave an organization whereas subjective overqualification has a stronger influence on employees' perceptions at work.
感知到的過度資格反映了員工認為自己擁有比所需工作資格更多的教育、經驗或技能的程度(Johnson&Johnson,1996 年;Johnson 等,2002 年)。感知到的過度資格與客觀過度資格有正向關係,但又不同,客觀過度資格是特定個人資格與職位要求之間的差距。事實上,客觀和感知到的過度資格被認為不是同一構念的替代操作方式,而是完全不同的構念(參見 Maltarich,Reilly 和 Nyberg,2011 年)。感知到的過度資格對工作內容和個人資格的實際差異更為敏感。例如,兩個擁有相同職稱並擁有相同教育和經驗水平的個人可能對過度資格有不同的感知,這是由於實際工作內容因人而異,以及教育和經驗的質量和類型不同。因此,感知和客觀測量被視為具有不同預測因素和結果的獨立構念(Erdogan 等,2011b;Maltarich 等,2011 年)。 舉例來說,客觀過度資格可能更強烈地預測流動性,因為它反映了離開組織的實際能力,而主觀過度資格對員工在工作中的感知有較強烈的影響。
Subjective, or perceived overqualification is particularly relevant to relative deprivation theory. Deprivation is described as "relative," because it is a feeling derived from comparison with others and involves individuals' feelings of deprivation that are not necessarily "objectively the most destitute" (Martin, Brickman, & Murray, 1984, p. 485). Stated otherwise, relative deprivation theory posits that, it is individuals' subjective judgment of their own status but not merely their objective status, that directly affects their feelings of and reactions to the environment (Corning, 2000). Indeed, researchers have suggested that perceived overqualification is more appropriate for studying employees' psychological processes and performance (Fine, 2007; Maltarich et al., 2011; Maynard et al., 2006). Thus, we focus on perceived overqualification and its role on employee attitudes and performance outcomes.
主觀或感知到的過度資格對相對剝奪理論尤為重要。剝奪被描述為“相對的”,因為它是一種與他人比較而來的感覺,涉及個人的剝奪感,這些感覺不一定是“客觀上最貧困的”(Martin,Brickman 和 Murray,1984 年,第 485 頁)。換句話說,相對剝奪理論認為,個人對自己地位的主觀判斷而不僅僅是客觀地位,直接影響他們對環境的感受和反應(Corning,2000 年)。事實上,研究人員已經提出,感知到的過度資格更適合研究員工的心理過程和表現(Fine,2007 年;Maltarich 等,2011 年;Maynard 等,2006 年)。因此,我們專注於感知到的過度資格及其對員工態度和表現結果的作用。

The Moderating Role of Peer Overqualification

According to relative deprivation theory, when individuals feel that their situation is worse than the situation they are entitled to

have, they feel deprived, discontent, and thus respond negatively to their work and organizations (Mark & Folger, 1984). Past researchers contended that perceptions of overqualification would trigger a situation where individuals feel deprived of the job they are entitled to have (Feldman, Leana, & Bolino, 2002). The sense of deprivation is relative, and emerges as a result of comparisons with referent others, including peers. An important precondition of feeling deprived is the presence of others who are better off than them, which makes it salient to the individual that the situation that is desired should be within reach (Bernstein & Crosby, 1980; Davis, 1959). In other words, peer overqualification serves to disable the precondition of relative deprivation. Yet, when working with peers who are also overqualified, such feelings of entitlement are less likely to occur because the person is in a situation similar to the one experienced by peers. Thus, peer overqualification signals that individuals' overqualification status is legitimate (Erdogan et al., 2011b) and makes individuals less likely to feel that they are entitled to the work that similar others can access, but they themselves cannot (Erdogan & Bauer, 2009; Guimond & Dambrun, 2002; Walker & Pettigrew, 1984). Existing evidence has shown that individuals have considered their unfavorable status (e.g., overqualification) as being more acceptable when it is considered as legitimate (Ellemers, Wilke, & van Knippenberg, 1993). We propose that peer overqualification is likely to moderate the relationship between perceived overqualification and performance through altering how overqualified employees perceive their tasks, task significance, and feel about their relationships with their work groups, person-group fit.
過去的研究者們認為,對於自己擁有的工作感到被剝奪,不滿,因此對他們的工作和組織做出負面回應(Mark&Folger,1984 年)。過去的研究者們認為,對於過度資格的感知將引發一種情況,即個人感到被剝奪了他們應該擁有的工作(Feldman,Leana 和 Bolino,2002 年)。被剝奪感是相對的,是通過與參照他人(包括同儕)的比較而出現的。感到被剝奪的一個重要前提是存在比他們更好的他人,這使得對個人來說,所渴望的情況應該是可以達到的(Bernstein&Crosby,1980 年;Davis,1959 年)。換句話說,同儕過度資格化有助於消除相對剝奪的前提。然而,當與同樣過度資格的同儕一起工作時,這種應有感可能不太可能發生,因為這個人處於與同儕經歷的情況相似的情況中。因此,同儕過度資格化表明個人的過度資格狀態是合法的(Erdogan 等人)。根據現有證據,個人認為他們的不利地位(例如,過度資格)在被視為合法時更容易被接受(Ellemers,Wilke 和 van Knippenberg,1993)。我們提出,同儕過度資格可能會通過改變過度資格員工對其任務、任務重要性以及與工作小組的關係的感知方式,來調節感知過度資格與績效之間的關係。
Task significance, the extent to which employees feel their jobs are meaningful (Hackman & Oldham, 1976), is of particular importance, as motivation researchers have suggested that employee motivation may come from different sources (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Grant & Shin, 2011) and many employees are not only motivated by money, but are also concerned with whether they are doing meaningful and impactful work (De Dreu, 2006; Grant, 2007; Grant, 2008; Grant et al., 2007; Hu & Liden, in press). Extant research has shown that perceptions of task significance enhance employee performance (Dodd & Ganster, 1996; Grant, 2008). With respect to the influence of overqualification on task significance perceptions, the literature posits that overqualified employees would feel cynical about the meaningfulness of their jobs (Luksyte, Spitzmueller, & Maynard, 2011) and would find their jobs intrinsically less satisfying (Peiró, Agut, & Grau, 2010).
任務重要性,即員工認為自己的工作有意義的程度(Hackman&Oldham,1976),尤為重要,因為動機研究者指出員工的動機可能來自不同來源(Deci&Ryan,1985;Grant&Shin,2011),許多員工不僅受到金錢的激勵,還關心自己是否在從事有意義和有影響力的工作(De Dreu,2006;Grant,2007;Grant,2008;Grant 等,2007;Hu&Liden,即將出版)。現有研究顯示,對任務重要性的感知有助於提升員工表現(Dodd&Ganster,1996;Grant,2008)。關於過度資格對任務重要性感知的影響,文獻認為過度資格的員工會對自己的工作意義感到懷疑(Luksyte,Spitzmueller 和 Maynard,2011),並且會發現他們的工作內在上較不滿意(Peiró,Agut 和 Grau,2010)。
Relative deprivation theory explains that the potential undesirable perceptions of one's job are triggered by the discrepancy between one's own overqualification status and those of similar peers (Erdogan & Bauer, 2009; Johnson & Johnson, 2000; Johnson et al., 2002). When one's status is not deprived relative to others within the work group, one's negative feelings of his or her job are unlikely to occur. The average overqualification level of one's peers helps to determine whether such deprivation exists, as it sets the tone within the group regarding whether overqualification is seen as the norm or the exception, signals how things ought to be done, and how the focal employee should react to his or her own overqualification status (Erdogan et al., 2011b). From the standpoint of the social information processing perspective (Salancik & Pfeffer, 1978), by interacting with their peers, exchanging information, and shared experiences, overqualified employees gradually gain an understanding of the average peers' overqualification level, which in turn shapes their responses to their jobs (Feldman, 1984). Specifically, when working with peers who also feel overqualified, employees see their own overqualification as legitimate rather than exceptional. Instead of feeling different and deprived of a better job, working with overqualified peers is likely to elevate the job's importance and status, make overqualified employees feel like part of an elite cohort, which would signal to them that their jobs are important, worthwhile, and meaningful. Conversely, when the overqualification level of peers is low, overqualified employees are likely to feel they are the exception within the group and will feel entitled to a better job held by others with similar qualification levels. This greater sense of entitlement within groups with low peer overqualification is likely to generate a greater sense of frustration and trigger them to react less positively toward the environment (Erdogan & Bauer, 2009). Under this circumstance, overqualified employees will find their tasks as meaningful and important.
相對剝奪理論解釋了一個人對工作的潛在不良感知是由於自己過度符合資格的狀態與類似同事之間的差異所觸發的(Erdogan&Bauer,2009 年;Johnson&Johnson,2000 年;Johnson 等,2002 年)。當一個人的地位在工作群體內相對於其他人並不被剝奪時,他或她對工作的負面感覺不太可能發生。同事的平均過度符合資格水平有助於確定是否存在這種剝奪感,因為它在群體內設定了關於過度符合資格是被視為規範還是例外的基調,表明應該如何做事,以及焦點員工應如何對待自己的過度符合資格狀態(Erdogan 等,2011b)。從社會信息處理觀點來看(Salancik&Pfeffer,1978 年),通過與同事互動,交換信息和共享經驗,過度符合資格的員工逐漸獲得對平均同事過度符合資格水平的理解,進而塑造他們對工作的反應(Feldman,1984 年)。 具體而言,當與同樣感到過度合格的同事合作時,員工會將自己的過度合格視為合法,而非特例。與感到不同並且被剝奪更好工作的感覺不同,與過度合格的同事一起工作很可能會提升工作的重要性和地位,使過度合格的員工感覺自己是精英群體的一部分,這將向他們表明他們的工作是重要的、有價值的和有意義的。相反,當同事的過度合格水平較低時,過度合格的員工很可能會感覺自己是群體中的特例,並且會覺得自己有資格擁有其他具有相似資格水平的人擁有的更好工作。在同事的過度合格水平較低的群體中,這種更強烈的自我擁有感很可能會產生更大的挫折感,並促使他們對環境作出較少積極的反應(Erdogan&Bauer,2009)。在這種情況下,過度合格的員工將會認為他們的任務是有意義和重要的。
Hypothesis 1: Peer overqualification moderates the relationship between employee overqualification and task significance, such that the relationship is more positive when peer overqualification is higher.
假設 1:同儕過度資格對員工過度資格與任務重要性之間的關係進行調節,當同儕過度資格較高時,該關係更為正向。
In addition to forming job-related perceptions, when responding to their overqualification status, employees often consider the relational factors within their social contexts (Erdogan et al., 2011a). In fact, one of the theorized downsides of being overqualified is the sense of being different and not fitting in with one's peers (Erdogan et al., 2011b). Being overqualified may affect one's relations with peers, because overqualified employees may intimidate peers, feel like an out-group member as a result of being different from colleagues, and create tension in interpersonal relationships (Sierra, 2011). Thus, perceived overqualification is expected to have implications for the degree to which employees fit in with their group, which in turn relates to performance. Consistent with Sierra (2011), we further propose that employees' feelings of their interpersonal environment largely depend on the status of their peers including whether or not their peers perceive themselves as also being overqualified. The perception of interpersonal environment we focused on here is person-group fit, or the interpersonal compatibility between individuals and their work groups (Judge & Ferris, 1992; Kristof, 1996). Person-group fit helps explain the effects of overqualification within the interpersonal context, as the psychological compatibility among peers is a powerful influence on employee behavior and performance in group settings (Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman, & Johnson, 2005).
除了形成與工作相關的感知之外,員工在回應自己過度資格的狀態時,通常會考慮其社會背景中的關係因素(Erdogan 等人,2011a)。事實上,被認為過度資格的一個理論缺點是感覺與同事不同,不適應自己的同儕(Erdogan 等人,2011b)。過度資格可能會影響與同儕的關係,因為過度資格的員工可能會威脅到同儕,感覺像一個不合群的成員,因為與同事不同,並在人際關係中造成緊張(Sierra,2011)。因此,預期認知的過度資格將對員工與其群體的適應程度產生影響,進而影響績效。與 Sierra(2011)一致,我們進一步提出,員工對其人際環境的感受在很大程度上取決於他們的同儕的地位,包括他們的同儕是否認為自己也是過度資格。 我們在這裡關注的人際環境知覺是人-群體適配,即個人與其工作群體之間的人際相容性(Judge&Ferris,1992 年;Kristof,1996 年)。人-群體適配有助於解釋人際背景下過度資格的影響,因為同儕之間的心理相容性對員工在群體環境中的行為和表現具有強大影響力(Kristof-Brown,Zimmerman 和 Johnson,2005 年)。
The rationale for the influence of overqualification on persongroup fit is grounded in the framework of relative deprivation theory, which argues that within a work group, individuals tend to compare their own qualifications with their peers and make judgments about whether their status is different from, or similar to, those of peers (Mummendey, Kessler, Klink, & Mielke, 1999), which further shapes their perceptions about their interpersonal relationships with peers (Chatman & Flynn, 2001). When individuals who feel overqualified work with peers who feel similarly overqualified, they are less likely to feel deprived and discontent and are more likely to feel psychologically close to their work groups. Peer overqualification generates such a homogenous climate within the group, which sends confirmation to overqualified
過度資格對人-群體適配度的影響基於相對剝奪理論的框架,該理論認為在工作群體中,個人傾向於將自己的資格與同事進行比較,並對自己的地位是否與同事不同或相似進行判斷(Mummendey、Kessler、Klink 和 Mielke,1999 年),進一步塑造了他們對與同事的人際關係的感知(Chatman 和 Flynn,2001 年)。當感到過度資格的個人與同樣感到過度資格的同事一起工作時,他們較不容易感到剝奪和不滿,並且更可能感到與工作群體在心理上親近。同事的過度資格在群體內產生了這種同質氣候,向過度資格者發送確認信息。

individual employees about their status, makes them feel similar to their peers, and increases their perception of fit within the group (Brewer, 1979; Erdogan et al., 2011a). In contrast, when working within a group where overqualification is more rare, feelings of overqualification will set the employee apart from their peers, which will decrease feelings of attachment to their group (Hogg, Turner, & Davidson, 1990) and create the perception of being misfits within their groups.
個別員工對於自身狀態的認知,使他們感覺與同儕相似,並增加他們對於群體適應的感知(Brewer, 1979; Erdogan et al., 2011a)。相反地,當在一個罕見出現過資格過剩的群體中工作時,過資格感會使員工與同儕有所區別,進而降低對群體的歸屬感(Hogg, Turner, & Davidson, 1990),並創造出在群體中感到格格不入的感覺。
Hypothesis 2: Peer overqualification moderates the relationship between employee overqualification and person-group fit, such that the relationship is more positive when peer overqualification is higher.
假設 2:同儕過度資格對員工過度資格與人-群體適配之間的關係起調節作用,當同儕過度資格較高時,該關係更為正向。

The Integrated Model 整合模型

Relative deprivation theory suggests that when individuals feel deprived and entitled, they are likely to form unfavorable cognitive (e.g., perceptions of task significance) and affective (e.g., perceptions of person-group fit) perceptions at work, which in turn, directly influence their efforts in completing required task performance (i.e., in-role performance), and their motivation to contribute to the organization beyond the normal requirement (i.e., extrarole performance or OCB; Chatman & Flynn, 2001; Erdogan & Bauer, 2009). This sense of being deprived of the job one deserves is less likely to occur when peers are also overqualified and when overqualification is considered a natural and normative status rather than a unique and personal situation within the group (Shultz, Olson, & Wang, 2011). Erdogan et al. (2011b) contended that overqualified employees might maintain a positive view of their jobs when working with peers who are similarly overqualified. This enhanced significance perception of their tasks, in turn, guides them to perform more effectively (Grant, 2008) and to contribute more to their organization (Grant, 2007). In a similar vein, when peer overqualification is high, employees see themselves as having similar status as their peers and sense a higher degree of fit with their group. These person-group fit perceptions are likely to strengthen the interpersonal connections among peers and build strong social capital within the group (Adler & Kwon, 2002; Oh, Chung, & Labianca, 2004), which serves to translate employees' felt overqualification into superior performance (Feldman & Maynard, 2011), and allows employees to utilize their surplus capabilities to engage in more OCBs. On the other hand, when working with peers who do not feel overqualified, employees who feel overqualified are more likely to experience a sense of frustration and misfit with their group and consider their tasks as insignificant. As a consequence, overqualified employees should be less willing to exert their efforts at work and are less likely to perform well. Thus, we hypothesize that peer overqualification makes employee overqualification more positively related to their task significance and person-group fit perceptions and, subsequently, in-role performance and OCB.
相對剝奪理論指出,當個人感到被剝奪並認為自己有權利時,他們很可能在工作中形成不利的認知(例如,對任務重要性的看法)和情感(例如,對人-群體適應性的看法)感知,這反過來直接影響他們完成所需任務績效的努力(即,角色內績效),以及他們對組織超出正常要求的貢獻動機(即,額外角色績效或 OCB;Chatman&Flynn,2001;Erdogan&Bauer,2009)。當同儕也過度符合資格且過度符合資格被視為一種自然和規範性狀態而不是群體內獨特和個人情況時,對自己應得的工作感到被剝奪的感覺不太可能發生(Shultz,Olson 和 Wang,2011)。 Erdogan 等人(2011b)主張,當與同樣過度符合資格的同事一起工作時,過度符合資格的員工可能對自己的工作保持積極看法。這種增強的任務重要性感知反過來引導他們更有效地執行(Grant,2008)並更多地為組織做出貢獻(Grant,2007)。 在同樣的情況下,當同事的過度資格高時,員工會認為自己與同事地位相似,並感覺與群體更匹配。這些人-群體匹配的感知可能會加強同事之間的人際聯繫,並在群體內建立強大的社會資本(Adler&Kwon,2002 年;Oh,Chung 和 Labianca,2004 年),這有助於將員工感受到的過度資格轉化為優越表現(Feldman&Maynard,2011 年),並使員工利用他們的多餘能力參與更多的組織公民行為。另一方面,當與不覺得自己過度資格的同事一起工作時,感到過度資格的員工更有可能感到挫折和與群體不匹配,並認為自己的任務不重要。因此,過度資格的員工應該不太願意在工作中努力,也不太可能表現出色。因此,我們假設同事的過度資格使員工的過度資格與其任務重要性和人-群體匹配感知更正向相關,進而影響角色內表現和組織公民行為。
Hypothesis 3: Peer overqualification moderates the indirect relationship between employee overqualification and (a) inrole performance and (b) OCB via task significance, such that the indirect relationship is more positive when peer overqualification is higher.
假設 3:同儕過度匹配性調節員工過度匹配性與(a)角色內表現和(b)組織公民行為之間的間接關係,通過任務重要性,當同儕過度匹配性較高時,該間接關係更為正向。
Hypothesis 4: Peer overqualification moderates the indirect relationship between employee overqualification and (a) in- role performance and (b) OCB via person-group fit, such that the indirect relationship is more positive when peer overqualification is higher.
假設 4:同儕過度資格對員工過度資格與(a)角色內表現和(b)組織公民行為之間的間接關係進行調節,當同儕過度資格較高時,該間接關係將更為正向。

Method 方法

Sample and Procedure 樣本與程序

Our primary sample was comprised of full-time employees from 11 information and technology companies located in China. Employees were working professionals in functional groups, such as research and development, accounting, product management, customer service, and human resources. These groups are not departments or committees, but are traditional long-term work groups that provide immediate social contexts for employees and their functions do not frequently change over time. Data were collected through Web-based surveys conducted across three data collection periods over 6 months at Time 1, Time 2 (3 months later), and Time 3 (3 months after Time 2 and 6 months after Time 1). Three-month intervals were chosen so that data collections would be separated in time enough to decrease priming effects while being short enough for antecedents to exert influence on later outcomes. At Time 1, out of 631 employees working in the 135 groups we invited to the study, 515 employees from 106 groups returned their surveys that contained overqualification ratings. At Time 2, 373 employees from 79 groups provided information on person-group fit and task significance. At Time 3, 72 managers provided ratings on 356 employees' in-role performance and OCB. The final matched employee-manager data across three time points were 351 employees in 72 groups, constituting the final effective response rates of at the individual level and at the group level. The average within-group response rate was Group size ranged between three and six (average ). Among employees, the average age was had college degree or above, and the average job tenure was 1.96 years.
我們的主要樣本由中國 11 家信息技術公司的全職員工組成。員工是功能組的專業從業人員,包括研發、會計、產品管理、客戶服務和人力資源等。這些組不是部門或委員會,而是提供員工即時社會背景的傳統長期工作組,其功能隨時間不經常改變。數據通過網絡調查收集,分別在 6 個月的三個數據收集時期進行,分別是 Time 1、Time 2(3 個月後)和 Time 3(Time 2 後 3 個月,Time 1 後 6 個月)。選擇了三個月的間隔,以使數據收集在時間上分開足夠以減少啟動效應,同時又足夠短以使先行因素對後續結果產生影響。在 Time 1 時,我們邀請參與研究的 135 個組中的 631 名員工中,有 106 個組的 515 名員工回答了包含過度資格評級的調查問卷。在 Time 2 時,79 個組的 373 名員工提供了有關人-組配適和任務重要性的信息。 在第 3 次測評中,72 位經理對 356 名員工的角色內績效和組織公民行為進行了評分。跨三個時間點的最終匹配的員工-經理數據為 72 組中的 351 名員工,形成了個人層面的最終有效回應率為 ,群體層面為 。組內平均回應率為 ,組大小範圍在三至六之間(平均 )。在員工中,平均年齡為 ,擁有大專以上學歷,平均工作年限為 1.96 年。

Measures 措施

All measures were rated on a scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree and were subjected to the backtranslation procedure recommended by Brislin (1986).
所有措施均根據一個範圍從 強烈不同意到 強烈同意的評分標準進行評定,並且經過 Brislin(1986)建議的反向翻譯程序。
Perceived overqualification. At Time 1, all employees provided ratings of their own overqualification using Johnson and Johnson's (1996, 1997) four-item scale (e.g., "Based on my skills, I am overqualified for the job I hold;" ). Thus, the focal employee's perceived overqualification was simply his or her ratings on this scale. This scale has been commonly used in the overqualification literature (e.g., Erdogan & Bauer, 2009; Fine & Nevo, 2008; Johnson & Johnson, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000; Johnson et al., 2002; Lobene & Meade, 2013).
感知到的過度資格。在時間 1,所有員工使用約翰遜和約翰遜(1996 年,1997 年)的四項量表對自己的過度資格進行評分(例如,“根據我的技能,我對我所擁有的工作過度資格;” )。因此,焦點員工的感知過度資格僅僅是他或她在這個量表上的評分。這個量表在過度資格的文獻中被廣泛使用(例如,埃爾多安和鮑爾,2009 年;芬恩和內沃,2008 年;約翰遜和約翰遜,1996 年,1997 年,1999 年,2000 年;約翰遜等,2002 年;洛本和米德,2013 年)。
Peer perceived overqualification. Peer overqualification was calculated by averaging all of the peers' overqualification ratings gathered at Time 1 when every employee provided ratings on this scale, excluding the focal employee's score. Thus, for each focal employee, there was a corresponding average peer overqualification score. In addition, to ensure that focal employees were able to observe peer overqualification, we gathered supplemental data from a second sample of 264 knowledge workers in China in 50 different work groups from
同儕感知的過度資格。同儕的過度資格是通過計算在時間 1 收集到的所有同儕的過度資格評分的平均值來計算的,當時每位員工都在這個尺度上提供了評分,不包括焦點員工的分數。因此,對於每位焦點員工,都有一個相應的平均同儕過度資格分數。此外,為了確保焦點員工能夠觀察到同儕的過度資格,我們從中國 50 個不同工作小組中的第二個樣本中收集了補充數據,共有 264 名知識工作者。

various industries, such as finance, real estate, telecommunications, automobile, retailing, and construction who provided data on perceived overqualification of themselves and their peers. The results of these analyses indicated that the average of perceived overqualification reported by peers positively correlated with perceived peer overqualification reported by focal individuals, . This suggests that focal individuals were in a position to detect the levels of perceived overqualification reported by their peers, providing support for our use of the average of perceived overqualification scores reported by peers to measure peer overqualification.
各行各業(如金融、房地產、電信、汽車、零售和建築等)提供了有關自己和同行被認為過度合格的數據。這些分析結果顯示,同行報告的被認為過度合格的平均值與焦點個體報告的同行被認為過度合格呈正相關, 。這表明焦點個體能夠察覺同行報告的被認為過度合格水平,這支持我們使用同行報告的被認為過度合格分數平均值來衡量同行過度合格的做法。
Task significance and person-group fit. At Time 2, 3 months after Time 1, employees provided their ratings on task significance using a four-item scale from Hackman and Oldham (1975; e.g., "A lot of people (e.g., customers and clients) can be positively affected by how well my job gets done;" ); and ratings on person-group fit using DeRue and Morgeson's (2007) three-item scale (e.g., "My personal values match my group's value;" ).
任務重要性和人-群體適配。在時間 2,即時間 1 之後的 3 個月,員工使用來自 Hackman 和 Oldham(1975 年)的四項量表對任務重要性進行評分(例如,“許多人(例如,客戶和客戶)的情況會受到我的工作完成得有多好的影響”);並使用 DeRue 和 Morgeson(2007 年)的三項量表對人-群體適配進行評分(例如,“我的個人價值與我的群體價值相匹配”)。
In-role performance and OCB. At Time 3, 6 months after Time 1, managers were asked to rate employees' in-role performance using Liden, Wayne, and Stilwell's (1993) four-item scale (e.g., "The overall level of performance that you observe for this employee is outstanding;" ) and OCB using four highest loaded items from Morrison and Phelps's (1999) scale (e.g., "This employee often tries to institute new work methods that are more effective for the company;" ).
在角色表現和組織公民行為。在時間 3,即在時間 1 之後的 6 個月,要求經理使用 Liden、Wayne 和 Stilwell(1993)的四項量表來評估員工的角色表現(例如,“您觀察到這位員工的整體表現水平非常優秀;”)和使用 Morrison 和 Phelps(1999)量表中四個最高加載項目來評估組織公民行為(例如,“這位員工經常試圖引入對公司更有效的新工作方法;”)。
Control variables. Because our sample was comprised of employees working in China, a country with different cultural values from Western societies (Hofstede, 1984) where overqualification theory was originally developed, we controlled for the potential influence of a representative cultural value-collectivism-on the study variables. We measured collectivism with three items taken from Wagner (1995) and used by Ilies, Wagner, and Morgeson (2007; e.g., "I prefer to work with others in a group rather than working alone", ). We also controlled for group size to take into consideration that group size may influence employees' comparison with peers.
控制變數。由於我們的樣本由在中國工作的員工組成,中國與西方社會(Hofstede,1984)有著不同的文化價值觀,在這裡過度資格理論最初被發展,我們控制了代表性文化價值觀-集體主義-對研究變數的潛在影響。我們用來自 Wagner(1995)的三個項目來測量集體主義,這些項目被 Ilies,Wagner 和 Morgeson(2007)使用(例如,“我更喜歡與他人一起工作而不是獨自工作”, )。我們還控制了群體大小,以考慮到群體大小可能會影響員工與同事的比較。

Results 結果

Hypothesis Testing 假設檢定

Table 1 describes the means and standard deviations of, and correlations among the study variables. We applied hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses with HLM 6.0.6 to adjust the potential nonindependence issue of employee performance rated by the same supervisor (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002). Table 2 summarizes the HLM results for testing hypotheses. With respect to the interaction hypotheses (Hypotheses 1 and 2), the results in Table 2 demonstrated that after including the control variables and main effects of overqualification and peer overqualification, peer overqualification had a positive moderating effect on the relationship between overqualification rated at Time 1 and task significance ( in Model 2) and person-group fit ( in Model 4) rated at Time 2. Deviance tests revealed that the interaction term significantly improved the fit of the model with task significance as the outcome, , and the model with person-group fit as the outcome, . Figures 2 and 3 further showed that the nature of the interactions were consistent with our expectation such that overqualification was more positively related to task significance and person-group fit when peer overqualification was higher for task significance; for person-group fit) than when it was lower ( for task significance; for person-group fit). Interestingly and somewhat surprisingly, we found that overqualification was also significantly and positively related to task significance and person-group fit when peer overqualification was low. Thus, Hypotheses 1 and 2 were supported.
表 1 描述了研究變量的平均值和標準差,以及它們之間的相關性。我們應用了階層線性建模(HLM)分析與 HLM 6.0.6 來調整由同一主管評定的員工表現的潛在非獨立問題(Raudenbush&Bryk,2002)。表 2 總結了用於檢驗假設的 HLM 結果。關於交互作用假設(假設 1 和 2),表 2 中的結果顯示,在包括控制變量和過度匹配以及同儕過度匹配的主要效應後,同儕過度匹配對於時間 1 評定的過度匹配與時間 2 評定的任務重要性(模型 2 中的 )和人-組合適配(模型 4 中的 )之間的關係具有積極的調節作用。偏差測試顯示,交互作用項顯著改善了以任務重要性為結果的模型擬合度 ,以及以人-組合適配為結果的模型擬合度 。 圖 2 和圖 3 進一步顯示,互動的性質與我們的期望一致,即過度資格與任務重要性和人-群體適配性的正相關性在同儕過度資格較高時更高(任務重要性為 ;人-群體適配性為 )而在同儕過度資格較低時較低(任務重要性為 ;人-群體適配性為 )。有趣的是,我們發現,即使同儕過度資格較低,過度資格也與任務重要性和人-群體適配性顯著正相關。因此,支持假設 1 和 2。
With respect to the moderated mediation models proposed in Hypotheses 3 and 4, results of Table 2 showed that after including control variables, main predictors, and the interaction term, task significance was significantly and positively related to both performance (Model 6, ) and OCB (Model ); and person-group fit was significantly and positively related to OCB (Model ), but was not significantly related to performance (Model ). Furthermore, to accurately estimate the non-normally distributed indirect effects, we applied the bootstrapping-based moderated path analysis approach (Edwards & Lambert, 2007). Based on 1,000 resamples, the results of Table 3 further revealed that the indirect effect of overqualification on performance and OCB via task significance was more positive when peer overqualification was higher , bias-corrected CI for performance;
就假設 3 和 4 中提出的調節中介模型而言,表 2 的結果顯示,在包括控制變量、主要預測變量和交互作用項之後,任務重要性與績效(模型 6, )和 OCB(模型 )之間存在顯著且正向的關係;而人-群體適配與 OCB 之間存在顯著且正向的關係(模型 ),但與績效之間並無顯著關係(模型 )。此外,為了準確估計非正態分佈的間接效應,我們採用基於自助抽樣的調節路徑分析方法(Edwards&Lambert,2007)。根據 1,000 次重抽樣,表 3 的結果進一步顯示,通過任務重要性,過度符合對績效和 OCB 的間接效應在同儕過度符合較高時更為正向 ,偏差校正 CI 為績效;
Table 1 表 1
Means, Standard Deviations, and Correlations
Mean 平均值 1 2 3 4 5 6
1. Collectivism (T1E) 1. 集體主義 (T1E) 4.11 .85
2. Group size (T1M)
2. 群體大小(T1M)
5.07 .82 -
3. Overqualification (T1E)
3. 過度資格化(T1E)
4.67 1.07 -.10
4. Peer overqualification (T1E)
4. 同儕過度資格化 (T1E)
4.67 .68 -.03 -
5. Person-group fit (T2E)
5. 人-群體適配(T2E)
5.21 .95 .07 -.10
6. Task significance (T2E)
6. 任務重要性 (T2E)
5.18 .92 .09
7. In-role performance (T3M)
7. 在職績效(T3M)
5.58 .82 -.10 .08 .05
8. OCB (T3M) 8. OCB(T3M) 5.20 1.05 .00 .10 .05
Note. individuals in 72 groups. standard deviation; T1E variables rated by employees at Time T1M variables rated by managers at Time 1; variables rated by employees at Time 2, 3 months after Time 1; variables rated by managers at Time 3, 6 months after Time 1; organizational citizenship behavior. Reliabilities of the study variables are listed in the parentheses.
備註。72 組中的 個個體。 標準差;T1E 變數由員工在時間 評定;T1M 變數由經理在時間 1 評定; 變數由員工在時間 2 評定,時間 1 後 3 個月; 變數由經理在時間 3 評定,時間 1 後 6 個月; 組織公民行為。研究變數的信度列於括號中。
  • .
Figure 2. Interactive effect of overqualification and peer overqualification on task significance.
圖 2. 過度匹配和同儕過度匹配對任務重要性的交互作用。
bias-corrected CI for OCB) than when it was lower ( , bias-corrected CI for performance; , bias-corrected CI for OCB). Overall, the difference between the indirect effects for performance and OCB were both significant. Results also indicated that the indirect effect of overqualification on OCB via persongroup fit was more positive under high peer overqualification ( , bias-corrected ) than under low peer overqualification ( , bias-corrected CI ). The difference in the indirect effects for OCB was significant. Taken together, Hypotheses , and were supported, but Hypothesis 4a was not.
修正偏差 CI for OCB) 比較高時更高 ( , 修正偏差 CI for performance; , 修正偏差 CI for OCB)。整體而言,對於績效和 OCB 的間接效應之間的差異均顯著。結果還表明,透過人-群體適配的過度資格對 OCB 的間接效應在高同儕過度資格下更為正面 ( , 修正偏差 ),而在低同儕過度資格下更為負面 ( , 修正偏差 CI )。對於 OCB 的間接效應之間的差異是顯著的。綜合而言,支持假設 ,但假設 4a 則否。

Discussion 討論

Past research on overqualification has primarily focused on the potential harm that overqualification can cause employees, overlooking the potential benefits overqualified employees bring to the organization. In fact, the empirical evidence of the influence of overqualification on employee performance is ambivalent, indicating that such an influence is subjective to boundary conditions (Erdogan et al., 2011a, 2011b; Sierra, 2011). Contrary to some prior research (e.g., Bolino & Feldman, 2000; Lobene & Meade, 2013), we found that employee perceived overqualification was positively related to their taskrelated and interpersonal perceptions and subsequently performance outcomes, and these positive associations were stronger when the level of average peers' overqualification was also high. Using relative deprivation theory as our primary theoretical lens, our research contributed to the overqualification literature by demonstrating peer overqualification as an important contingency from the social context to explain the relationship between overqualification and performance outcomes. When most peers are also overqualified, the focal employees perceive their jobs as more significant and their interpersonal environment to be a better fit with themselves. As a result, overqualified employees perform better and contribute more to the organization when they work with others who feel overqualified. Thus, the inclusion of peer overqualification provides a clearer understanding of to what extent overqualification brings benefits to organizations. Relatedly, we discovered a somewhat interesting finding that the benefits of overqualification on performance outcomes, although reduced, remained positive, when peer overqualification is low. It implies that overqualified employees still are able to perform well, even when felt overqualification among peers is rare. It may be due to their exceptional capabilities to perform with less effort, or other contextual factors, such as recognition from leaders or rewards within the organization, that might have influenced their reactions to the overqualification status and motivation to perform. Future studies are encouraged to replicate our research to further confirm the impact of overqualification on performance outcomes.
過去關於過度資格的研究主要集中在過度資格可能對員工造成的損害,忽略了過度資格員工為組織帶來的潛在好處。事實上,有關過度資格對員工表現的影響的實證證據是矛盾的,表明這種影響是主觀的邊界條件(Erdogan 等,2011a,2011b;Sierra,2011)。與一些先前的研究相反(例如,Bolino&Feldman,2000;Lobene&Meade,2013),我們發現員工對過度資格的感知與其任務相關和人際感知以及隨後的表現結果呈正相關,而且當平均同儕的過度資格水平也很高時,這些正相關更為明顯。我們以相對剝奪理論作為我們主要的理論視角,通過展示同儕過度資格作為解釋過度資格與表現結果之間關係的社會背景的重要條件,我們的研究豐富了過度資格文獻。 當大多數同儕也過度符合資格時,焦點員工認為他們的工作更為重要,人際環境與自己更匹配。因此,過度符合資格的員工在與感覺過度符合資格的人一起工作時表現更好,對組織做出更多貢獻。因此,同儕過度符合資格的納入提供了對過度符合資格對組織帶來益處程度的更清晰理解。相關地,我們發現了一個有趣的發現,即過度符合資格對績效結果的益處,雖然減少,但仍然是正面的,當同儕過度符合資格較低時。這意味著即使在同儕中感覺過度符合資格的情況很少時,過度符合資格的員工仍能表現良好。這可能是由於他們出色的能力可以用更少的努力表現,或者其他情境因素,如來自領導者的認可或組織內的獎勵,可能影響了他們對過度符合資格狀態的反應和表現動機。鼓勵未來研究複製我們的研究以進一步確認過度符合資格對績效結果的影響。
Our study also provides a valuable addition to the literature by considering the mediating mechanisms that link overqualification to performance outcomes. Our research is among the first to begin to unpack the black box between overqualification and employee performance and clarify the motivational and interpersonal issues underlying the influence of overqualification. Our research reveals that feelings of overqualification translate into high performance for those who work with similarly overqualified peers, through increasing the perceived importance of the tasks performed, and through the experience of high degree of fit within their groups.
This is important because extant research has looked at the influence of overqualification on either employee attitudes or performance, but little attention has been paid to integrate both perspectives (see Erdogan & Bauer, 2009 as an exception). Using a time-lag designed study, we investigated how overqualification influences employees' later perceptions of their tasks and work groups, which further influences both in-role and extrarole performance rated by managers. Interestingly, we found that the higher peer overqualification, the greater influence of overqualification on employee in-role performance is realized through task significance, but not person-group fit. It seems that compared with interpersonal perceptions, task perceptions, resulting from an overqualification status, are more relevant and critical for improving employees' in-role task performance. However, when peer overqualification is higher, the indirect relationships between overqualification on employees' OCB through task significance and person-group fit are stronger. These findings suggest that to encourage employees to contribute more to the organization, it is necessary for them to have favorable perceptions about both their tasks and interpersonal contexts. Although intuitively appealing we encourage future research to further explore whether overqualification has differentiated effects on employees' task-related and interpersonal perceptions and their in-role and extrarole performance outcomes.
這是重要的,因為現有研究已經探討過資歷過高對員工態度或表現的影響,但很少有人注意到整合這兩個觀點(見 Erdogan & Bauer, 2009 為例外)。通過設計時間滯後的研究,我們調查了過高資歷如何影響員工後來對他們的任務和工作小組的看法,進而影響經理評定的角色內和角色外表現。有趣的是,我們發現,同儕過高資歷越高,過高資歷對員工角色內表現的影響通過任務重要性實現,而不是人-組合適配。似乎與人際感知相比,由於過高資歷狀態而產生的任務感知對於改善員工的角色內任務表現更為相關和關鍵。然而,當同儕過高資歷時,過高資歷對員工的組織公民行為通過任務重要性和人-組合適配之間的間接關係更為強烈。 這些研究結果表明,為了鼓勵員工更多地為組織做出貢獻,他們對任務和人際環境都持有良好看法是必要的。儘管直覺上具吸引力,我們鼓勵未來的研究進一步探討過度合格對員工的任務相關和人際看法以及其角色內外績效結果是否有差異性影響。
Figure 3. Interactive effect of overqualification and peer overqualification on person-group fit.
圖 3. 過度匹配和同儕過度匹配對人-群體適配的交互作用。
Table 3 表 3
Results of the Moderated Path Analysis
First stage  第一階段 Direct effect  直接效應 Indirect effect  間接效應
Estimate 估計
Estimate 估計
Estimate 估計

過度資格 任務重要性 職務內績效路徑
Overqualification task significance in-role
performance path
High peer overqualification
.43 .03 .06
Low peer overqualification
.22 .01 .03
Difference between low and high
.21 .03 .03
Overqualification task significance OCB path
過度資格 任務重要性 組織公民行為路徑
High peer overqualification
.43 -.00 .08
Low peer overqualification
.22 -.03 .04
Difference between low and high
.21 .03 .04

過度資格 人員群組適配 在職績效路徑
Overqualification person-group fit in-role
performance path
High peer overqualification
.41 .03 .00
Low peer overqualification
.20 .00 .00
Difference between low and high
.21 .03 .00
Overqualification person-group fit OCB path
過度資格 人員群體適配 組織公民行為路徑
High peer overqualification
.41 -.00 .08
Low peer overqualification
.20 -.03 .04
Difference between low and high
.21 .03 .04
Note. confidence interval; organizational citizenship behavior. The analysis was based on 1,000 resamples (Edwards & Lambert, 2007). The cells in bold indicates significance of the corresponding estimate.