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Fernando 费尔南多

'JNANDEZ'Habegger 哈贝格

\section*{STOP  \section*{停止


Pot Limit Omaha strategy training program.
It features in-depth training videos, challenging
quizzes, a strong network of players and weekly live
Q&A sessions.
Learning about the "Four Pillars of Postflop Strategy" reframed my decision making process in even the closest spots.

Now I feel more comfortable identifying when a hand is a clear raise, call, or fold on the flop, and find myself in fewer marginal situations on later streets than previously.
Mastering Small Stakes Pot-Limit Omaha should be required reading for any player new to PLO or transitioning from NLHE. Fernando has spent more time engaged in a deep study of PLO than anyone on the planet, so you can be confident his recommended strategies are in any game format and will remain so for many years to come.
精通小注额无限注奥马哈应该是任何新手 PLO 玩家或从 NLHE 过渡的玩家必读的书籍。Fernando 在深入研究 PLO 方面花费了比地球上任何人都多的时间,因此您可以相信他推荐的策略在任何游戏格式中都是有效的,并且将在未来很多年内保持不变。
The days when you could be successful in poker by only playing and sometimes reviewing your own hands is long gone. If you are serious about improving and want to take your game to the next level, Mastering Small Stakes Pot-Limit Omaha is one of the best purchases you can make.

- Einars, Amateur Poker Player
- Einars,业余扑克玩家

Even though I have been a professional poker player and student for more than a decade, this is the first time I really feel like one. This is thanks to Fernando and the PLO Mastermind team.
尽管我已经是一名职业扑克玩家和学生超过十年,但这是我第一次真正感觉自己像一个。这要感谢费尔南多和 PLO Mastermind 团队。
  • Arthur aka pechcore, Yearly PLO Mastermind member
I was able to move from playing low to mid-high stakes PLO in an incredibly short time frame by following Fernando's coaching.
我通过跟随费尔南多的指导,能够在极短的时间内从低档升级到中高档的 PLO 游戏。

He taught me how to think as a crusher and how to push myself every day to find new methods and new routines that could improve my game and my life as a whole."
  • Diego Montone, Amateur Poker Player

Fernando Habegger

Fernando "JNandez” Habegger is a well established Pot Limit Omaha specialist and coach. He started playing in 2006 and then took a job as a poker dealer in order to get closer to the game.
Fernando "JNandez” Habegger 是一位经验丰富的 Pot Limit Omaha 专家和教练。他从 2006 年开始玩牌,后来成为一名扑克荷官,以便更接近游戏。
Towards the end of 2010, JNandez made the move from No-Limit Hold'em to PLO. He started playing online after investing one third of his bankroll to get the best PLO and mental game coaching available at the time.
2010 年底,JNandez 从无限注德州扑克转向 PLO。他投资了自己的三分之一的银行存款,开始在线玩 ,以获取当时最好的 PLO 和心理游戏辅导。
Since 2011, JNandez has made a profit every year playing mid- and highstakes PLO cash games and tournaments, with profits ranging from to per year from playing poker. He's traveled to most of the major live poker stops and established himself as one of top PLO coaches in the game.
自 2011 年以来,JNandez 每年通过参加中高档 PLO 现金游戏和锦标赛赚取利润,利润范围从 美元不等。他曾前往大多数主要的现场扑克站点,并确立自己作为游戏中顶级 PLO 教练的地位。
In April 2018, JNandez launched the PLO Mastermind on JNandezPoker.com (now PLOMastermind.com), one of the biggest PLO training platforms in the world. His content has helped hundreds of members and students take their game and mindset to a new level.
2018 年 4 月,JNandez 在 JNandezPoker.com(现在是 PLOMastermind.com)上推出了 PLO Mastermind,这是世界上最大的 PLO 培训平台之一。他的内容帮助了数百名会员和学生将他们的游戏和心态提升到一个新的水平。
JNandez has travelled and documented the path to become a PLO crusher,
JNandez 已经旅行并记录了成为 PLO 破坏者的道路

and now offers his roadmap so you can get started in Mastering Small Stakes Pot-Limit Omaha.
First published in 2020 by D&B Publishing
2020 年首次由 D&B 出版社出版
Copyright © 2020 Fernando Habegger
The right of Fernando Habegger to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyrights, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
Fernando Habegger 被确认为此作品的作者,其权利已根据 1988 年的版权、设计和专利法案得到维护。
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of the publisher.
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
ISBN: 9781912862191 ISBN:9781912862191
Cover by Horacio Monteverde.
Printed and bound by Tallinna Raamatutrükikoda in Estonia.
All sales enquiries should be directed to Publishing: info@dandbpoker.com


Fernando 'JNANDEz' Habegger

Contents 内容

Introduction 介绍

01 A Modern Poker Approach

Section ONE: Preflop Play

02 Preflop Concepts 02 前翻概念
Preflop Strategy Introduction
Equity Distribution 股权分配
Stack-to-Pot Ratio 堆叠与底池比例
Nuttiness and Calibration
Preflop Sizing 翻牌前的下注大小
03 Preflop Ranges 03 翻牌前范围
First-In Raiser
Cold-calling Fundamentals
3-Betting Fundamentals
Facing a 3-Bet 面对 3-Bet
Facing a 3-Bet at 200bb
Limping 跛行
Defending the Big Blind Versus One Opponent
Defending the Big Blind Versus Multiple Players
04 Preflop Categories 04 起手牌分类
Category One: Aces
Category Two: Broadway Pairs
Category Three: Three Broadway Cards with One Non-Broadway
Category Four: Double-paired
Category Five: Rundowns
Category Six: Two Broadway Cards with Two Medium-low Connectors
Category Seven: Three Card Rundown with a Broadway Card
Category Eight: Mid-low Pairs
Category Nine: Ragged Hands


05 The Four Pillars of Postflop Analysis
05 后翻分析的四大支柱
Introduction to Postflop Strategy
The Four Pillars of Postflop Analysis
Pillar One: Equity
Pillar Two: Polarization
Pillar Three: Position
Pillar Four: Stack-to-Pot Ratio (SPR)
06 Postflop Concepts 06 翻牌概念
C-betting Fundamentals
Blockers and Bluffing 阻挡和虚张声势
07 Postflop Theory: Single-raised Pots
07 后翻牌理论:单次加注底池
Flop C-bet IP Strategy (Button Versus BB)
Flop C-bet OOP Strategy (Cutoff versus Button)
Single-raised Pots IP Turn Strategy
Recap Traing Session
Single-raised Pots OOP Turn Strategy
Single-raised Pots IP River Strategy
Putting it all Together
Single-raised Pots OOP River Strategy
08 Postflop Theory: 3-bet Pots
Introduction 介绍
3-bet Pots OOP Flop Strategy (SB Versus Button)
3-bet 盆外弹出策略(SB 对按钮)
3-Bet Pots OOP on the Turn/River
转译文本:3-Bet Pots OOP on the Turn/River

3-bet Pots IP
09 Postflop Theory: Multiway Pots
Introduction 介绍
Multiway 3-Bet Pots 多路 3Bet 盆地
Multiway Single-raised Pots

Section Three: Miscellaneous

10 Pot-Limit Omaha Live
10 Pot-Limit Omaha 现场
Live PLO Fundamentals 现场 PLO 基础
Straddling 跨越
Buy-in Strategies
Running it Once or Twice?
Thinking About Players 思考玩家
Playing at the Aria
在 Aria 玩耍
11 Away from the Table
11 远离桌子
Bankroll Management 资金管理
The Mental Game 心理游戏
Study to Play Ratio

Introduction 介绍

I started playing poker online in the late 2000s after having played live poker for a couple of years.
我在 2000 年代后期开始玩网上扑克,之前已经玩了几年现场扑克。

Online play was much more accessible for players around the world, and everyone could rail the biggest games in the world from their own house as hundreds of thousands of dollars flew over the table in the blink of an eye. The online poker dream was born.
The players who won the most money in the early days of online poker were mainly the players who were the best live players and they had a very exploitative style of play.

Some of those players still rank very high on the all-time biggest winners list in online cash games - simply because they took advantage of a new opportunity.
一些玩家仍然在在线现金游戏中的史上最大赢家名单上排名很高 - 简单地因为他们利用了一个新机会。
After a few years, new technologies and software programs became available. These included equity calculators and tools to analyze ranges. Players rising to the top of the game started to work with this new software. This gave them a massive edge in creating a solid strategy.
Since about 2015, we have witnessed the development of more powerful poker software, especially solvers. This has enabled a new crop of players to rise to the summit of the poker world.
自 2015 年左右以来,我们目睹了更强大的扑克软件,特别是解算器的发展。这使得一批新玩家得以崛起到扑克世界的巅峰。

The current elite players have an excellent understanding of how to use these programs in order to find mistakes in their opponent's strategies, while also improving their own.
In today's poker environment, solvers and other types of software play a huge role in the creation of successful strategies. Learning how to work with these programs can cost a lot of time, energy, and money.

I understand this well because I have spent hundreds, if not thousands, of hours working with numerous different software programs to figure out how to beat my opponents.
Over the last few years I have dedicated myself to researching the game, putting into practice what I have learned in some of the toughest online games and teaching these strategies to thousands of passionate poker players

who are serious about taking their PLO game to the next level.
谁认真地想把他们的 PLO 游戏提升到下一个水平。
The information that you will find in this book comes from the thousands of hours that I put into playing, teaching, and studying Pot Limit Omaha. I have tried to create a fundamental blueprint that will increase your understanding of how to execute a winning PLO strategy.
这本书中的信息来自我花费在玩、教学和研究 Pot Limit Omaha 上的数千小时。我尝试创建一个基本蓝图,以增加您对如何执行成功的 PLO 策略的理解。
In addition to changes in technology, we are also seeing changes in poker formats. Initially Stud changed to Limit Hold'em as the main format and then in the last few decades No-Limit Hold'em has taken over. Nowadays, it is No-Limit Hold'em (NLHE) tournaments that are thriving.
除了技术的变化,我们还看到扑克游戏格式的变化。最初,斯德德(Stud)变成了限注德州扑克(Limit Hold'em)作为主要格式,然后在过去几十年里,无限注德州扑克(No-Limit Hold'em)取而代之。如今,无限注德州扑克(NLHE)锦标赛蓬勃发展。

NLHE cash is also being played almost everywhere. PLO gains traction in some cities more than others as well as during specific times such as tournaments.

I remember each of the last few WSOP trips I've been on and I've been happy to see more tables offering PLO with each consecutive year.
我记得我参加过的最近几次 WSOP 之旅,很高兴看到每年都有更多的桌子提供 PLO。

Many experienced players are now looking for a new challenge, and want to regain that excitement you feel for a game when you are first introduced to it and discovering how to play it.
An important thing to mention is that I've often found that the PLO tables are often the most enjoyable place in the poker room.
一个重要的事情要提到的是,我经常发现 PLO 桌子通常是扑克室里最令人愉快的地方。

There is not as much tension in PLO because many decisions come naturally (although they may be wrong) and most players feel as if they have a shot at winning.
在 PLO 中没有那么多紧张感,因为许多决定都是自然而然的(尽管它们可能是错误的),大多数玩家都觉得自己有机会赢得比赛。

The game offers more action and excitement to players who want to see a lot of flops and go all-in and think the game is similar enough to NLHE, where they understand the basics.
游戏为那些想要看到更多翻牌、全下并认为游戏与 NLHE 相似且理解基础知识的玩家提供了更多的动作和刺激。
Whatever stage you are at in your PLO development, this book will quickly take you through the basics and then into the deeper nuances of PLO. One of the biggest mistakes when approaching PLO is to play it like NLHE.
无论您在 PLO 发展的哪个阶段,这本书都会快速带您了解基础知识,然后深入了解 PLO 的更深层含义。在接近 PLO 时最大的错误之一是将其玩成 NLHE。

If you're someone who is ready for a new challenge within poker, then this book will have something for you. We're going to start out right, by setting the stage for a correct approach to Pot Limit Omaha strategy.
如果你是一个准备在扑克中迎接新挑战的人,那么这本书对你来说会有所帮助。我们将从正确的角度出发,为 Pot Limit Omaha 策略奠定基础。
Fernando Habegger

A Modern Approach to Poker

A Modern Poker Approach

What is GTO? 什么是 GTO?

GTO stands for Game Theory Optimal. It describes a model in which two or more players have reached an equilibrium strategy.
GTO 代表游戏理论最优。它描述了两个或更多玩家达到平衡策略的模型。

This is a situation in which all strategies are perfectly balanced and none of the players can do anything differently to increase their expected value (EV).

If everyone at your table is "playing GTO", it means that they are playing a strategy where they are not incentivized to change this strategy because they cannot increase their EV by doing so.
如果你桌上的每个人都在“玩 GTO”,这意味着他们正在执行一种策略,他们没有动力改变这种策略,因为这样做不能增加他们的预期价值。
In such a model, every player is aware of each other's strategy. This means that if a player changes their strategy, every other player will understand this immediately and can start exploiting them.

This model clearly doesn't represent what happens in the real world and so the goal is not to blindly follow GTO.
这个模型显然不代表现实世界中发生的事情,因此目标不是盲目地遵循 GTO。
Our goal is to use GTO as a framework and then find the highest EV strategy by using observations about how our opponents deviate from GTO.
我们的目标是以 GTO 作为框架,然后通过观察我们的对手如何偏离 GTO 来找到最高 EV 策略。
The specific meaning of "GTO" is hotly debated in the poker community and has a lot of stigma attached to it. People have quite polarized opinions about the usefulness of GTO play.
“GTO”的具体含义在扑克社区中备受争议,并且带有很多污名。人们对 GTO 玩法的实用性有着截然不同的看法。

Some think it is the ultimate solution whereas others believe it's not helpful at all and can even be misleading.
At first glance, a GTO solution might seem random and hard to understand. But as we explore it more deeply, we become better at understanding the relevant patterns. The best poker players are exceptionally
乍一看,GTO 解决方案可能看起来随机且难以理解。但随着我们深入探讨,我们变得更擅长理解相关模式。最优秀的扑克玩家异常出色。

good at connecting those patterns to overall poker principles. Working with GTO solutions is not about memorizing thousands of models, it's about understanding the principles behind the patterns that emerge.
善于将这些模式与整体扑克原则联系起来。使用 GTO 解决方案并不是要记住成千上万个模型,而是要理解出现的模式背后的原则。

The GTO Framework

GTO functions as a framework that helps us build a fundamental strategy. When learning which hands to play and how, whether to call or 3-bet, whether to check or c-bet postflop, we need a baseline strategy that introduces a solid foundation for each spot in the game.
GTO 作为一个框架,帮助我们建立基本策略。在学习哪些手牌要玩,以及如何玩,是叫注还是 3-bet,是看牌还是 c-bet 后翻牌时,我们需要一个基线策略,为游戏中的每个位置奠定坚实的基础。
There is a concept known as maximum exploitation versus minimum exploitation. Maximum exploitation is about giving the information and reads that you have accumulated the ultimate power over your strategy.

Playing a strategy that is massively influenced by the reads and information that you have about your opponents is very dangerous because if your read is wrong, you will lose a lot of money.
By making extreme adjustments to your opponents, you also expose yourself to becoming exploited. For example, if you are going to always bluff the one guy who you think is folding a lot on the river, he might pick up on it because you are bluffing so often.

He might then counter-exploit you, by trapping and calling off frequently. Rather than focusing on adjusting against individual opponents, I want to provide you with a solid framework for a strong PLO strategy.
他可能会反制你,通过频繁地设陷阱和召唤来对付你。我想要为你提供一个强大的 PLO 策略的坚实框架,而不是专注于对抗个别对手。

Once this is established, we will cover when and how to deviate from this baseline to maximize your EV.
一旦这一点确立,我们将讨论何时以及如何偏离这个基准以最大化您的 EV。
For a long time, poker was considered to be a game of reads and exploitation. Because of this legacy it is attractive to use reads and exploitation as your primary decision-making tool.

However, the best exploitative strategy will always be built upon an initial solid baseline strategy.

GTO in Practice

Unsurprisingly, many of the early advocates of GTO in poker have risen to the top of the game. Players such as LLinusLLove, OtB_RedBaron, Sauce123, and Ben86 all play a strategy based on GTO and are known to be some of the best poker players in the world.
毫不奇怪,德州扑克中早期的 GTO 倡导者中许多人已经跻身游戏的顶尖。像 LLinusLLove、OtB_RedBaron、Sauce123 和 Ben86 这样的玩家都采用基于 GTO 的策略,并被认为是世界上最优秀的扑克玩家之一。
Ben86, considered one of the best PLO players, was once asked the following question on the Joey Ingram Poker Life Podcast, "What separates
Ben86,被认为是最优秀的 PLO 玩家之一,在 Joey Ingram 扑克生活播客上曾被问及以下问题:“是什么让

the top players in the world from the top 100 , and what separates both groups from the top 1000 ?"
世界前 名选手中的前 100 名,以及这两组与前 1000 名选手之间的区别是什么?
His answer was three-fold.
  • "The Top 10 players have the strongest fundamental understanding of GTO, allied to an understanding of what should be happening in order to exploit what's actually happening."
    前十名选手对 GTO 有最强的基本理解,同时也理解应该发生的事情以利用实际发生的情况。
  • "The Top 100 players have the same fundamental quality, but the absolute skill level of execution is lower. Then there is also a subset of exploitative "Victor-type" (Isildur1), intuitive players.
    前 100 名选手具有相同的基本素质,但执行的绝对技能水平较低。然后还有一部分利用性的“胜利者型”(Isildur1),直觉型选手。

    They are very good at executing an exploitative playing style and they are usually massively impacted by variance. It is no easy matter to be clear about who is running good and who is actually good."
  • "If everybody is playing cat and mouse, then there are going to be clearly superior players in that game. But when the 'cat and mouse players' run into the 'GTO guys' they can't live."
    如果每个人都在玩猫鼠游戏,那么在这场游戏中肯定会有明显优秀的玩家。但当“猫鼠玩家”遇到“GTO 家伙”时,他们就无法生存。
Isildur1 had huge success in heads-up NLHE by playing an extremely aggressive style. He was frequently over-betting and bluffing. Although he wasn't playing a GTO strategy, it worked. That was because many of his opponents weren't good enough to know how to counter this style.
Isildur1 在头对头无限注德州扑克中取得了巨大成功,他采用了极端激进的风格。他经常过度下注和虚张声势。尽管他没有采用 GTO 策略,但这种方式奏效了。这是因为许多对手不够强大,不知道如何应对这种风格。
You will see this happening very often in low level poker, where one player has a specific set of plays that are working very well within a specific player pool. However, as this player climbs the ranks they run into smarter opponents and get stuck.

Playing mostly by intuition is not a long-term recipe for success. In today's NLHE games, the GTO players are consistently dominating the exploitative ones.
主要凭直觉玩牌并不是成功的长期秘诀。在当今的 NLHE 游戏中,GTO 玩家一直在稳定地主导着剥削性玩家。
Ben86 also seems to refer to variance. The top 100 players will not always be there because they have the strongest GTO understanding of the game, it's also because there is a lot of variance in poker.
Ben86 似乎也在提到方差。前 100 名玩家并不总是因为他们对游戏的最强 GTO 理解而在那里,也是因为扑克中存在很多方差。

Not just in all-ins and bad beats, everything from what you get dealt, in which positions, who got the weak player to make a costly play, etc. As a player, it can be difficult to really know how good someone really is or whether they are just running hot.
The top 10 players have the strongest understanding of GTO and can quickly identify an imbalance in your game and adjust to exploit you.
前 10 名选手对 GTO 有最强的理解,能够快速识别你游戏中的不平衡,并调整以利用你。
Ben86 says, "if everybody is playing cat and mouse there are going to be clearly superior players at that game." What he means is that when everyone
Ben86 说:“如果每个人都在玩猫捉老鼠,那么在这个游戏中肯定会有明显优秀的玩家。”他的意思是当每个人。

is playing an exploitative strategy, there are going to be some people who understand how to exploit the population tendencies better than other players do. They have a superior understanding of the meta-game that is currently being played and they know how to exploit it.
But when these primarily exploitative players run into the GTO guys, they can't exploit them, and their weaknesses are revealed.
但是当这些主要是剥削性玩家遇到 GTO 玩家时,他们无法剥削他们,他们的弱点就会暴露出来。

The GTO guys are going to be able to "exploit" the intuitive players by understanding what makes them unbalanced and, at the same time, the GTO players will cap their own downside. That's the real power of GTO.
GTO 的玩家们将能够通过理解使他们失衡的因素来“利用”直觉型玩家,同时,GTO 玩家将限制自己的下行风险。这就是 GTO 的真正力量。

That's why the top 10 players all have the strongest fundamental understanding of GTO.
这就是为什么前十名选手都具有对 GTO 最强大的基本理解。

GTO Versus Weak Opponents
GTO 对弱对手

There is a huge misconception that when you play against weak opponents, you can focus on making reads and exploit them relentlessly simply because they play a terrible strategy.

However, if you don't know what your opponent is doing because they are unpredictable, then playing a GTO strategy can be extremely helpful.
然而,如果你不知道对手在做什么,因为他们是不可预测的,那么采用 GTO 策略可能会非常有帮助。
Our end goal is not to follow a GTO strategy but to build a better understanding of our opponent's game. Reads are often more accurate and actionable if they are coming from a fundamental understanding of GTO.
我们的最终目标不是追随 GTO 策略,而是建立对对手游戏的更好理解。如果从对 GTO 的基本理解出发,阅读通常更准确和可操作。

If you can spot how an opponent is deviating from GTO and how that makes him or her vulnerable to being exploited, you will be able to create an edge for yourself. That is going to be our goal.
如果你能发现对手如何偏离 GTO,并且如何使他或她容易被利用,你就能为自己创造优势。这将是我们的目标。
Most of the small stakes (and even many high stakes) players that you will face at your tables are going to be making massive mistakes. To generate an edge over them, you need to understand what those mistakes are and how to exploit them.
It's true that against recreational players, playing a balanced strategy to prevent getting exploited isn't as important compared to situations when you are playing against pros, because recreational players won't punish you as harshly.

But you still want to cap your downside, especially when you don't have much information about your opponent.
There are four steps to identify your optimal strategy:

- Understand the baseline (identify GTO).

  • Identify how your opponent deviates from GTO (find leaks).
    确定对手如何偏离 GTO(找到漏洞)。
  • Exploit your opponent's weakness (exploit).
  • Cap the downside (limit downside).
An easy example is the following. Let's say that you are on the Button and you have to decide whether you want to raise or fold. You know that in GTO terms, the Button should raise of his combos and the Big Blind (BB) is supposed to defend of hands preflop against a pot raise (identify GTO).
一个简单的例子是这样的。假设你在按钮位置,你必须决定是要加注还是弃牌。你知道在 GTO 术语中,按钮应该加注他的组合 ,大盲(BB)应该在翻牌前防守 手牌来对抗加注(识别 GTO)。
Based on the tendencies of your opponent in the BB so far you might believe they will only defend instead of (find leaks). A possible exploit could be to increase your Button open raising range from up to (exploit).
根据对手在大盲位的倾向,你可能会认为他们只会防守 而不是 (找到漏洞)。一个可能的利用方法是将你的按钮位置开牌范围从 增加到 (利用)。
You still shouldn't extend your Button raising range much more than that because you don't want to get counter-exploited and there is also the possibility that your read is wrong (limit downside).

You want to keep your downside protected and the way to do this is by making meaningful, but minimal, exploits. Stick to your baseline and make slight adjustments based on your opponent's tendencies.

If you do this you make sure that your downside is protected in case your opponent picks up on your adjustments or your read turns out to be wrong.

How to Learn GTO
如何学习 GTO

We can only see GTO results in the form of a poker solver output. For example, a PLO solver suggests to open-raise A-A-5-2 UTG but to fold J-85-2. Thanks to billions of calculations the solver has calculated that one hand is a raise and the other is not. That's all the solver output we get. The solver doesn't tell us why a hand is a raise, so we don't know the reasons. This is where we, as humans, come into play.
我们只能看到 GTO 结果以扑克求解器输出的形式。例如,PLO 求解器建议在 UTG 位置开牌 A-A-5-2,但要弃牌 J-85-2。由于进行了数十亿次计算,求解器计算出一手是 加注,另一手不是。这就是我们得到的求解器输出。求解器不告诉我们为什么一手是加注,所以我们不知道原因。这就是我们作为人类介入的地方。
Our job is to make sense of the outputs by applying logic. We identify patterns and we attach ideas and principles to them. We test by developing a hypothesis, running solver experiments and comparing situations.

Then we implement and test the strategies in the real world to build a deeper understanding of what is going on.
The good news is you don't have to worry about the concept of GTO or work with any solver output as I have already done this work. This is what I've been doing since 2017 when the first PLO solvers came out.
好消息是您不必担心 GTO 概念或与任何求解器输出一起工作,因为我已经完成了这项工作。这是我自 2017 年首次出现 PLO 求解器以来一直在做的事情。

I have spent thousands of hours researching GTO fundamentals and, in this book, I'll
我已经花费了数千小时研究 GTO 基础知识,在这本书中,我将

present it to you with easy-to-apply concepts. You will go through the process of building your solid baseline strategy and start learning how to maximize your win rate when other players are deviating from a "GTO strategy."
用易于应用的概念向您展示。您将经历建立坚实基线策略并开始学习如何在其他玩家偏离“GTO 策略”时最大化您的胜率的过程。

Main Takeaways 主要要点

  • Against unknown players, start with a balanced strategy to play a strong game while minimizing your downside.
  • Once you get more reads and information on your opponents, you can start to deviate from your baseline strategy.
  • Make sure that you don't over-adjust as doing so will expose you to significant risks.
There are four steps to creating an optimal strategy:
  • Understand the baseline and use it to build solid principles.
  • Identify in which way your opponents deviate from GTO.
    确定你的对手偏离了 GTO 的方式。
  • Exploit your opponents' weaknesses.
  • Limit your downside. 限制你的下行风险。

Preflop Play 翻牌前玩法

Preflop Strategy Introduction

In this section, we will go over different preflop categories, explain the differences between Pot Limit Omaha (PLO) and No-Limit Hold'em (NLHE), and cover the most important preflop concepts.

The main goal of this introduction is that you gain an excellent understanding of the fundamentals so your preflop game can improve step-by-step in the subsequent chapters.

Preflop Equity in PLO and NLHE

Most players are very likely coming to PLO from a NLHE background, so let's start with a few key differences between the games.
大多数玩家很可能是从无限德州扑克背景转向 PLO,所以让我们从游戏之间的一些关键区别开始。
The most obvious (and fun!) difference is that in PLO you are dealt four cards. That doesn't mean there are twice as many starting hands possible in PLO. In fact, there are 270,725 starting hand combinations whereas in NLHE there are only 1,326 possible combinations.
最明显(也是最有趣的!)区别是,在 PLO 中你会被发四张牌。这并不意味着在 PLO 中有两倍多的起手可能性。事实上,在 PLO 中有 270,725 种起手组合,而在 NLHE 中只有 1,326 种可能的组合。
The good news is that PLO is not like NLHE where you can learn all your opening ranges by heart. In PLO it is much more about understanding scenarios and principles rather than memorizing individual hand combinations.
好消息是 PLO 不像 NLHE 那样,你可以把所有的开牌范围都背下来。在 PLO 中,更多的是理解情景和原则,而不是记忆个别手牌组合。
In the preflop section of the book, I will split up the different starting hands into various categories to help you develop a good intuition for which hands to open preflop and which hands to fold.

I'll also share with you some common traps new players often fall into, so you can avoid these mistakes and gain an immediate advantage over your opponents. After reading this

book, you will understand preflop patterns and know what to look for when deciding whether to open-raise or fold.
Let's start by developing an understanding of how to value and categorize your hand preflop. In PLO, preflop equities between hands are much smoother than in NLHE, meaning that preflop equities run much closer.
让我们首先开始了解如何评估和分类您的起手牌。在 PLO 中,起手牌之间的起手权益比在 NLHE 中更加平滑,这意味着起手权益更加接近。

If you get dealt Aces in NLHE, you will probably be very excited about the upcoming hand since you will have very high equity and therefore you will very often win.
如果你在无限注德州扑克中得到了 A 牌,你可能会对即将到来的手牌感到非常兴奋,因为你将拥有非常高的股权,因此你很可能会经常赢得比赛。
For example, if you have Aces and your opponent is holding Q will have about equity. In PLO, if you have an extremely strong hand such as A-A-K-K and your opponent holds J-7 - J you only have about equity. This difference in equity can come as a frustrating surprise to some players.
例如,如果你有 A,而你的对手持有 Q,你大约会有 的股权。在 PLO 中,如果你有非常强大的手牌,比如 A-A-K-K,而你的对手持有 J-7-J,你只有大约 的股权。这种股权差异可能会让一些玩家感到沮丧的惊喜。
It is a common misunderstanding to think that because preflop equities run closer, it means there is less room for an edge in PLO, compared to NLHE. In reality the opposite is often the case because a lot of your opponents will use this as an excuse to justify playing very loose.
认为因为起手牌的公平性更接近,就意味着在 PLO 中比在 NLHE 中更难获得优势,这是一个常见的误解。实际上,通常情况相反,因为很多对手会以此为借口来证明他们可以玩得很松。

This is a huge mistake and one that should allow you to print money against these players.
Another reason players tend to play too many hands preflop in PLO is because the worst possible odds your opponents have to consider is 2-to-1 on a preflop call. Many players think that as long as they have equity preflop, they should continue. As we will see later, this is not the case.
在 PLO 中,玩家倾向于在翻牌前玩太多手的另一个原因是因为对手必须考虑的最差赔率是 2 比 1。许多玩家认为只要他们在翻牌前有 的股权,他们就应该继续。但我们将在后面看到,情况并非如此。
By the way, the general rule for calculating the maximum raise size is:
Take the previous bet, multiply it by 3 , and then add that to what is already in the pot.
将先前的赌注乘以 3,然后加上已经在锅中的金额。
For example, you are UTG in a 6-max $5/$10 game. To calculate the maximum opening raise, take the previous bet (in this case the Big Blind). Then, multiply this by . Finally, add what is already in the pot, the small blind.
例如,您在 6 人座$5/$10 游戏中是 UTG。要计算最大的开牌加注,需要将前一个赌注(在这种情况下是 大盲注)乘以 。最后,再加上已经在奖池中的 小盲注。
So, you could pot it to in this situation ($10 Big Blind x 3) + $5 small blind. This means that if play is folded to the Big Blind, they would have to call in a pot of .
所以,在这种情况下,您可以把它放到 ($10 大盲注 x 3)+ $5 小盲注。这意味着如果玩家放弃到大盲注,他们将不得不在 的底池中叫
If the player in the Cutoff wanted to make a pot-size 3-bet, they would take the previous bet, which is your $35 open-raise. Multiply that raise by 3 ($35 x ). Finally, add the rest of the pot, which is the small blind ($5) and
如果 Cutoff 位置的玩家想要进行一个与底池大小相等的 3Bet,他们需要拿到之前的赌注,也就是你的$35 的开盲注。将这个加注乘以 3($35 x )。最后,再加上剩下的底池金额,也就是小盲注($5)。

the Big Blind ($10). The maximum 3-bet size that the Cutoff can use is therefore ( ). When it comes back to you, you would be facing an call in a pot, so again the odds are 2-to-1.
大盲注($10)。因此,Cutoff 可以使用的最大 3-bet 尺寸是 )。当轮到你时,你将面对一个 底池中的 跟注,所以再次赔率为 2 比 1。
Usually you don't have to calculate the pot size yourself. If you are playing online, just click the pot or max Button to preview the size. If you are playing live, the dealer can calculate the pot size for you if you request it.

What is important to keep in mind are the pot odds and how the other players consider them. How much of their strategy are they (or you) basing on simple pot odds?
重要的是要记住的是赌注比和其他玩家如何考虑它们。 他们(或您)的策略有多少是基于简单的赌注比?

The Difference Between Equity and Expected Value (EV)

In PLO, the gap between the basic value of a hand and its situational value is often much greater than in NLHE.
在 PLO 中,一手牌的基本价值和情境价值之间的差距通常比在 NLHE 中大得多。
Basic value is based on a hand's equity. For example, if you are holding Q -J-10 and your opponent holds 9--7-6 equity. You can figure out the preflop equities on a site such as propokertools.com.
基本价值是基于手牌的公平性。例如,如果你手中有 Q-J-10,而你的对手手中有 9-7-6,你可以在 propokertools.com 这样的网站上计算出翻牌前的公平性。
However, equity calculations such as this don't take into account equity realization. They simply represent how often a hand is going to win versus another hand when they go all-in. When you think about basic value you don't consider any future bets.

This isn't a realistic representation of your hand's value unless you are going all-in and know for a fact you will realize all your hand's equity by getting to showdown.
Situational value adjusts the value of a hand based on the context of the situation, which creates a much more realistic picture as it takes equity realizability into account: whether you will under-realize or over-realize your equity.

Giving situational value to a hand allows for the calibration of preflop ranges based on the particular situation.
In PLO, situational value is extremely important, even more important than in NLHE. In this book, I will provide you with all the information and tools that you need to assess the situational value of a hand.
在 PLO 中,情境价值非常重要,甚至比在 NLHE 中更重要。在这本书中,我将为您提供评估手牌情境价值所需的所有信息和工具。

In later chapters, we will discuss the concept of calibration in more depth but for now, you should know that it's about adjusting your preflop range to the situation you are in or are headed into, based on numerous factors such as position, opponent tendencies and the number of players that have already entered the pot.

Equity Distribution 股权分配

What is (Flop) Equity Distribution?

Many players think about preflop and postflop strategy separately but, in reality, they depend on each other. Let's touch a little on the basics of postflop strategy and how that can help us determine which hands are profitable to play preflop and which aren't.
Flop equity distribution is the equity of specific hands or ranges that are distributed on the subsequent street. In simpler terms, it explains how we are flopping with our specific hand or range against the hand/range of our opponent(s) across all possible remaining streets.
The first question you might ask yourself right now is, "when should I think about flop equity distribution?” You should think about flop equity distribution in every possible preflop scenario.
At any point in the hand, you always have to determine if it's profitable to invest additional money into the pot. Unless you're all-in or close to it, the answer to this question will depend on how the subsequent streets are going to be played.

This concept might sound very technical, so let's jump in with a practical example (Diagram 1).
这个概念听起来可能很技术性,所以让我们通过一个实际的例子来深入了解(图表 1)。
This graph represents the flop equity distribution of all K-K-x-x hands against all A-A-x-x hands. In other words, it demonstrates the equity that Kings have versus Aces across all possible flops.
这张图代表了所有 K-K-x-x 手牌对所有 A-A-x-x 手牌的翻牌公平分布。换句话说,它展示了国王手牌对阿斯手牌在所有可能的翻牌中的公平性。
Consider this, a tight player makes a 4-bet off a 100bb stack and we know that he only does this with Aces. What action should we take against his 4bet?
考虑到这一点,一个紧密型玩家在 100bb 的筹码堆叠上进行 4-bet,我们知道他只会用 Aces 这样做。我们应该如何应对他的 4bet?

In this situation, just as in any preflop scenario, the flop equity distribution profile of your hand versus your opponents' range should be one of the main deciding factors in your decision.
Diagram 1 图表 1
Flop equity distribution of versus
On the vertical axis of the graph, you can see how much equity you are flopping with your range, versus your opponents' range. On the horizontal axis, you can see the frequency percentage of boards where we flop that certain amount of equity.
Kings versus Aces is known to have a "rough" equity distribution. That is, about of the time Kings will flop a strong hand with at least equity, usually meaning a set or two pairs. Then we see a steep dropoff in equity, when the Kings don't out flop the Aces and are still behind the overpair. Most of the time, the flop equity with Kings versus Aces will be well below . Back to the example. If you are holding Kings and you know that your opponent is holding Aces, should you call the 4-bet? Based on the graph, what do you think?
国王对阿斯是众所周知的“粗糙”权益分配。也就是说,大约 的时间国王会在翻牌时拿到至少 权益的强手,通常意味着三条或两对。然后我们会看到权益急剧下降,当国王没有超过阿斯并且仍然落后于大对手时。大多数情况下,国王对阿斯的翻牌权益将远低于 。回到这个例子。如果你手里有国王,而你知道对手手里有阿斯,你应该跟注 4 倍吗?根据图表,你认为呢?
The answer is no, you shouldn't. Not if you're sure that your opponent has Aces. Intuitively this might already make sense to you. We just don't outdraw Aces often enough on the flop and are paying a steep price to see it.
答案是否定的,你不应该这样做。如果你确定对手有 Aces,那就更不应该了。直觉上,这对你来说可能已经有意义了。我们在翻牌时很少能够超过 Aces,并且为了看到它而付出了高昂的代价。

Flop Equity Distribution of Other Hands

Now think about the following hand: . Should you call a 4-bet
现在想想以下手牌: 。如果你应该跟注 4 倍下注

with this double-suited rundown if you know your opponent is holding Aces? This hand's flop equity distribution versus Aces looks like this (Diagram 2).
如果你知道对手手中有 Aces,那么这个双花色的破产手牌怎么办?这手牌与 Aces 的翻牌权益分布如下(图 2)。
Diagram 2 图表 2
Flop equity distribution of versus
As you can see, there is no steep dropoff in equity. The difference is apparent and equity distribution profiles like this are called "smooth" distributions. Again, you intuitively might already understand that you should call with this hand. But why exactly?
  • will flop equity or more of the time.
    将在 的股权或更多的时间内失败
  • 8-7-6 -5 will flop equity or more of the time.
    8-7-6 -5 将在 的时间中翻牌 或更多的股权。
  • 8-7-6-5 will flop equity or more of the time.
    8-7-6-5 将在 的时候翻牌 或更多的股权。
We can conclude that there are many different boards on which - will flop enough equity to continue against a c-bet from our opponent postflop, which is an incredibly important factor when deciding if you should be calling or folding preflop. You will be able to realize your hand's equity much more often versus an overpair.
我们可以得出结论,有许多不同的牌面, - 会在对手的后翻筹码下跌足够的资产,这是决定你是否应该在翻牌前跟注或弃牌的一个非常重要因素。你将更频繁地实现你手牌的资产对抗对手的高对子。
The equity distribution profile of Kings included a big inflection point

caused by the fact that we either flop a set or we don't. The flop equity profile of 8-7-6-5 double-suited doesn't have an inflection point, which makes the graph much more "smooth."
由于我们要么翻牌要么不翻牌的事实。 8-7-6-5 双色牌的翻牌权益曲线没有拐点,这使得图表更加“平滑”。
Hands that have a very rough equity distribution are generally not worth investing a lot of money into the pot preflop.

You can compare it to setmining in NLHE, where you don't want to invest a lot of Big Blinds calling with a hand such as 5-5 because it will mostly do well only if you flop a set.
您可以将其与在无限德州扑克中的 setmining 进行比较,在那里您不希望投入很多大盲注来跟注 5-5 这样的手牌,因为只有在翻牌时获得三条时才会有很好的表现。

When you hold 5-5 in a big pot without a set, you will very often have to fold postflop versus continued aggression from your opponent.
当你在一个大底池中拿着 5-5 而没有三条时,你很可能会经常在后翻牌时对手持续的侵略下选择弃牌。
Hands that have a smooth equity distribution profile will flop a solid amount of equity on a high percentage of different boards. We don't need a set to have a lot of equity versus a bare overpair.

There are many combinations of pair plus draw or combo draws with high postflop equity. We also have better visibility, meaning we tend to know if we're ahead or not more easily than we do with a pair of Kings. We will talk more about visibility in later postflop chapters.
These two hands are quintessential PLO examples for flop distribution. While you must learn to think about the equity distribution profile of your hand or range, you shouldn't think solely in terms of being either smooth or rough.
这两只手是翻牌分配的典型 PLO 示例。虽然你必须学会考虑你的手牌或范围的权益分配情况,但不应只考虑是平稳还是粗糙。

A lot of hands will fall somewhere in between the two categories. As previously mentioned, there are additional principles to consider when deciding whether to play a hand which we will cover in the following chapters.
For now, just know that preflop strategy depends strongly on what sort of postflop scenario you are setting up for yourself.

Main Takeaways 主要要点

The flop equity distribution profile of your hand or range can be a critical decision factor when determining what action to take preflop.
  • Hands with a flop equity distribution that features a slowly descending amount of average equity across all boards are called smooth hands. For example: .
  • Hands that can flop very well occasionally but are more often just

    mediocre or marginal hands are called rough hands, for example K -9-2 . These will have a steep drop-off in average equity across a number of boards.
    中文简体:平庸或边缘的手被称为粗糙的手,例如 K -9-2。这些手在多个牌局中的平均权益会急剧下降。
  • Smooth hands are often better propositions to invest additional chips into the pot preflop than rough hands.

Stack-to-Pot Ratio (SPR)

What is SPR? 什么是 SPR?

Another key postflop concept to understand is stack-to-pot ratio (SPR). The SPR describes the relationship between your stack size and the size of the pot.
另一个重要的后翻概念要理解的是筹码与底池比率(SPR)。SPR 描述了您的筹码堆大小与底池大小之间的关系。
Postflop decision-making in poker is largely affected by equity, position and the SPR. Understanding the relation between equity and SPR is the bread and butter of PLO stack-off situations. The smaller the SPR is, the less equity we need to stack off (go all-in).
在扑克中,后翻牌决策在很大程度上受到资产、位置和 SPR 的影响。理解资产和 SPR 之间的关系是 PLO 全押情况的基础。SPR 越小,我们需要全押(all-in)的资产就越少。
Let's elaborate on this with an easy calculation.
There is in the pot and your stack is which means that you have an SPR of 4-to-1 ($400/$100). In poker, even though it's a ratio, SPR is usually expressed as a single number, in this case 4.
壶里有 ,你的筹码堆是 ,这意味着你的 SPR 是 4 比 1($400/$100)。在扑克中,尽管它是一个比率,SPR 通常表示为一个单一数字,这种情况下是 4。
If the SPR is low, e.g. 1 or 2 , it means that you are playing with very shallow stacks and you will need less equity to stack off. If the SPR is higher, e.g. 6 , you will need a lot more equity to stack off.
如果 SPR 很低,例如 1 或 2,这意味着您正在使用非常浅的筹码堆玩游戏,并且您需要更少的资产来全押。如果 SPR 较高,例如 6,您将需要更多的资产来全押。

In this book, we will use the term SPR frequently, and you will begin to understand how much equity you need at a particular stack depth to stack off correctly.
在这本书中,我们将经常使用术语 SPR,并且您将开始了解在特定的堆栈深度上正确进行全押需要多少资产。
The key numbers when dealing with the SPR are 1,4 and 13 . If you are at SPR 1, it takes one full pot-sized bet to get the money in. For SPR 4, it takes two full pot bets. And for SPR 13, it takes 3 full pot bets.
处理 SPR 时的关键数字是 1、4 和 13。如果您在 SPR 1,需要下注一个完整的底池大小才能把钱放进去。对于 SPR 4,需要下注两个完整的底池大小。而对于 SPR 13,需要下注三个完整的底池大小。
In single-raised pots, the SPR is usually between 8 or 9 for heads-up pots, or 6 to 7 for multiway pots. In 3-bet pots, the SPR is usually 3.5 to 4 in heads-up pots, and closer to 2 in multiway pots.
在单次加注的情况下,头对头的 SPR 通常在 8 或 9 之间,而多路加注的情况下为 6 到 7。在 3 次加注的情况下,头对头的 SPR 通常为 3.5 到 4,而多路加注的情况下更接近 2。

This means that overall, in most situations, you could get all the money in by the river.
However, we are not always betting full pot and the focus is not on getting all the money in, it's about making the highest EV decisions.
然而,我们并不总是押满筹码,重点不在于把所有的钱都赢回来,而是要做出最高 EV 价值的决策。

If you want to succeed at PLO, you must understand the equities of your hand or range against your opponent's range and you need to combine this with the SPR calculations.
如果你想在 PLO 中取得成功,你必须了解你手牌或范围与对手范围的资产,并且需要将这一点与 SPR 计算相结合。

SPR and Stacking-Off SPR 和堆叠离场

The next table (Diagram 3) should give you broad indications of how much
下表(图 3)应该为您提供了关于多少的广泛指示

equity you need with what SPR to be able to stack off profitably. This assumes you have no fold equity with your raise.
您需要的权益与 SPR 相结合,才能有利可图地进行堆叠。这假设您在加注时没有折叠权益。
Stack to Pot Ratio (SPR)
Stack-off Equity Needed 堆栈权益需求

Diagram 3 图表 3

Remember that when deciding whether or not to stack-off, you shouldn't compare the EV of stacking off only to folding or a break-even situation. You should also be comparing it to the EV of calling.

Calling can be the highest EV play even in medium-low SPRs, especially when you are in position because it allows you to use your positional advantage over multiple streets. You are also calling sometimes with near equity, such as when slowplaying.
在中低 SPR 中,即使在位置上,跟注可能是最高 EV 的策略,因为它允许您利用您在多个街道上的位置优势。有时您也会以接近 的资产跟注,比如慢速玩牌。
The takeaway from this table is that once you get to SPR 5 or above, you don't want to be routinely getting it in light on the flop. By light, I mean against a range that will have you dominated.
从这个表格中得出的结论是,一旦你达到 SPR 5 或更高,你不想在翻牌时轻易就进入比赛。所谓轻易,是指对抗一个会让你处于劣势的范围。

The thing is that as the SPR increases, your opponents are willing to stack off with stronger hands and in PLO it very often ends up being the nuts or a dominating combo draw unless
事情是,随着 SPR 的增加,你的对手愿意用更强的手牌全押,而在 PLO 中,很多时候最终都是最佳牌或者占优势的连续抽牌

the stacks are very shallow.
In multiway pots you also want to tighten up your stack-off threshold, even when the SPR is comparatively lower. This is because you're now facing multiple opponents and the chances of running into a better hand are greater. It is also possible to run into multiple strong hands.
在多路锅中,即使 SPR 相对较低,您也希望收紧您的全押阈值。这是因为您现在面对多个对手,遇到更好的手牌的机会更大。也有可能遇到多个强手。
When an opponent is potting the flop with a low SPR, and seemingly committing to the hand, you should use the previous table and calculate the stack-off profitability.
当对手在低 SPR 情况下下注翻牌,并似乎致力于这手牌时,您应该使用之前的表格并计算堆叠盈利能力。

If you're facing a half-pot bet at a higher SPR, you probably have some flop fold equity and can justify stacking off and bluffraising a part of your range.
如果你面对一个更高 SPR 的半注大小的赌注,你可能有一些翻牌弃牌权益,并且可以理直气壮地全推和搞笑地加注你的一部分范围。

In the table below (Diagram 4), you can see how having just a little bit of fold equity significantly decreases the stack-off equity required to breakeven.
在下表中(图 4),您可以看到,只要有一点点的折叠权益,就可以显著降低达到盈亏平衡所需的全押权益。
Stack to Pot Ratio (SPR)
Plus % Fold Equity
加倍% 折叠权益
Stack-off Equity Needed 堆栈权益需求

Diagram 4 图表 4

We will discuss SPR more in depth in future single-raised pots and 3-bet pots chapters.
我们将在未来的单次加注和 3 次加注章节中更深入地讨论 SPR。

For now it is just important for you to know what SPR is, so you will be able to understand how it all comes together with the concepts of nuttiness and calibration to affect your preflop range construction.
目前重要的是让您了解什么是 SPR,这样您就能理解它如何与疯狂和校准的概念结合在一起,影响您的翻牌前范围构建。

Studying Preflop Strategy

In PLO, it's not possible to memorize all hand combinations for each situation. What we can do is to split hands up into different categories. Here we will assign nine different categories into which a hand can be placed.
在 PLO 中,不可能记住每种情况下所有手牌组合。我们可以做的是将手牌分成不同的类别。在这里,我们将把手牌分为九个不同的类别。
Before we do that, let's clarify a few terms.
  • Rainbow means that you hold exactly four cards with four different suits.
  • Single-suited means that you hold exactly two, three or four cards from

    the same suit. For example, A or .
  • Double-suited means that you hold precisely two cards from two different suits. For example or .
We can use the nine preflop categories as a structural separation of all the preflop combinations. Keep in mind that these categories do not imply a strength difference; they are only used to provide an overview of all the possible hand combinations.
  1. Unpaired single-suited
  2. Unpaired double-suited 未配对的双色
  3. Unpaired rainbow 不成对的彩虹
  4. One pair single-suited
  5. One pair double-suited 一对双色牌
  6. One pair rainbow 一对彩虹
  7. Two pair single-suited
  8. Two pair double-suited 两对双色牌
  9. Two pair rainbow 两对彩虹
All possible starting hands fall into one of these categories. As you can see in the table below (Diagram 5), the nine categories vary greatly in terms of strength and in terms of how often they get dealt to you.
所有可能的起手牌都属于这些类别之一。正如您可以在下表(图表 5)中看到的那样,这九个类别在强度和发牌频率方面差异很大。
Unpaired Paired 配对 Double Paired 双对
Single Suited 单色
Double Suited 双色牌
Diagram 5 图表 5
Frequency of Being Dealt Hand Categories
This chart shows that it is very likely that you will get dealt an unpaired single-suited hand as this happens of the time. The probability of getting a double-paired hand is very low. In this chapter, I will very briefly discuss the different categories. The main goal here is to familiarize you with
这张图表显示,你很可能会被发到一手非配对单花色的牌,因为这种情况发生的概率是 。获得一手双对子的牌的概率非常低。在本章中,我将简要讨论不同的类别。这里的主要目标是让你熟悉。

the words and terms, so please don't try to memorize all the exact categories and frequencies.

Unpaired Single-suited

Let's briefly break down the unpaired single-suited category into more detail. An example of a hand in this category would be A - . This hand belongs in the top of strongest hands when it comes to basic value.
让我们简要地详细介绍一下不成对的单色类别。这个类别中的一个手牌示例是 A - 。当涉及基本价值时,这手牌属于最强手牌的前
Another hand in this category, , is in the bottom of PLO hands. Why exactly does this second hand rank so low? It looks nice enough and you might think that it's easy to make straights with this hand.
在这个类别中, ,是 PLO 手牌中排名最低的 。为什么这第二手牌排名如此之低呢?看起来还不错,你可能会认为用这手牌很容易做顺子。
A lot of these low hands are actually very weak because these hands will give you a lot of weak made hands (such as bottom two pairs) and draws (such as low straights) that can easily be dominated by your opponents.

In PLO, it is very important that you play the right hands preflop to avoid being dominated postflop. Playing a lot of weak hands that are easily dominated is one of the easiest and most common ways to burn money.
在 PLO 中,很重要的一点是在翻牌前打对的手牌,以避免在翻牌后被支配。打很多容易被支配的弱手牌是浪费金钱的最简单和最常见的方式之一。

Especially, as mentioned before, if you rely on pot odds and miscalculate your hand's profitability and equity realization on future streets.

In Pot-Limit Omaha High Cards are Still Best

In PLO, just as in NLHE, high cards usually win. Players mistakenly overvalue hands with low suits and low rundowns because these hands look good. You want to play hands based on their components and on the value they have in specific situations.
在 PLO 中,就像在 NLHE 中一样,高牌通常会赢。玩家通常会错误地高估低花色和低级牌的手牌,因为这些手牌看起来不错。您应该根据手牌的组成部分以及在特定情况下的价值来打牌。

Suit Types 西装类型

Hands with two, three or even four cards of the same suit all fall into the "single-suited" category. However, the strength of these hands can be quite different.

A hand with four cards of the same suit, such as A -K -9 -8 , is much worse than the same hand with only two of the same suit, e.g. A -K -8 . It's simply a lot harder to make a flush when you hold four cards of the same suit as you already block two of your potential flush outs.
一手有四张相同花色的牌,比如 A -K -9 -8,比起只有两张相同花色的手牌,例如 A -K -8,要差得多。当你手中有四张相同花色的牌时,要组成同花顺就会困难得多,因为你已经挡住了两张可能的同花顺牌。

When I mention hands with three cards of the same suit I will call them "trip-suited hands" and hands with four cards of the same suit will be called "monotone hands".
Therefore, there are three types of single-suited hands in this category.

Single-suited A↔-K -Q
单色 A↔-K -Q
Trip-suited A -K -Q -J
旅行适合 A -K -Q -J
  • Monotone A
Another point to note is that higher-value hands have the highest suits but don't block the second highest suit. For example, A is great because when you make a flush, you can easily get paid by a King-, Queenor Jack-high flush. Equity wise, it might be similar to a hand such as A-KQ -10 but it will have better situational value.
另一个要注意的重点是,价值更高的手牌拥有最高的花色,但不会挡住第二高的花色。例如,A 很棒,因为当你组成同花时,你可以轻松地得到由 K、Q 或 J 高同花付款。从公平性的角度来看,它可能类似于 A-KQ-10 这样的手牌,但在特定情况下具有更好的价值。

Avoid monotone and tripsuited hands that have less outs to make a flush and a smaller chance to run into weaker flushes.

Double-paired 双对的

Double-paired hands are only dealt to you about of the time and they vary quite a lot in strength. The main strength of double-paired hands is their ability to flop a set, which they do about of the time.
双对手牌只有约 的概率发到你手中,它们在实力上差异很大。双对手牌的主要优势在于能够在翻牌圈中组成三条,这种情况发生的概率约为

falls into the top of hands in PLO. however, would be in the bottom of hands. Again, how high your paired hands rank and its suit play a big part in determining the strength of your hand.
在 PLO 中属于前 手牌。然而, 将属于底部 手牌。再次强调,您的配对手牌排名以及其花色在确定手牌强度方面起着重要作用。

Main Takeaways 主要要点

  • We identified two different methods to evaluate hand strength in PLO: Basic Value and Situational Value.
    我们确定了两种不同的方法来评估 PLO 中的手牌强度:基本价值和情境价值。
  • Basic Value is concerned only about the equity of your hand. This matters when going all-in.
  • Situational Value is based on the current strategic factors.
  • Exactly how high your suit and individual cards are is very important. High cards are still the best in most scenarios. Having the Ace-high suit and not blocking the King-high and Queen-high suits increases the value of your hand.
  • Low cards and suits devalue your hand and make it more likely you end up dominated by your opponent.

Nuttiness and Calibration

Introduction 介绍

In this section, we will discuss the basics of nuttiness and calibration. These two concepts can help you to determine accurately the expected value (EV) of starting hands in different scenarios.

Nuttiness 坚果味

The nuttiness of a hand describes the likelihood that your starting hand will make the nuts on either the flop, turn or the river. Hands that are considered "nutty" perform especially well in multiway pots.
If multiple players enter the pot, it is very likely that one or two players end up connecting with the flop. Since you already know this is going to happen, you want to make sure you have "nutty" or nutted hands that have the potential to dominate your opponents.

For example, you want to have an Ace-high flush when your opponent is holding the Queen-high flush. Let's illustrate this concept with an example. Compare the following two hands, which one do you think scores highest in "nuttiness"?
例如,当你的对手持有皇后高同花顺时,你想要有一副 A 高的同花顺。让我们用一个例子来说明这个概念。比较以下两手牌,你认为哪一手在“最强牌”中得分最高?
Hand 1: Aı-8 -7 -6
手 1:Aı-8 -7 -6
Hand 2: J -
手 2:J -
Hand 1 is the more nutted hand because it contains an Ace-high suit and it is possible to make the nut flush with this hand. This hand is also better connected with the 8-7-6, and will allow you to make some nut straights.
手牌 1 是更有优势的手牌,因为它包含一个高牌 A,并且有可能用这手牌做出最大的同花顺。这手牌也与 8-7-6 更好地连接,并且可以让你做出一些最大的顺子。
Hand 2 is non-nutted. You cannot make the nut flush with either suit. While you can technically end up with a straight flush, that is very unlikely. Also, the hand is more disconnected and has the potential to make more nonnut straights.
手牌 2 是非牛。你不能使任何花色的牌变成顶级同花。虽然你理论上可以得到同花顺,但这是非常不太可能的。此外,这手牌更加不连贯,并有潜力形成更多非牛顺子。
It is important to note that you shouldn't approach this comparison by thinking in terms of which hand is "better".

You want to determine the strengths of each hand in different circumstances, not which hand is the strongest. Understand that these two hands have different qualities which makes them better qualified for different situations.
A - -7 has more nutted components, so it performs better in multiway pots, whereas is a very smooth hand which means that it is often going to flop some piece of the board and therefore performs better in heads-up pots.
A - -7 有更多的坚果组成部分,因此在多路锅中表现更好,而 是一手非常平稳的牌,这意味着它经常会在翻牌时得到一些牌桌上的牌,因此在一对一的锅中表现更好。

Context and Calibration

To determine which hand is "better", you need to understand the context. In different situations, different hand qualities are important. It is up to you to understand the context of the situation you are in and what hands are best suited for it.

Let's go through a few examples of different contexts and what type of hands are best suited for each.

Hand Example 1

The Cutoff raises pot to 3.5 bbs. You are on the Button with A (Diagram 6). What action should you take?
截止线将底池提高到 3.5 倍大盲注。您在按钮位置持有 A (图 6)。您应该采取什么行动?

Diagram 6 图表 6

With this hand, you should call. Why? Because the strength of this hand is its ability to make the nuts.

You want to encourage more opponents into the pot who might be holding hands with weaker connectivity and weaker spades so you can dominate them in the event that you hit a nut flush or a nut


Hand Example 2

The Cutoff raises to . You are on the Button with (Diagram 7). What action should you take?
截止线升至 。您在按钮位置上有 (图 7)。您应该采取什么行动?

Diagram 7 图表 7

You should 3-bet with this hand. Given the hand's low nuttiness, you gain more EV from pushing out the players behind you who might be holding higher-ranked cards and suits that are dominating you.
你应该用这手牌进行 3 次加注。鉴于这手牌的低牌面价值,你可以通过挤出身后可能持有更高级别牌和主导你的花色的玩家来获得更多的预期价值。

This hand flops very smooth, which means that it's going to do well in a 3-bet pot or even a 4-bet pot.
这手牌非常顺畅,这意味着它在 3-bet 或甚至 4-bet 的局中会表现出色。
Now, this doesn't mean that you should 3-bet every double-suited disconnected hand from every position. This is where preflop calibration becomes important.
现在,这并不意味着您应该在每个位置都对每个双色不相连的手牌进行 3 次加注。这就是前翻校准变得重要的地方。

Calibration 校准

Preflop calibration is the process of constructing your preflop ranges optimally based on the situation and other ranges in play.
We calibrate a Big Blind defending range based on:
  • How many players are involved
Those player's preflop ranges
Continuing on from earlier, let's consider another example.

Hand Example 3

The EP player raises and gets two callers. You are on the Button with Jo-3 (Diagram 8). What is the correct play?
EP 玩家加注并得到两个跟注者。你在按钮位置拿着 J-3(图 8)。正确的打法是什么?

Diagram 8 图表 8

Call. There are already three players in the pot, so you are looking for nuttiness. This hand can flop the nut flush (draw), a strong top set or a nut straight (draw). If the hand was only suited to the Jack, and not the Ace, this hand would be devalued and, here, simply a fold.
打电话。锅里已经有三名玩家,所以你在寻找最佳手牌。这手牌可以翻出最佳同花顺(牌型),一个强大的顶对子或最佳顺子(牌型)。如果这手牌只适合杰克,而不适合 A,那么这手牌将被贬值,在这里只能弃牌。

If double-suited, the hand is strong enough to 3-bet in order to (hopefully) push out a player or two, thereby improving the strength of the Jack-high flush while still being able to dominate with the Ace-high suit.
如果双色牌,手牌足够强大,可以进行 3 次加注,以便(希望)赶走一个或两个玩家,从而提高 J 高同花的强度,同时仍然能够以 A 高同花牌牌型占优势。
This is a common situation if you are playing low stakes or if you are playing live poker. Remember that you need to calibrate your ranges based on the games that you are playing.

If your games play very loose, you need to account for more multiway pots and calibrate your preflop ranges towards

nutted hands. In those games, most of the money you make will come from dominating your opponent's hands and draws. Similarly, most of the money you lose will come from being dominated yourself, so avoid that at all costs!

Hand Example 4

The EP player raises and gets two callers. You are on the Button with J (Diagram 9). What should you do?
EP 玩家加注并得到两个跟注者。你在按钮位置持有 J (图 9)。你应该怎么做?

Diagram 9 图表 9

Hopefully you can identify that you should just fold. You should instinctively think, this situation requires a nutted hand because there are already three players in the pot. Or, this hand is non-nutted, which means that it's not the right hand to call with in a multiway pot.
If you're still thinking that this hand is extremely connected, and therefore you have a good chance to make the nut straight, you are partially right. This hand indeed looks decent and is connected.

But, it is important to stop and really think about the cold calling ranges of the players before you.
Your opponents should be holding hands that directly dominate you, such as or . If you flop a straight or straight draw, it's somewhat likely an opponent has a better one or the same one plus a redraw. Calling with a hand such as will often get you into a
您的对手应该持有直接压制您的手牌,比如 。如果您摊牌是顺子或顺子牌,对手很可能有更好的牌或相同的牌加上重摇机会。用 这样的手牌跟注通常会让您陷入困境。

troublesome spot where you are dominated and could potentially lose a lot of money.
In reality, your hand is not very strong. The gap at the top of the hand means your straight draw with the J-9 will be weak. It's quite easy for your opponents to dominate your made hands or draw.
实际上,你的手牌并不是很强。手牌顶部的空缺意味着你用 J-9 的直接抽牌会比较弱。你的对手很容易压制你的成牌或抽牌。

In low rake environments, you might be able to call with your hand in position versus one opponent or open in late position yourself. In most small stakes games however, the higher rake in bb/100 will turn playing this hand into a slightly -EV play.
在低抽水环境中,您可能可以在有位置的情况下与一个对手通话,或者在晚期位置自己开牌。然而,在大多数小注游戏中,每 100 大盲的更高抽水将使得玩这手牌成为一个略微负预期的玩法。

Main Takeaways 主要要点

  • The nuttiness of a hand describes the likelihood that your starting hand will make the nuts on either the flop, turn or on the river. Nuttiness matters most in multiway pots, where multiple players hit a piece of the flop and you often enter a game of postflop domination.

    Nuttiness matters less (but still matters) in low stack-to-pot ratio heads-up scenarios.
  • Calibration is the process of constructing your preflop ranges optimally based on the precise situation and the ranges in play. You will need to know how to effectively calibrate your ranges if you want to maximize your profit.

    Calibration means that instead of asking which hands are the best, you need to ask which hands are best structured for the specific scenario you are in.

Preflop Sizing 翻牌前的下注大小

Introduction 介绍

Most players don't critically think about the preflop sizes they use and simply adopt the sizing preferences that are most common in the game they are playing. In this chapter, we will examine what raise sizing you should use and why it is so important.