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麦克尔是美国留学生,刚到中国来学习。今天他有了一位新同屋和新朋友一一由国学生 伟。他们刚刈布置完房间。天很热,两人ル了キモ, 有点儿累,便坐下来休息。
Michael is an American student studying in China. Today he has a new roommate and a new friend - a Chinese student named Wei. They have just finished arranging the room. It's very hot, and both of them are a bit tired, so they sit down to rest.


麦克尔: 哈, 总算完了。你想喝点儿什么吗? 我有茶、咖啡, 还有汽水、啤酒。
Michael: Finally done. What would you like to drink? I have tea, coffee, soda, and beer.
王大伟:不了,谢谢。 Wang Dawei: No, thank you.
麦克尔:你真的不想喝吗?天气这么热,我想你最好还是喝一点儿, 不要客气。我喝啤酒, 你呢?
Michael: Are you sure you don't want to drink? It's so hot, I think you'd better have a little, don't be polite. I'm having beer, what about you?
王大伟; 如果不麻烦的话,我就喝点儿汽水吧,谢谢。
Wang Dawei; If it's not too much trouble, I'll just have some soda, thank you.
麦克尔: 来中国以前, 听人说在中国请人喝茶或吃东西, 一定要请几次, 中国人才接受。看来还真是这样。
Michael: Before coming to China, I heard that when inviting someone in China for tea or food, you have to invite them several times before they accept. It seems to be true.
王大伟:你对中国还挺了解的嘛。 Wang Dawei: You seem to know quite a bit about China.
麦克尔: 哪里, 哪里,差得远啦。中国人的习惯、礼节,我了解的还不多,恐怕以后会闹笑话或者造成别人的误解。请你以
Michael: Where, where, there is still a long way to go. I don't know much about Chinese customs and etiquette. I'm afraid I will make jokes or cause misunderstandings in the future. Please

后多多帮助我。 Hou Duo Duo helped me a lot.
王大伟: 没问题,互相帮助嘛。 Wang Dawei: No problem, helping each other.
(有人敲门) (Someone is knocking on the door)
王大伟:(开门)哟, 张立, 是你呀, 快请进。介绍一下儿, 这是我的同学张立, 这是麦克尔。
Wang Dawei: (opening the door) Hey, Zhang Li, it's you. Please come in quickly. Let me introduce, this is my classmate Zhang Li, this is Michael.
张 立:你好!(握手) Zhang Li: Hello! (Shaking hands)
麦克尔: 你好!(握手) Michael: Hello! (Shaking hands)
王大伟:请坐吧。来,喝瓶可乐。 Wang Dawei: Please have a seat. Here, have a bottle of cola.
张 立:好,我自己来。嗯,房间布置得不错嘛。 Zhang Li: Okay, I'll do it myself. Hmm, the room is nicely decorated.
麦克尔: 对不起, 大伟, 我想问一下儿, 刚才你怎么问也不问就给他喝可乐,他怎么也没说“不用,不用,谢谢”?
Michael: Sorry, Dawei, I want to ask, why did you give him a cola without even asking just now, and he didn't say "No need, thank you"?
王大伟:哈哈,你观察得真仔细。在中国,很好的朋友或是同事之间,是不必客气的, 说话也比较随便和直截了当。再说,中国人招待客人时,一般也不总问客人是不是想吃什么或是想喝什么,而常常是直接把东西放到客人面前,让客人自己挑选。
Wang Dawei: Haha, you are very observant. In China, good friends or colleagues do not need to be polite to each other, and conversations are more casual and straightforward. Moreover, when Chinese people entertain guests, they usually do not always ask guests what they want to eat or drink, but often directly place things in front of guests for them to choose.
麦克尔: 为什么这样做? Michael: Why do this?
Wang Dawei: If the host asks the guest first, the guest usually declines politely, saying "no need to bother" or "thank you, I'm fine." In this way, the host seems insincere in wanting to entertain the guest. Therefore, many times, the host is just extending an invitation to show hospitality.

的心意。总之, 这些客套习俗, 时间长了,你就了解了。
The intention. In short, these polite customs, over time, you will understand.

麦克尔: 这些独特的习惯, 你不解释, 我还真不清楚。看来, 我知道的还太少。
Michael: These unique habits, if you don't explain, I really don't understand. It seems that I know too little.
张 立: 大伟, 我有两张今晚的京剧票, 在学校礼堂。我有事, 没时间看,你要不要?
Zhang Li: Dawei, I have two tickets for tonight's Peking Opera at the school auditorium. I have something to do and no time to watch. Do you want them?
王大伟: 麦克尔, 你想看京剧吗? Wang Dawei: Michael, do you want to watch Peking Opera?
麦克尔:当然,我早就想看看京剧是什么样儿了。 Michael: Of course, I've been wanting to see Peking Opera for a long time.
王大伟:那好,我们今晚去吧。谢谢你, 张立。 Wang Dawei: Okay, let's go tonight. Thank you, Zhang Li.
张立: 不客气。我还有点儿事, 就告辞了。有空儿去我那儿玩儿。
Zhang Li: You're welcome. I have something to attend to, so I'll take my leave. Feel free to come over to my place when you have time.
王大伟: 好,一定去。再见。 Wang Dawei: Okay, I will definitely go. Goodbye.
张 立; 麦克尔, 再见。
Zhang Li; Michael, goodbye.
麦克尔: 再见。欢迎再来。大伟, 张立家在哪儿?
Michael: Goodbye. Welcome back. Dawei, where is Zhang Lijia?
王大伟: 就在离学校不远的地方, 怎么了? Wang Dawei: What's wrong, not far from the school?
麦克尔:那我们什么时候去他家? Michael: When are we going to his house?
王大伟:他没邀请我们去呀。哦,他刚才说“有空儿去我那儿玩儿”也是句客气话, 随口说说的。真正邀请时, 他会主动告诉我们时间和地点。
Wang Dawei: He didn't invite us. Oh, when he just said "come to my place when you're free," it was just a polite remark, said casually. When he really invites us, he will proactively tell us the time and place.
麦克尔: 哈, 又是客套。不过, 这跟美国差不多。
Michael: Hi, it's just a formality. But, it's similar to the United States.
傍晩, 王大伟和麦克尔两个人准备去看京剧。麦克尔开始穿衬衣、西服。
In the evening, Wang Dawei and Michael were getting ready to watch Peking Opera. Michael started to put on a shirt and a suit.
王大伟: 麦克尔, 天这么热,你穿那么多干吗? Wang Dawei: Michael, why are you wearing so much when the weather is so hot?
麦克尔:看戏应该穿礼服呀,不是吗? Michael: Shouldn't we wear formal attire to the theater, right?
王大伟:今天的演出主要是给我们学校的学生看, 不那么正式, 只要穿戴整齐、别太随便就行。我看, 你穿那件祄衫就行了。时间不多了,我们得赶快。
Wang Dawei: Today's performance is mainly for the students of our school to watch, not so formal, just need to dress neatly, not too casually. I think you can just wear that robe. Time is running out, we need to hurry.
麦克尔:(脱下西服)那好,我们走吧。 Michael: (takes off suit) Well, let's go.

(敲门声) (Knocking sound)

林梦竹: 王大伟在吗? Lin Mengzhu: Is Wang Dawei there?
王大伟:是你,小林,快请进。 Wang Dawei: It's you, Xiaolin, please come in quickly.
林梦竹:听说你搬到这儿了,我来看看。 Lin Mengzhu: I heard that you moved here, so I came to take a look.
王大伟: 我来介绍一下儿, 我的新同屋麦克尔。这位是我的同学林梦竹。
Wang Dawei: Let me introduce my new roommate, Michael. This is my classmate Lin Mengzhu.
麦克尔: (十分焦急, 赶忙说) 你好! 对不起, 我和大伟马上要去看京剧。
Michael: (very anxious, hurriedly said) Hello! I'm sorry, Dawei and I are going to see Peking Opera right away.
林梦竹: 哦, 那我就不打扰了。 Lin Mengzhu: Oh, then I won't disturb you.
王大伟: 这….. Wang Dawei: This...
林梦竹:没关系,我下次再来。再见。 Lin Mengzhu: It's okay, I'll come again next time. Goodbye.
麦克尔: 我们快走吧。 Michael: Let's go quickly.
(两人走出大门。王大伟露出不太高兴的表情。) (The two of them walked out of the gate. Wang Dawei showed a somewhat unhappy expression.)
王大伟: 麦克尔, 我的同学来玩儿, 你是不是不太欢迎?
Wang Dawei: Michael, my classmate is coming to play, are you not very welcoming?
麦克尔:什么?没有呀。你为什么这么想? Michael: What? No. Why would you think that?
王大伟: 因为你把我的同学赶跑了。 Wang Dawei: Because you drove away my classmate.
麦克尔:可是我们真的有事, 不是吗? 她来玩儿,应该预先和你约定一个时间。
Michael: But we do have something important, don't we? If she's coming to play, she should have arranged a time with you in advance.
王大伟: 在中国, 朋友、同学随便来玩儿玩儿, 串串门儿、聊聊
Wang Dawei: In China, friends and classmates come over casually, hang out, and chat

天儿, 不一定需要预先约定。如果主人很忙, 客人会自动离开。但不管怎样, 主人都应该对客人表示欢迎。再说,她是女孩子,又难得来,马上就让她走,不太礼貌。
Weather, it is not necessary to make an appointment in advance. If the host is busy, the guest will leave automatically. However, in any case, the host should welcome the guest. Besides, she is a girl, and it's rare for her to come. Letting her leave right away is not very polite.
麦克尔: 我明白了。对不起。你的同学会不会生气? 我明天一定向她道歉。
Michael: I understand. I'm sorry. Will your classmate be angry? I will apologize to her tomorrow for sure.
Wang Dawei: That's not necessary. Besides, you are a foreigner, she probably won't get angry. Michael: Oh no, where are my bicycle keys? Oh no, I must have left them in the pocket of that suit. I have to go back and get them, please wait.
王大伟: 唉!真是越急越慢。 Wang Dawei: Alas! The more rushed, the slower it gets.
  1. 客套 kètào Polite expressions
1 [名] 表示客气的话: 我们是老朋友了, 不用讲 。( polite expression )
1 [N] Polite expression: We have been old friends, no need to say.
2 [动] 说客气话: 他们互相 了几句。(to greet politely)

2. 礼节(禮節) lijié

[名] 表示尊敬、祝愿等的各种惯用形式, 如握手、鞠躬等: 中国是很注意 的国家。(courtesy, etiquette)
[Noun] Various customary forms of showing respect, good wishes, etc., such as handshakes, bows, etc.: China is a country that pays great attention to courtesy and etiquette.
  1. 总算 (總算) zǒngsuàn Finally
[副] 经过花费时间、努力, 最终达到一个结果: 我等了他一个小时, 他~来了。 (at long last, finally)
[Adverb] After spending time and effort, finally achieving a result: I waited for him for an hour, and he ~ finally arrived.
  1. 一点儿 (一點兒) yìdiănr A little
[数量]少量, 与 “有点儿, 有一点儿” 相同: 我有~累。/我还有 钱。(a little, a bit, a small amount)
[Quantity] A small amount, the same as "a little, a bit": I am a little tired. / I still have money.
  1. 闹笑话 (䦖笑話) nào xiàohua
    Make a fool of oneself
[动词词组] 因粗心大意或不懂某些知识、习惯而发生可笑的错误:我刚到广州时, 因为听不懂广州话, 常常 。(to make a stupid mistake)
[Verb Phrase] Making silly mistakes due to carelessness or lack of understanding of certain knowledge or habits: When I first arrived in Guangzhou, I often made stupid mistakes because I couldn't understand Cantonese.

6. 造成 zàochéng 6. Cause
[动]产生: 坏天气~交通困难。(to create, to cause, to bring about)
[动]产生: 坏天气~交通困难。(to create, to cause, to bring about) Generated Translation: Generate: Bad weather ~ traffic difficulties.

7. 误解 (誤觧) wùjjě
7. Misunderstanding

[ 动] 理解得不正确:我没这个意思, 你~了。(to misunderstand)
Misunderstood: I didn't mean that, you misunderstood.

8. 同事 tóngshì 8. Colleague
[名] 在同一单位工作的人: 我和他是~。(colleague)
9. 或是 huòshì 9. Or
[连]或者: 大人~小孩儿都要买票。(or, perhaps)
10. 直截了当(直截了當) zhíjié lião dàng
10. Straightforward

[形容词词组] (言语、行动等) 简单、直接、爽快: 他说话~。(straight forward)
[Adjective phrase] (speech, actions, etc.) simple, direct, straightforward: 他说话~。(straightforward)

11. 再说 (再說) zàishuō
11. Moreover

Source Text: [连]表示推进一层:去叫他看戏,已经来不及了,~他也不一定有时间。(be- Translated Text: [Conj] Indicates a further step: It's too late to ask him to watch the show, and even if you do, he may not have time.

sides, what's more)
12. 时 (時) ..... shí
[名] ……的时候: 上课 不要打电话。(when, at the time of)
[Noun] When: Do not make phone calls during class.

13. 挑选 (挑選) tiāoxuăn
13. Select

[动] 选择:请在这几个里面 一个。(to choose, to select, to pick out)
14. 谢绝(謝縃) xièjué 14. Decline (謝縃) xièjué
[动]客气地表示不接受、拒绝:~参观。(to refuse in a polite way; to decline)
[动]客气地表示不接受、拒绝:~参观。(to refuse in a polite way; to decline) Translated Text: Decline politely: ~ visit.

15. 客气话(客氣話) kèqihuà 15. Polite Expressions
[名]客气的句子或表述: “哪里, 哪里” 是句~。(polite words, polite expres-
Translation: [Noun] Polite sentence or expression: "No, no" is a ~. (polite words, polite expres-

16. 并非(並非) ..... bìngfēi
16. Not...

[动] 并不是: 便宜的东西 不好。( really not)
[动] It's not that cheap things are not good.

17. 真心 zhēnxīn 17. Sincerity
[名]真实的心情: 这是我的 话。(wholehearted, heartfelt)
[Noun] True feelings: This is my word. (wholehearted, heartfelt)

18. 好客 hàokè 18. Hospitality

[形] 欢迎客人: 他很~,总是请我们去他家玩儿。( hospitable)
[Adjective] Hospitable: He is very hospitable, always inviting us to his house to hang out.
  1. 心意 xīnyì Heartfelt intentions
[名] 对人的情意、感情: 送你一件礼物表示我的~。(nice/kind feeling or regard)
[Noun] Feelings or regard towards a person: Giving you a gift to show my ~.

20. 总之 (總之) zǒngzhī
20. In short

[连] 表示下文是总结性的话:我喜欢看电影, 故事片、武打片、戏曲片…… ,各种电影都爱看。(in a word, in short, in brief)
[Note] Indicates that the following text is a summary: I like watching movies, including feature films, martial arts films, opera films... I love watching all kinds of movies.

21. 习俗 (習俗) xísú
21. Customs

[名]习惯和风俗:过年吃饺子是中国很多地方的~。(custom, convention, tradition)
[Noun] Custom and tradition: Eating dumplings during the Chinese New Year is a ~ in many places in China.

22. 独特(獨特)dútè 22. Unique

[形] 独有的、特别的:这件衣服的式样很~。(unique, distinctive, peculiar)
[Adjective] Unique, distinctive, peculiar: The style of this clothing is very unique.
  1. 早就 zăojiù Long ago
[副] 很早就已经:他~来了。(long ago/before)
[Adverb] A long time ago: He came a long time ago.
  1. 什么样 (什麼様) shénmeyàng What kind
[代]什么样子: 她长~? (what kind, what sort)
What does she look like?
  1. 告辞 (告鼡) gàocí Farewell
[动](向主人)告别、辞别: 我看他很忙,在他家坐了一会儿就~了。(to say goodbye to, to part with)
  1. 哪儿(哪兒) năr Where (năr)
[代] 哪里:你住在 ? (where)
Where: Where do you live?

27. 随口(隨口)suíkǒu 27. Offhand

[副]随便说说, 不当真: 我只是 说说, 不一定是对的。(to speak thoughtlessly, to speak carelessly)
[Adverb] Speak casually, don't take it seriously: I'm just speaking casually, it may not necessarily be correct.

28. 西服 xifú 28. Suit

[名]西洋式的服装,这里特指男子穿的西式上衣、背心和裤子:他去出席宴会时总是穿~。( Western suit)
[Noun]Western-style clothing, specifically referring to the Western-style jacket, vest, and trousers worn by men: He always wears a Western suit when attending banquets.
  1. 干吗 (乾嗎) gànma What's up
[疑问代词]干什么,询问原因和目的:你~问这些事? /你 不告诉他?(why)
Source Text: [疑问代词]干什么,询问原因和目的:你~问这些事? /你 不告诉他?(why) Translated Text: [Interrogative pronoun] do what, inquire about reasons and purposes: Why do you ask about these things? / You don't tell him? (why)
  1. 穿戴 chuāndài Wearables
1 [动] 穿衣打扮: 我们要出门了, 你 好了没有? (to wear clothes, to be dressed)
1 [动] Dressing up: We are about to leave, are you ready?
2 [名] 穿着: 他的 总是很整齐。(apparel, dress)
2 [Noun] Attire: His is always very neat.
  1. 焦急 jiāojí Urgent
[形] 着急: 心里~/十分~(worried)
[Adjective] Worried: Mentally anxious / Very anxious
  1. 赶忙 (星忙) gănmáng Hastily (Star Hastily) gănmáng
[副]赶紧、连忙: 上课的时间到了,他~往教室跑。(hurriedly)
[Adverb] Hurriedly, promptly: It's time for class, he hurriedly ran to the classroom.
  1. 露出 lùchū Exposure
[动]显示出,表现出:他的脸上~了笑容。(to show, to reveal)
[动]显示出,表现出:他的脸上~了笑容。(to show, to reveal) [Verb] to show, to reveal: A smile appeared on his face.
  1. 表情 biăoqíng Emoji
[Noun] The thoughts and emotions expressed on the face or in gestures: Excitement was evident in his expression.
  1. 赶跑(䞨跑)gănpăo Chase away (gănpăo)
[ 动] 用言语或动作让人离开: 他用石头把狗 了。( to chase away, to make somebody leave )
[动] 用言语或动作让人离开: 他用石头把狗了。(to chase away, to make somebody leave)
  1. 预先 (預先) yùxiān Predefined
[副] 事先,在事情发生或进行之前:~通知/~安排(in advance, beforehand)
[Adverb] In advance, before the occurrence or progress of things: ~ notification / ~ arrangement
  1. 约定(約定) yuēding
[动] 说定, 事先说好: 我跟他 三点钟见面。(to agree on, to appoint, to arrange)
  1. 串串门儿 chuàn chuan ménr
[动词词组]随便到别人家去坐坐,聊聊天儿,也说 “串门儿”:他总喜欢在傍晚时去朋友家~。(to drop in, to call at somebody's home)
  1. 聊聊天儿 liáo liáo tiānr
[动词词组]随便交谈,也常用 “聊天儿”:他们常常在一起~。(to chat)
[Verb Phrase] Casual conversation, also commonly used as "chat": They often ~ together.

40. 难得 (難得) ..... nándé
40. Rarely

[形] (1)不常常(发生):这样大的雨~碰到。(2)不容易得到或办到:他取得这
[Adjective] (1) Not happening often: Such heavy rain is rare. (2) Not easy to obtain or achieve: He managed to obtain this.

么好的成绩十分~。(seldom /difficult to do or get something)
What a good result!

41. 明白 ..... míngbai
41. Understand ..... míngbai

1 [动] 懂, 知道: 我 了。(to understand)
2 [形]清楚:这个问题书上说得很~。(clear, obvious, plain)
2 [adj] clear: The book explains this issue very clearly.

42. 钥匙 (錀匙) yàoshi
42. Key (錀匙) yàoshi

[名] 开锁的工具: 这把 是开这把锁的。(key)
[Name] Unlocking tool: This is the key to unlock this lock. (key)

43. 糟 ..... zāo
43. Fermented... zāo

[形]坏,不好:这次考试我考得很~。(bad, awful)
[Adjective] Bad, not good: I did very poorly on this exam.

语气助词 Modal Particle

  1. 哈 hā Ha hā
[Aha] expressing joy, surprise, etc.: Aha, this time I got it right!
  1. 哟(哟)  Yo (yo)
[叹] 表示惊讶等语气: ,你怎么来了? (used to express slight surprise)
[Sigh] How come you're here?
  1. 害 hài Damage
[叹] 表示后悔, 伤心或惊奇:,我怎么搞的。/!真奇怪。(hey, to express regret, sadness or surprise)
[Sigh] Expressing regret, sadness, or surprise: "What have I done?!" So strange.

4. 哦 ò 4. Oh ò

[叹]表示明白、答应等:~, 我知道了。(used to express newly gained understanding; softly chant

5. 烸 hāi 5. Hāi

[叹] 引起注意或表示满意、惊奇等语气:~, 你去哪儿?(hey, to show pride or satisfaction; used to express surprise)
[Sigh] Attract attention or express satisfaction, surprise, etc.: Hey, where are you going?
  1. 唉 ài
[叹] 表示无奈、伤心、后悔等语气:~,今天天气又不好。(sound of sighing to show helplessness, sadness or regret)
[Sigh] expressing helplessness, sadness, regret, etc.: [Sigh], the weather is bad again today.
  1. 麦克尔 Màikè'ěr Màikè'ěr
  2. E大伟 Wáng Dàwěi E 大伟 Wáng Dàwěi
  3. 张立 Zhāng Li
  4. 林梦竹
Lín Mèngzhú

一、用正确的语气、语调及句重音读出下列句子。 One, read the following sentences with the correct tone, intonation, and sentence stress.

1 哈,总算完了。 1 Ha, finally finished.
2 你真的不想喝吗? 2 Are you sure you don't want to drink?
3 哟, 张立, 是你呀, 快请进。
Hey, Zhang Li, it's you. Please come in quickly.
4 天这么热,你穿那么多干吗? Why are you wearing so much when it's so hot for 4 days?
5 看戏应该穿西服呀。 Watching a play should be done in a suit.
6 什么? 没有呀。 6 What? No.
7 可是我们真的有事,不是吗? But we really do have something to do, don't we?
8 唉!真是越急越慢。 8 Alas! The more hurried, the slower.

二、用下列词语填空,然后再用这个词语完成句子。 Fill in the blanks with the following words, and then use the word to complete the sentence.

误解 串门儿直截了当 预先 聊聊 谢绝
Misunderstanding, go straight to the point, in advance, chat, decline
Make some mistakes or say inappropriate or incorrect things that make others laugh: make a joke
他把盐当做糖放在咖啡里,闹笑话了。 He mistakenly put salt instead of sugar in the coffee, which caused a funny situation.
  1. 错误地理解别人的意思: Misunderstanding others' intentions:
a. 安娜的汉语发音经常有错误, 结果别人常常
a. Anna often makes mistakes in her Chinese pronunciation, so others often .
b. 由于文化习俗不同, 外国人和中国人交往时 -
b. Due to different cultural customs, when foreigners and Chinese people interact -
  1. 说话和行动很直接、简单、清楚: Speaking and acting are very direct, simple, and clear:
a. 请你把意思 - a. Please convey the meaning of -
b. 不管别人是不是接受, 他总是 -
b. No matter whether others accept it or not, he always -
  1. 很客气地表示感谢并拒绝: Express gratitude politely and decline:
a. 我想请她吃饭,她因为没有空儿, -
a. I want to invite her to dinner, but she is busy, -
b. 余楠决心自己独立完成这项工作, -
b. Yu Nan is determined to complete this task independently, -
  1. 随便到朋友、熟人的房间或家中去坐坐、聊聊: Feel free to visit a friend's or acquaintance's room or home to sit and chat:
a. 中国人之间很喜欢互相  a. Chinese people like to each other very much.
b. 听说马志远从西藏回来了,我们
Source Text: b. 听说马志远从西藏回来了,我们 。 Translated Text: b. I heard that Ma Zhiyuan has returned from Tibet, we .
  1. 很随便、没有主题地说说话,谈一谈: Very casually, speaking without a specific topic, let's talk:
a. 坐火车旅行时,  When traveling by train,
b. 他们不是在学习,
b. They are not studying, .
  1. 在事情发生或进行之前: Before things happen or take place:
a. 外出旅行,最好 . Traveling abroad, it's best to .
b. 这次台风,气象台作了预报,所以大家
b. This typhoon, the meteorological station made a forecast, so everyone .

三、找出下列每组词中, 哪两个是近义词或同义词。
Find out which two words in each group are synonyms or have similar meanings.

1 礼节 1. Etiquette 礼仪 礼貌 礼物
2 误解 2 Misunderstandings 错误 误车 误会
3 招待 3 Invitations 接待 招呼 对待

四、请说出一些用下列汉字构成的词。 Four, please list some words formed by the following Chinese characters.

客: 礼:  Customer: Gift:
告: 预:
Notice: Forecast:

知:  Knowledge:

五、A 组是每段课文的序号, B 组是它们的内容概括, 请用直线把它们连接起来。
Fifth, Group A is the serial number of each passage, Group B is a summary of their content, please connect them with a straight line.

I ]
(1) 邀请的习惯 (1) Habit of Invitation
[ II ]
(2) 怎样对待突然来访的客人 (2) How to treat suddenly visiting guests
[ III ]
(3) 待客的礼节 (3) Etiquette for receiving guests
(4) 看戏时的服装 (4) Costumes for Watching Performances

六、选择正确的关联词语填空。 Six, choose the correct conjunction to fill in the blanks.

1 中国人告别时 说 “再见” , 喜欢说“有空儿来我家玩儿”“常来玩儿” “下次再来玩儿” 之类的话。这是一个不确定的邀请, 比较随便, 也就是说你任何时候来访都会受到欢迎。 听这句话的时候你不知道说话人的家庭地址,那就表明这只是一句客套话, 不是真正
When Chinese people say goodbye, some say "goodbye," while others prefer to say "come to my house when you have time," "come often," or "come play next time." This is an uncertain invitation, quite casual, meaning you are welcome to visit anytime. If you don't know the speaker's home address when you hear this, it's just a polite expression, not a real invitation.
的邀请。 Invitation.
2 中国人喜欢互相串门儿、聊天儿, 不是正式的拜访和邀请 (如请人吃饭等), 不一定需要预先约定, 要注意避免在吃饭时间 主人休息时去拜访。 主人比较忙 是正要外出, 客人应当主动告辞或另约个时间再来。
Chinese people like to visit each other and chat, it is not a formal visit or invitation (such as inviting someone to dinner), it is not necessary to make an appointment in advance, it is important to avoid visiting during meal times or when the host is resting. If the host is busy or about to go out, the guest should take the initiative to say goodbye or arrange another time to come.
3 客人来访,到了吃饭时间,主人一般要邀请客人留下吃饭,客人 应当谢绝 结束谈话, 起身告辞。 是从远方来的客人 是不常见面的朋友, 主人通常会坚决邀请客人留下吃饭, 还会准备几样好菜。
When guests visit, at mealtime, the host generally invites them to stay for a meal. Guests should decline politely after finishing the conversation and take their leave. If the guest is from afar or a friend not often seen, the host usually insists on the guest staying for the meal and may even prepare some good dishes.
4 我不想和你去看那个电影, 因为我没有时间, 我已经看过了。
I don't want to go see that movie with you because I don't have time, I've already seen it.

七、请用所给结构改写下列句子。 Seven, please rewrite the following sentences using the given structure.

“(连) 也都 (没) , 就…” (even as / not even as)
"(Even) (didn't) , just..."

例 A. 早晨刘康起得太晩, 结果连早饭也没吃就去上课了。 B. 考试时, 约翰对题目的要求连看也不看, 就一直往下写, 结果都错了。
Example A. Liu Kang got up too late in the morning, so he went to class without even having breakfast. B. During the exam, John didn't even look at the requirements of the questions, he just kept writing down, and as a result, they were all wrong.

1 外面下着雨, 布朗没带伞就出去了。 Outside, it was raining, but Brown went out without an umbrella.
2 老太太眼睛不好, 每天送来的报纸她不看就扔了。
The old lady with poor eyesight throws away the newspapers delivered to her every day without reading them.
3 这只熊猫病了, 不吃东西, 送给它的食物它都不看。
This panda is sick and not eating anything, it doesn't even look at the food given to it.
4 你没尝过中国菜,怎么知道中国菜好不好吃? Source Text: 4 你没尝过中国菜,怎么知道中国菜好不好吃? Translated Text: If you haven't tried Chinese food, how do you know if it's good or not?
5 这种事我从来没听说过, 更别说看见了。 I have never heard of such a thing, let alone seen it.
6 麦克病得这么历害, 躺在床上不能起来, 怎么能出去旅游?
With such a severe case of Mycobacterium avium complex disease, how can one go on a trip when lying in bed unable to get up?

八、汉语口语中常用各种语气词帮助表达情感语气, 请根据上下文分析课文中出现的语气词的意思, 然后用这些语气词做一些会话练习。
8. Various modal particles commonly used in spoken Chinese help express emotional tones. Please analyze the meanings of the modal particles that appear in the text according to the context, and then practice some conversations using these modal particles.

九、语段表达。 Nine, paragraph expression.

Use the following paragraph framework to talk about the content of the first lesson and your opinion.

语段夆达一般包食而面的风突: Paragraph Fu Da generally includes both food and surface wind:

(2) 可际组合法 (即可与句口间进行组合时眹䒺于段和局语);
(2) Capable of combination method (i.e., capable of combining between sentences and clauses within a paragraph and context);
3 本课新词语。 3 new words in this lesson.
值得注憙的是, 有些联系词语忩定出现在语段的开头, 有的总是出现在语段中间, 有的则大务出现在语段的末尾。从本课起,我们把语段表达的三个内容列成表格供学习者使用。用以下框架和万法表达语段的同时,位用上“本课新词语”。其余课类推。
It is worth noting that some connecting words always appear at the beginning of a paragraph, some always appear in the middle of a paragraph, and some mainly appear at the end of a paragraph. Starting from this lesson, we will list the three contents expressed in the paragraph into a table for learners to use. Use the following framework and methods to express the paragraph, incorporating the "new words in this lesson." Apply the same approach to subsequent lessons.
语段框架 Paragraph Framework 句际组合方法 Inter-sentential Combination Method
主题句(提起话题或表明观点) Topic Sentence (Introduce the topic or state the viewpoint)
结束句(概括或重申你的观点) Closing Sentence (Summarize or restate your point)
本课新词语: New terms in this lesson:
直截了当 闹笑话 Straightforwardly Making a Joke 谢绝 连……也(都)….. Decline to even connect...

十、文化情境读和说。 Ten, cultural context reading and speaking.

下面是五篇短文, 呈现了客套和礼节的种种情境。快速阅读, 然后讨论并回答短文后边的问题。
Below are five short texts presenting various situations of courtesy and etiquette. Read them quickly, then discuss and answer the questions following each text.

一 初访  First Visit

宋月: 请问, 这是张宁家吗? Song Yue: Excuse me, is this the Zhang Ning residence?
张母:对,请进,您是…… Mother Zhang: Yes, please come in. Who are you?
宋月:伯母,我姓宋,是小张的同事。 Song Yue: Aunt, my surname is Song, and I am Xiao Zhang's colleague.
Zhang's mother: Oh, it's Xiaosong. I've heard Ningning mention you before. Come, have a seat. Ningning, we have a guest.
张宁:哟,宋月,是你啊。今天怎么有空儿来了? Zhang Ning: Yo, Song Yue, it's you. How come you have time to come today?
Song Yue: Xiaoding is sick, just sent to the hospital. The factory director asked the two of us to take care of him first. Get ready, let's go.
张宁:好, 你坐坐, 我换件衣服。 Zhang Ning: Okay, please have a seat, I'll change my clothes.
张母: 小宋, 喝茶吧? Zhang's Mother: Xiaosong, would you like some tea?
宋月:不, 谢谢, 伯母, 您别忙。
Song Yue: No, thank you, Auntie, you don't have to hurry.
张母:你难得来,别客气,吃个苹果吧。 Mother Zhang: You rarely come, don't be polite, have an apple.
宋月:伯母,不吃。我刚吃过饭,吃不下。 Song Yue: Aunt, I'm not eating. I just had a meal and I can't eat anymore.
张母: 看你,一个苹果才多大点儿, 吃吧, 吃吧。
Mother Zhang: Look at you, such a small apple, go ahead, eat it.
宋月:䒨,那谢谢您了。伯母,您今年多大年纪了? Song Yue: Xie, thank you. Auntie, how old are you this year?
张母: 老了, 快七十啦。 Mother Zhang: Getting old, almost seventy.
宋月:这么大年纪, 身体还这么好。 Song Yue: You're at such an advanced age, yet your health is still so good.
张母: 还行, 马马虎虎。 Mother Zhang: It's okay, so-so.
宋月:哪儿啊, 您结实着呢。伯父呢, 不在家? Song Yue: Where are you? You look strong. Is Uncle at home?
Mother Zhang: He can't sit still at home. Look, he's gone out to see those old friends again.
Song Yue: Hey, Xiaozhang, are you ready? Let's go then. Auntie, we're leaving, goodbye.
张母:你们有事, 我也不留你了。小宋啊, 以后有空儿就来玩儿。
Mother Zhang: If you have something to do, I won't keep you. Xiao Song, come and play whenever you have time in the future.
宋月: 一定来,伯母。 Song Yue: I will definitely come, Aunt.
1 当你去看朋友时,对朋友的父母:() When you visit a friend, how do you treat your friend's parents?
(1) 如果你愿意,可以谈一谈,不愿意可以不谈。
(1) If you are willing, we can talk; if you are not willing, we don't have to.
(2) 应该跟他们谈很多他们感兴趣的事,让他们喜欢你。
(2) You should talk to them about many things they are interested in, so they will like you.
(3) 应该跟他们打个招呼,稍谈几句。 (3) Should say hello to them and have a brief chat.
2 当你结束对朋友的拜访时:() When you finish visiting a friend: ( )
(1) 只要跟朋友打一下儿招呼就行了。 (1) Just say hello to your friends.
(2) 只要跟朋友的父母打一下儿招呼。 Just say hello to your friend's parents.
(3) 应该跟所有在场的人都打一下儿招呼。 (3) You should say hello to everyone present.
(3 做客时,对主人送上的茶水或点心:() When visiting someone's home, it is polite to accept the tea or snacks offered by the host
(1) 客人可以在感谢以后随便吃。 (1) Guests can eat as they please after giving thanks.
(2) 一般不吃。 (2) Generally do not eat.
(3) 常先表示谢绝, 待主人再次邀请后才会接受。
(3) Chang Xian declined at first, only accepting after the host extended the invitation again.

(二)星期天 (2) Sunday

今天真是个难得的星期天,三个人都在家。平时, 我妻子星期二休息, 所以, 星期天总是只有我们父女俩。今天是女儿的生日, 妻子千方百计换到今天休息, 我们要带上女儿出去好好玩儿玩儿, 过一个快乐的星期天。
Today is a rare Sunday with all three of us at home. Normally, my wife has Tuesdays off, so Sundays are usually just the two of us, father and daughter. Today is our daughter's birthday, and my wife made every effort to switch her day off to today. We are going to take our daughter out to have a good time and enjoy a happy Sunday.
八点半的时候,女儿已经穿好裙子,我也穿好了西服、皮鞋。这时,有人敲门。会是谁呢? 我朝门口走去。打开门, 一个年轻人站在门口, 自我介绍说: “李老师, 我叫林青, 是师大的, 来串串门儿。”我想起来了,四月份, 师大文学社请我去作过一次报告, 其中就有个叫林青的小伙子,他的诗写得不错。
At half past eight, my daughter was already dressed in her dress, and I was also dressed in a suit and leather shoes. At this time, someone knocked on the door. Who could it be? I walked towards the door. Opening it, a young man was standing there, introducing himself: "Teacher Li, I'm Lin Qing from the Normal University, here to visit." I remembered that in April, the Literature Society of the Normal University invited me to give a presentation, and there was a young man named Lin Qing among them, who wrote good poetry.
我赶忙请他进屋, 倒上茶。坐下后, 他跟我谈了起来。原来, 林青刚被选为会长, 文学社也新增加了一些会员, 最近, 同学们在外面发表了不少作品……说实话, 这些情况本来我也挺感兴趣的, 但今天, 情况实在特殊。女儿已经进来好几次了, 一脸的焦急。但是, 我总不能赶客人走吧。女儿又进来了, 朝我指指表。一身出门打扮的妻子也走了进来。林青看看她们, 看到我女儿脸上的表情, 终于明白了。
I hurriedly invited him into the house and poured tea. After sitting down, he started talking to me. It turned out that Lin Qing had just been elected as the president, and the literary society had also added some new members. Recently, many students have been publishing works outside... To be honest, I was quite interested in these situations, but today, the situation is really special. My daughter has come in several times, looking very anxious. However, I couldn't just ask the guest to leave. My daughter came in again, pointing at the watch to me. My wife, dressed to go out, also walked in. Lin Qing looked at them, saw the expression on my daughter's face, and finally understood.
他站了起来: “李老师, 你们还有事儿, 我告辞了。星期天打扰你们,真抱歉。”
He stood up: "Teacher Li, if you still have things to do, I'll take my leave. I'm sorry for disturbing you on Sunday."
真是个懂事的小伙子。我赶忙说: “哪里, 哪里。今天不巧, 下次有空儿来玩儿, 咱们再好好聊聊。”
He is a sensible young man. I quickly said, "Not at all, not at all. Unfortunately, I'm busy today. Next time you're free to come and play, we can chat properly."
1 在中国, 拜访别人时, 可以预约, 也可以不预约。当然, 最好预约。 ( )
When visiting someone in China, you can make an appointment or visit without one. Of course, it's best to make an appointment.
2 如果有客人来了, 而主人有事, 主人可以直截了当地告诉对方。()
2. If guests arrive and the host is busy, the host can directly inform the guests.

(三)宴会上的客套 (3) Politeness at the Banquet

在中国,㝠会开始时要布置座位。方桌,朝南的两个座位, 特别是左侧的那个是留给贵客的。入座的时候, 主人会再三邀请大家, 客人也会为座位互相礼让。
In China, seating arrangements are made at the beginning of a meal. At a square table, the two seats facing south, especially the one on the left, are reserved for honored guests. When taking a seat, the host will repeatedly invite everyone, and guests will also show courtesy to each other regarding seating.
每一道菜上来, 主人都要招呼大家吃, “请, 请, 请”,以后大家才会动箣子,主人常会对大家说“慢慢吃”“多吃点儿”。有时候,还会给客人夹菜, 在客人的矽里堆满菜。不过, 客人一般不会把莱吃完, 要是那样的话, 主人会很不好意思, 觉得自己准备的莱不够。
Every time a dish is served, the host will invite everyone to eat, saying "please, please, please," before everyone starts eating. The host often tells everyone to "eat slowly" and "eat more." Sometimes, the host will even help guests pick up food and fill their plates. However, guests usually don't finish all the food. If they do, the host will feel embarrassed, thinking that they didn't prepare enough food.
中餐桌上一般都比较热闹, 劝酒、劝莱, 客人们可以高声谈笑。中国人喜欢劝酒, 总是千方百计劝客人多吗一点儿。在北方有些地方, 还有这样的风俗,认为只有客人喝醉了,才跟主人是真正的好朋友。
At Chinese dining tables, it is usually lively, with toasting and urging guests to drink more. Guests can talk and laugh loudly. Chinese people like to toast and always try their best to persuade guests to drink a little more. In some northern regions, there is a custom that believes only when guests get drunk are they considered true friends with the host.
宴会结束的时候, 先吃完的人, 应该跟其他人打招呼 “慢㥅吃” “慢用”, 而主人, 应该是最后一个吃完的, 他必须陪着客人。
At the end of the banquet, those who finish eating first should greet others with "eat slowly" or "take your time," while the host should be the last one to finish eating and must accompany the guests.
(1) 在中国, 吃饭的时候餐桌上的位置是怎样安排的?
(1) In China, how are seating arrangements at the dining table organized?
(2) 主人在餐桌上应该怎么照顾客人? (2) How should the host take care of guests at the dining table?
3 吃饭时大声谈话会不会被认为是无礼的行为? Is it considered rude to talk loudly during meals?
4 如果你请一位中国朋友吃饭, 你发现他吃得很少, 怎么办?
If you invite a Chinese friend to dinner and find that they eat very little, what should you do?

(四)送礼的学问 (4) The Etiquette of Giving Gifts

逢年过节, 去朋友家做客, 空着手去总是不太好意思的事, 多少得带点儿礼物。
During festivals and special occasions, it's always a bit embarrassing to visit friends empty-handed, so it's necessary to bring some gifts.
送礼,也是一门学问。送给谁、送什么都值得考虑。 Giving gifts is also an art. It is worth considering who to give to and what to give.
礼物除了送给朋友本人以外还可以送给朋友家的老人和孩子。因为 “老小, 老小”, 在中国家庭中, 老人和孩子常常是最受关心和爱护的, 他们是家庭中的特殊人物。所以,把礼物送给他们家的老人或者孩子也一样。给老人买点儿点心, 给孩子买点儿吃的、穿的, 或者玩儿的, 朋友一定会认为你细心周到。
Gifts can be given not only to friends themselves but also to the elderly and children in their families. Because in Chinese families, the elderly and children are often the most cared for and loved, they are special figures in the family. Therefore, giving gifts to the elderly or children in their families is equally important. Buying some snacks for the elderly, buying food, clothes, or toys for the children, friends will definitely appreciate your thoughtfulness.
另外, 整个家庭或女主人也可以是送礼对象。如果你能挑选一件独特的礼物送给他们,就像直接送给你的朋友一样使他高兴。当然, 如果你是男人, 跟你的朋友年龄差不多, 那就不要只送礼物给你朋友的妻子。同样, 作为女人也不宜只送礼物给女朋友的丈夫。要是没有特别的礼物, 买点儿新鲜水果也可以。
In addition, the entire family or the hostess can also be the recipient of gifts. If you can choose a unique gift to give them, it will make them happy just like giving a gift directly to your friend. Of course, if you are a man and around the same age as your friend, then don't just give gifts to your friend's wife. Similarly, as a woman, it is not appropriate to only give gifts to your girlfriend's husband. If there are no special gifts, buying some fresh fruits is also acceptable.
动动脑子,你肯定会有更好的主意。 Use your brain, you will definitely come up with better ideas.
总之, 礼轻情义重, 花钱不在多, 主要的是你那点儿心意。
In short, courtesy is light but affection is deep, it's not about how much money you spend, but rather the thought behind it.

it论事回管 it 论事回管

  1. 当中国人正式邀请你去做客时, 如果你要带点儿礼物, 最好是送给谁的?
    When a Chinese person formally invites you to their home, who is it best to bring a gift for?
(2) 根据上文所说的,如果你的朋友家只有夫妻二人,没有老人、孩子,你最好为谁买礼物?
According to the above, if your friend's family consists of only the couple without elderly people or children, who should you buy a gift for?

根据故文形式炎一炎你目己国家的送礼蜆 According to the ancient text form, you can send gifts to your own country

(五)邀请 (5) Invitation

(刘晓进在校门口碰到两个认识的法国学生, 他们双方都很高兴。)
Liu Xiaojin met two French students he knew at the school gate, and they were both very happy.
刘晓进:最近好吗? Liu Xiaojin: How have you been recently?
法国人:很好。你呢? French person: Very good. And you?
刘晓进:我也很好。功课忙吗? Liu Xiaojin: I'm good too. Are you busy with your schoolwork?
法国人:不太忙,我们打算过两天去黄山旅行。 French: Not too busy, we plan to travel to Huangshan in a couple of days.
Liu Xiaojin: Oh, that's great, Huangshan is very beautiful. Okay, I have something to do, so I'll leave first. When you have time, come to my house to hang out.
法国人:什么时间?你家住哪儿? French: What time? Where do you live?
刘晓进:啊  Liu Xiaojin: Ah
1 刘晓进为什么回答不出来? Why can't Liu Xiaojin answer?
(2) 你知道中国人正式的邀请是怎样的吗? (2) Do you know what a formal Chinese invitation is like?

十一、跨文化交际问题讨论。 Eleven, discussion on cross-cultural communication issues.

1 当一个人有别的约会, 正要出门时, 来了一位客人。这时应该怎么办?
When a person has another appointment and is about to leave, a guest arrives. What should be done at this time?
中国人一 Chinese person one
你们国家的人一 People in your country are one
2 当一个不太熟悉的朋友请自己吃东西的时候,中国人一一
When a friend who is not very familiar invites you to eat something, Chinese people..
你们国家的人  People in your country
3 当一个十分熟悉的朋友请自己吃东西的时候,中国人一
When a very familiar friend invites you to eat something, Chinese people..
你自  You from
4 如果去一位朋友家做客, 看见他家里人,中国人一
4 If you go to a friend's house as a guest and see his family, a Chinese person
5 去朋友家吃饭时带的礼物常常是送给谁的?中国人一
When bringing a gift to a friend's house for dinner, who is it usually given to? Chinese people tend to give gifts to..
你自己一 You yourself one
6 作为真正的邀请,应该向对方说明什么? What should be explained to the other party as a true invitation?
中国人一 Chinese person one
你们国家的人 People in your country