這是用戶在 2024-5-2 1:50 為 https://app.immersivetranslate.com/pdf-pro/0fb59beb-0526-4968-9b1e-f45342fbb649 保存的雙語快照頁面,由 沉浸式翻譯 提供雙語支持。了解如何保存?
2024_05_01_7ce6dc2b519e53cd1e53g

HESWBL

14,1

76

Received 6 April 2023
2023 年 4 月 6 日收到
Revised 20 May 2023
2023 年 5 月 20 日修訂
8 June 2023 2023 年 6 月 8 日
24 June 2023 2023 年 6 月 24 日
Accepted 25 June 2023
2023 年 6 月 25 日接受

The push-pull factor model and its implications for the retention of international students in the host country
推拉因素模型及其對留學生留在東道國的影響

Shahrokh Nikou 沙赫洛克-尼庫Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland and
芬蘭圖爾庫奧博學術大學和
Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, and
斯德哥爾摩大學,瑞典斯德哥爾摩,以及
Monika Luukkonen 莫妮卡-盧科寧Oulun Yliopisto, Oulu, Finland
芬蘭奧盧,奧倫-伊利奧皮斯托

Abstract 摘要

Purpose - Due to high demand for international talents and skilful workforces, many countries around the world, especially the ageing populations are now looking for new ways and strategies to attract more international talent. Drawing on push-pull factor theory, integrated with theory of reasoned action (TRA), this research examines international students' intention to stay or to leave the host country after completion of the students' studies.
目的--由於對國際人才和熟練勞動力的需求很大,世界上許多國家,尤其是人口老化國家,現在都在尋找新的方法和策略來吸引更多的國際人才。本研究以推拉因素理論為基礎,結合理性行動理論(TRA),探討了留學生在完成學業後留在或離開東道國的意圖。

Design/methodology/approach - A conceptual model has been proposed and evaluated aimed at understanding the factors that influence the decision-making of international students studying in Finland. Data were collected from a sample of 292 international students in Finland and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data and examine the relationships between various constructs in the model. Findings - The SEM results show that several factors influence students' decision to stay or leave the host country after graduation. Aspects related to host country, institutional and economic factors and social influence (norms) directly impact students' attitude towards staying. In addition, attitude towards staying not only has a direct impact on the intention to stay, but also mediates the relationship between different pulling factors and students' intention to stay in the host country. Moreover, challenges and barriers (such as local language, challenge of finding employment and challenge of assimilating into the community or making friends) have a negative impact on the decision to stay in the host country.
設計/方法/途徑 - 提出並評估了一個概念模型,旨在了解影響在芬蘭學習的留學生決策的因素。從 292 名芬蘭留學生的樣本中收集了數據,並使用結構方程模型(SEM)對數據進行分析,研究模型中各種構造之間的關係。研究結果 - SEM 結果顯示,有幾個因素會影響學生畢業後留在或離開東道國的決定。與東道國相關的面向、制度和經濟因素以及社會影響(規範)直接影響學生的去留態度。此外,留學態度不僅直接影響留學意向,在不同拉動因素與學生留學意向之間扮演中介角色。此外,挑戰和障礙(如當地語言、找工作的挑戰、融入社區或交朋友的挑戰)對留在東道國的決定有負面影響。

Originality/value - This study uses push-pull theory in the Finnish context, contributing to the growing body of literature on international education policies and practices. The findings highlight the need for a more holistic approach to supporting international students, one that considers the students' unique needs and experiences in the host country and provides the students with the necessary resources and support to succeed. Keywords Host country, International students, Student migration, Student mobility, Push-pull factor model Paper type Research paper
原創性/價值--本研究在芬蘭的背景下運用了推拉理論,為有關國際教育政策和實踐的日益增多的文獻做出了貢獻。研究結果突顯,有必要採取更全面的方法來支持留學生,這種方法應考慮到學生在東道國的獨特需求和經歷,並為學生提供成功所需的資源和支持。關鍵字 東道國 國際學生 學生移民 學生流動性 推拉因素模型 論文類型 研究論文

1. Introduction 1.導​​言

The demand for international career mobility has been made more urgent by the scarcity of domestic human resources in different parts of the world and this problem is particularly acute amongst the countries with ageing population (McDaniel et al, 2015; Přívara et al., 2020; Segendorf and Theobald, 2019; Whysall et al., 2019). One of the strategies different countries use to address the gap in expert and skilled workforce is focussing on attracting international talents (Cerna and Czaika, 2021; Chand and Tung, 2019; Thomas and Inkpen, 2017). Gesing and Glass (2019) argue that many countries around the world, especially countries with
世界不同地區國內人力資源的稀缺性使國際職業流動的需求變得更加迫切,這一問題在人口老齡化國家尤為突出(McDaniel et al, 2015; Přívara et al.)不同國家解決專家和熟練勞動力缺口的策略之一是重點吸引國際人才(Cerna 和Czaika,2021 年;Chand 和Tung,2019 年;Thomas 和Inkpen,2017 年)。 Gesing 和 Glass(2019 年)認為,世界上許多國家,特別是那些擁有
Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning Vol. 14 No. 1, 2024 pp. 76-94
高等教育、技能與基於工作的學習》第 14 卷第 1 期,2024 年,第 76-94 頁。 76-94
2042-3896
DOI 10.1108/HESWBL-04-2023-0084
insufficient skilled workers, have started to realise the value of talented international students, especially graduates (Singh, 2020).
技術工人不足的問題,已經開始意識到優秀留學生,尤其是畢業生的價值(Singh,2020 年)。
Since international students obtain knowledge and develop skills during their studies in the host countries, international graduates are viewed as a short cut to boosting the number of skilled talents in the country where they studied and graduated (Farivar et al, 2019). However, several countries experiencing a shortage of skilled workers have also observed that numerous international graduates depart from the host country after completing their education for various reasons (Han et al., 2015; Istad et al., 2021) and they either go back home or seek job opportunities elsewhere (Li and Bray, 2007). This has led to a brain drain in the host countries (mostly developed nations) (Docquier and Rapoport, 2012; Han et al., 2015).
由於國際學生在東道國學習期間獲得知識和發展技能,因此國際畢業生被視為增加其學習和畢業國家技能人才數量的捷徑(Farivar et al, 2019)。然而,一些技術工人短缺的國家也發現,許多國際畢業生在完成學業後因各種原因離開東道國(Han 等人,2015 年;Istad 等人,2021 年),他們要么回國,要么在其他地方尋找工作機會(Li 和Bray,2007 年)。這導致了東道國(主要是已開發國家)的人才流失(Docquier 和 Rapoport,2012 年;Han 等人,2015 年)。
In this regard, research on international student migration focusses on how international student choose their study destinations (Mazzarol and Soutar, 2002; Mok et al., 2021; Nicholls, 2018; Shields, 2019), or students' retention within higher education institutions (Aljohani, 2016; Burke, 2019). However, only few studies have focussed on post-graduations mobility intention and even less have investigated factors that influence international students' intention that might lead to an action after completing their studies. In this regard, literature lacks contributions that identify the role of the host country in facilitating student's adjustment process. We noticed a gap in the literature when it comes to examining students' attitude towards staying in the host country and that how their intentions are influenced by their surroundings.
在這方面,有關國際學生移民的研究主要集中在國際學生如何選擇學習目的地(Mazzarol and Soutar, 2002; Mok et al., 2021; Nicholls, 2018; Shields, 2019),或學生在高等教育機構的保留率(Aljohani, 2016; Burke, 2019)。然而,關注畢業後流動意圖的研究寥寥無幾,而調查影響留學生完成學業後可能採取行動的意圖的因素則較少。在這方面,文獻缺乏對東道國在促進學生適應過程中所起作用的研究。我們注意到,在研究學生對留在東道國的態度以及他們的意向如何受到周圍環境的影響方面,文獻仍存在空白。
This paper aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge by exploring factors influencing the intention of international student to stay in or leave the host country. The research context is Finland as the country faces shortage of skilful workforce (Přívara et al., 2020). According to Li and Pitkänen (2018), Finland has recently revised its national and visa policies to address the shrinking workforce and remain competitive. The government's objective is to retain competent international students and workers. The alterations made to the student residence permits aim to facilitate the completion of studies and post-graduation employment for international students. By keeping these talented students in the country, the government anticipates strengthening their job prospects after graduation and maintaining competitiveness (Mathies and Karhunen, 2021). As stated by Cai and Kivistö (2013), the growing number of international students in Finland is likely the reason behind the country's increasing popularity as a study destination. This has led to the perception that international education indirectly contributes to the Finnish economy (Evans et al., 2018). However, despite the success in attracting a significant number of international students, there is still limited knowledge about the factors that motivate students to pursue higher education in Finland, as noted by Mathies and Karhunen (2021). Additionally, there is insufficient research on the factors that may discourage students from studying abroad and how these factors affect their decision-making process and behavioural intention (Fowlie and Forder, 2018; Nikou et al., 2018).
本文旨在透過探討影響留學生留在或離開東道國意願的因素,為現有知識體係做出貢獻。研究背景是芬蘭,因為該國面臨高技能勞動力短缺的問題(Přívara et al.)根據Li 和Pitkänen(2018)的說法,芬蘭最近修訂了國家和簽證政策,以解決勞動力萎縮問題並保持競爭力。政府的目標是留住有能力的國際學生和工人。學生居留許可的修改旨在為留學生完成學業和畢業後就業提供便利。透過留住這些優秀學生,政府希望加強他們畢業後的就業前景並保持競爭力(Mathies 和 Karhunen,2021 年)。正如蔡和基維斯托(Cai and Kivistö,2013)所言,芬蘭留學生人數的不斷增長,很可能是該國作為留學目的地越來越受歡迎的原因。這使得人們認為,國際教育間接促進了芬蘭經濟的發展(Evans et al.)然而,儘管成功吸引了大量國際學生,但正如Mathies和Karhunen(2021年)所指出的,人們對促使學生在芬蘭接受高等教育的因素的了解仍然有限。此外,關於可能阻礙學生出國留學的因素以及這些因素如何影響他們的決策過程和行為意圖的研究也不足(Fowlie and Forder, 2018; Nikou et al.)
From a theoretical standpoint, the theory of push-pull factors (Tran et al, 2021), as well as the theory of reasoned action (TRA) (Fishbein, 1979) will be used as the theoretical foundations to identify the determinants of international students' decision to stay or to leave host country. The push-pull factor theory has its roots in the study of human migration (Lee, 1966), which views migration as the result of how push and pull influences a person moves from one place to another (Chang et al., 2014). In the context of this research, the push-pull theory enables to determine how and what factors pull international students to stay in host country and how and what factors push them to leave the country. The research question guiding this research is:
從理論角度來看,推拉因素理論(Tran et al, 2021)和理性行動理論(TRA)(Fishbein, 1979)將被用作確定留學生決定留在或離開東道國的決定因素的理論基礎。推拉因素理論源自於人類遷移的研究(Lee,1966 年),該理論認為遷移是推力和拉力如何影響一個人從一個地方遷移到另一個地方的結果(Chang 等人,2014 年)。在本研究中,推拉理論有助於確定哪些因素促使留學生留在東道國,又是哪些因素促使他們離開東道國。指導本研究的研究問題是:
. What factors influence the intention of the international students to stay or leave the host country after graduation?
.哪些因素會影響留學生畢業後留在或離開東道國的意願?

HESWBL

14,1

78

This paper presents empirical data and quantitative analysis to provide new insights into the factors that influence international student's decision to stay or leave the host country and demonstrates how these insights contribute to the broader body of research on international students' migration. This paper provides a clear context for the case of international students in Finland and this will involve discussing the economic and social factors that are relevant to international students' migration in Finland. By providing a detailed analysis of the factors that influence international students' decision and demonstrating the potential practical implications of the research findings, this paper aims to make a unique contribution to the field of international students' research.
本文透過實證資料和定量分析,對影響留學生決定留在或離開東道國的因素提出了新的見解,並展示了這些見解如何為更廣泛的留學生移民研究做出貢獻。本文為芬蘭的留學生案例提供了一個清晰的背景,其中包括討論與芬蘭留學生移民相關的經濟和社會因素。透過對影響留學生決定的因素進行詳細分析,並展示研究成果的潛在實際意義,本文旨在為留學生研究領域做出獨特貢獻。
The paper is organised as follows: Section 2 reviews previous findings on students' postgraduation plans. Section 3 presents the theoretical model and hypotheses. Section 4 covers research methodology and data collection. Section 5 discusses the results. Section 6 provides discussion, conclusion and limitations with recommendations for future research.
本文的架構如下:第 2 節回顧了以往關於學生畢業後計畫的研究成果。第 3 節介紹理論模型與假設。第 4 節介紹研究方法和資料收集。第 5 節討論研究結果。第 6 節是討論、結論和限制以及對未來研究的建議。

2. Literature review 2.文獻綜述

Literature shows that several factors influence international graduates' decisions to stay or leave the host country such as political, personal and social factors (Agnihotri et al., 2023; Bredenkamp et al., 2023; Fowlie and Forder, 2018; Li and Bray, 2007). Farivar et al. (2019) explored push-pull factors related to international student mobility by examining graduates who changed their initial career mobility intentions, despite originally planning to leave the host country after graduation. Some studies have examined factors influencing students' decision to stay in the host country after graduation (Han et al., 2015; Millea et al., 2018; Shen and Herr, 2004). For example, Gesing and Glass (2019) explored the influence of political, economic and social factors on international students' intention to stay in or leave the USA after completing their studies. Baruch et al. (2007) identified the perception of the labour market, adjustment and settlement processes, family ties and social support as the most impactful factors affecting students' intention to stay or leave the host country after their studies.
文獻顯示,有多種因素會影響國際畢業生決定留在或離開東道國,如政治、個人和社會因素(Agnihotri等人,2023年;Bredenkamp等人,2023年;Fowlie和Forder,2018年;Li和Bray,2007年)。 Farivar等人(2019)透過研究那些原本計劃畢業後離開東道國,但卻改變了最初職業流動意向的畢業生,探討了與國際學生流動相關的推拉因素。一些研究檢視了影響學生畢業後留在東道國的決定的因素(Han等人,2015;Millea等人,2018;Shen和Herr,2004)。例如,Gesing 和 Glass(2019)探討了政治、經濟和社會因素對留學生完成學業後留在或離開美國的意向的影響。 Baruch 等人(2007)認為,對勞動市場的看法、適應和定居過程、家庭關係和社會支持是影響學生學成後留在或離開東道國意圖的最主要因素。
Other studies tend to identify influential factors based on home country vs host country (Gesing and Glass, 2019; Rivas et al., 2019). Some research shows that due to cultural differences between home and host countries, international students often face many challenges when deciding to study aboard (Kruanak and Ruangkanjanases, 2014). An exemplary instance would be the comparison conducted by Kruanak and Ruangkanjanases (2014) between student life in a student's home country and their new life in the host country. This study specifically concentrates on the cultural, social and economic differences and challenges encountered by the students. Furthermore, based on their research, Baruch et al. (2007) discovered that the decision of students who come to study in the UK and the USA to either remain in the host country or return to their home country is influenced by their level of adjustment in the host country. Other studies have examined the impact of cultural distance on students' intention to leave the host country after graduation (Fouarge et al., 2019). Baruch et al. (2007) reported that students from China, Taiwan, Thailand, Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and Latin America have a higher inclination to return to their home countries due to cultural adaptation issues. The study found that students from diverse cultural backgrounds struggle to adjust to new environments, which leads to a higher tendency to return to their home countries.
其他研究則傾向於根據母國與東道國來確定影響因素(Gesing 和 Glass,2019 年;Rivas 等人,2019 年)。一些研究表明,由於母國和東道國之間的文化差異,留學生在決定留學時往往面臨許多挑戰(Kruanak and Ruangkanjanases, 2014)。 Kruanak 和 Ruangkanjanases(2014 年)對學生在母國的學習生活和在東道國的新生活進行了比較,就是一個很好的例子。這項研究特別關注學生在文化、社會和經濟方面的差異以及所遇到的挑戰。此外,Baruch 等人(2007 年)根據他們的研究發現,到英國和美國留學的學生決定留在東道國還是回國,受到他們在東道國適應程度的影響。其他研究也探討了文化距離對學生畢業後離開東道國意圖的影響(Fouarge et al.)Baruch 等人(2007 年)報告說,由於文化適應問題,來自中國大陸、台灣、泰國、非洲、阿拉伯半島和拉丁美洲的學生有較高的回國傾向。研究發現,來自不同文化背景的學生在適應新環境方面有困難,這導致他們更傾向於返回本國。
In addition, Tran et al. (2021) found that in the context of Chinese graduate returnees, in addition to the incentives of salary and good working environments which support their career prospects and professional advancement, being recruited into the reputable firms in big cities provides strong motive to return to their home country after graduation. Moreover, Gribble et al. (2015) found that enhancing the employability skills of internationals students
此外,Tran 等人(2021 年)發現,對於中國的海歸畢業生而言,除了薪酬和良好的工作環境等激勵因素支持他們的職業前景和職業發展外,被大城市的知名企業錄用也是他們畢業後回國的強烈動機。此外,Gribble 等人(2015 年)發現,提升留學生的就業技能

via integrated career education such as an English language proficiency training and soft skills development are central to success of international students' employability.
透過綜合職業教育,如英語語言能力訓練和軟技能培養,是留學生​​成功就業的關鍵。

3. Theoretical background and hypothesis development
3.理論背景與假設的提出

This section uses the push-pull factor theory as a theoretical lens to understand this phenomenon from theoretical standpoint (Curtis and Ledgerwood, 2018; Nghia, 2019; Nghiêm-Phú and Nguyễn, 2020). Some prior studies attempted to examine the attractive factors (such as economic, institutional and environmental) that impact students' decisions to study abroad and, possibly, to remain in the host country once their studies are finished. For example, Istad et al. (2021) discovered that the students' intentions to do so are positively correlated with their satisfaction with their academic performance, social adjustment and quality of life in South Korea.
本節以推拉因素理論為理論視角,從理論上理解此現象(Curtis and Ledgerwood, 2018; Nghia, 2019; Nghiêm-Phú and Nguyễn, 2020)。先前的一些研究試圖檢視影響學生決定出國留學以及學業結束後可能留在東道國的誘人因素(如經濟、制度和環境)。例如,Istad 等人(2021 年)發現,學生的留學意圖與他們對在韓國的學業成績、社會適應和生活品質的滿意度呈正相關。
Mazzarol and Soutar (2002) evaluated prospective students from four different countries (Indonesia, Chinese Taiwan, India and Mainland China) using the push-pull factor theory to explain why some students choose to study abroad or opt to stay in the host country. The results revealed that characteristics associated with the host country (pull factors) act as attractions for students, whilst factors related to the home country (push factors) serve as motivations for students to pursue studies abroad. The push factors identified were (1) the perception amongst students that studying abroad is better than studying locally, (2) difficulties in getting into the local educational institutions, (3) unavailability of preferred study programmes, (4) willingness to get a better understanding of the West and (5) the intention of settling in the host country. In addition, the pull factors influencing students' decision to choose a host country were (1) knowledge and awareness, (2) cost issues, (3) environment, (4) geographic proximity, (5) social links and (6) personal recommendation.
Mazzarol 和 Soutar(2002 年)採用推拉因素理論對來自四個不同國家(印尼、中國台灣、印度和中國大陸)的未來學生進行了評估,以解釋為什麼一些學生選擇出國留學或選擇留在東道國。研究結果表明,與東道國相關的特徵(拉動因素)是吸引學生的因素,而與母國相關的因素(推動因素)則是學生出國留學的動機。所確定的推動因素包括:(1) 學生認為出國留學比在當地學習更好;(2) 難以進入當地教育機構;(3) 沒有喜歡的學習課程;(4) 願意更了解西方國家; (5) 有意在東道國定居。此外,影響學生決定選擇東道國的拉動因素有:(1) 知識和認識,(2) 費用問題,(3) 環境,(4) 地理位置近,(5) 社會連結和 (6) 個人推薦。
Alberts and Hazen (2005) found professional, societal and personal factors influencing international students' decision to stay in the USA or return home. Professional factors were more likely to encourage students to stay, whilst cultural and personal reasons motivated them to leave. Similarly, Eder et al (2010) found that personal growth, language improvement and career growth were push factors, whilst college-related issues, physical geography and cultural attraction were pull factors for students going to the USA. Structural factors such as visa issues and living costs were identified as constraints in the decision-making process of the international students. Maringe (2006) also stated that multiple push-pull factors come into play in students' decision to study and live in abroad. For example, Abbas and Sagsan (2020) stated that poor education quality and low career prospects in the home country are the push factors that influence young people to decide to go abroad to study. Furthermore, Findlay et al. (2016) suggested that a collection of pull factors makes a specific country stand out amongst others. For instance, a country's development regarding its infrastructure and facilities (Shakoor et al, 2021), career prospects, higher quality educational institutions and the market value of graduates are some of the highly influencing factors amongst young people that influence them to choose a specific country.
Alberts 和 Hazen(2005 年)發現,專業、社會和個人因素影響留學生決定留在美國還是回國。專業因素更有可能鼓勵學生留下,而文化和個人原因則促使他們離開。同樣,Eder 等人(2010 年)發現,個人成長、語言提升和職業發展是赴美留學生的推動因素,而與大學相關的問題、自然地理和文化吸引力則是拉動因素。簽證問題和生活費等結構性因素被認為是留學生決策過程中的限制因素。 Maringe(2006)也指出,多種推拉因素在學生決定出國學習和生活的過程中發揮作用。例如,Abbas 和 Sagsan(2020 年)指出,本國教育品質不佳和職業前景暗淡是影響年輕人決定出國留學的推力因素。此外,Findlay 等人(2016)認為,一系列拉動因素使特定國家在眾多因素中脫穎而出。例如,一個國家在基礎設施和設備方面的發展(Shakoor et al, 2021)、職業前景、更高品質的教育機構和畢業生的市場價值等,都是影響年輕人選擇特定國家的一些極具影響力的因素。
Similarly, Pimpa (2003) suggested that the opinion of family members and recommendation of others are critical factors influencing an individual's behaviour and thus should be treated as a major force in the student's decision to go abroad. A similar suggestion was stated in the study conducted by Bourke (2000), where the authors argued that suggestions and views from family members and closest friends were found to influence student's choice of the host country for abroad studies. Furthermore, recommendations from friends and family (Bourke, 2000; Mazzarol and Soutar, 2002) and recommendations from agents (Gatfield and Chen, 2006) have been discussed in these studies to explain the pull factors that influence students' decision to move or to stay abroad.
同樣,Pimpa(2003)認為,家庭成員的意見和他人的推薦是影響個人行為的關鍵因素,因此應被視為學生決定出國的主要力量。 Bourke (2000)的研究也提出了類似的建議,作者認為家人和最親密朋友的建議和意見會影響學生對留學所在國的選擇。此外,這些研究也討論了親朋好友的建議(Bourke, 2000; Mazzarol and Soutar, 2002)和中介機構的建議(Gatfield and Chen, 2006),以解釋影響學生決定移居或留在國外的拉動因素。
Chen studied the decision-making process and the influential factors regarding East Asian international students' intentions to go to the Canadian graduate schools.
Chen 研究了東亞留學生申請加拿大研究所的決策過程和影響因素。
International students in the host country
東道國的留學生

HESWBL

14,1
80
The results showed that several factors influenced the decision of the students to choose these graduate schools. The major factors highlighted were the tuition fees, scholarships, the quality of the country's education and the visa process. A similar study was carried out by Branco Oliveira and Soares (2016) in Portugal where 298 international students participated in the research. The results showed that the reputation and quality of the university (institution) were the most attractive factors to influence students' decisions and concluded that students mostly rely on personal contacts for the information needed to make the decision. Moreover, some studies have also discussed factors like reputation of the country or education quality in attracting international students or encouraging them to stay in the host country (Binsardi and Ekwulugo, 2003; Mazzarol and Soutar, 2002). In addition, awareness about the country amongst international students was stated as one of the six pull factors influencing students to make study abroad decisions (Mazzarol and Soutar, 2002).
結果表明,有幾個因素影響了學生選擇這些研究生院的決定。主要因素包括學費、獎學金、國家教育品質和簽證程序。 Branco Oliveira 和 Soares(2016 年)在葡萄牙進行了一項類似的研究,共有 298 名國際學生參與研究。結果表明,大學(機構)的聲譽和品質是影響學生決定的最有吸引力的因素,並得出結論認為,學生大多依靠人際交往來獲取做出決定所需的資訊。此外,一些研究也討論了國家聲譽或教育品質等因素對吸引留學生或鼓勵他們留在東道國的影響(Binsardi 和 Ekwulugo,2003;Mazzarol 和 Soutar,2002)。此外,留學生對國家的了解也是影響學生做出留學決定的六大因素之一(Mazzarol 和 Soutar,2002 年)。
We also discovered that several attractive aspects of the host country's educational institutions like the quality of teaching (Maringe and Carter, 2007) and the reputation of the institution (Chen, 2006, 2007) influence the study aboard decision of the international students. Moreover, different environmental factors like the good climate of the host country, English-speaking environment (Mazzarol and Soutar, 2002), study environment (Chen, 2007) and safety (Binsardi and Ekwulugo, 2003) have been discussed in multiple studies. All in all, it can be concluded that multiple factors influence student's decision to stay in the host country. Hence, we postulate:
我們也發現,東道國教育機構的一些有吸引力的方面,如教學品質(Maringe 和 Carter,2007 年)和教育機構的聲譽(Chen,2006 年和 2007 年),都會影響留學生的留學決定。此外,多項研究也討論了不同的環境因素,如東道國的良好氣候、英語環境(Mazzarol 和 Soutar,2002 年)、學習環境(Chen,2007 年)和安全(Binsardi 和 Ekwulugo,2003 年)。總之,可以得出結論:多種因素影響學生留在東道國的決定。因此,我們假設
H1. Aspects related to host country positively influence students' attitude towards staying.
H1.與東道國相關的面向會對學生的居留態度產生正面影響。
H2. Institutional factors positively influence students' attitude towards staying.
H2.制度因素對學生的留校態度有正向影響。
H3. Economical factors positively influence students' attitude towards staying.
H3.經濟因素對學生的留校態度有正向影響。
H4. Environmental factors positively influence students' attitude towards staying.
H4.環境因素對學生的住宿態度有正向影響。
H5. Recommendation of friends and relatives positively influence students' attitude towards staying.
H5.親友的推薦對學生的住宿態度有正向影響。
In addition, the concept of social influence, which refers to "the processes whereby people directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings and actions of others" may have a direct and positive impact on the student's attitude towards staying (intention to stay in the host country), hence:
此外,社會影響的概念是指 "人們直接或間接地影響他人的思想、情感和行動的過程",它可能會對學生的居留態度(留在東道國的意願)產生直接和積極的影響:
H6. Social influence (norms) positively influence students' attitude towards staying.
H6.社會影響(規範)對學生的住宿態度有正向影響。
It can also be assumed that the positive attitude towards staying contributes to the decision of international students to stay in the host country after completion of their studies, hence:
我們也可以假設,留學生對留下的積極態度有助於他們決定在完成學業後留在東道國,因此
H7. Attitude towards staying positively influence students' intention to stay in the host country.
H7.留住態度對學生留在東道國的意願有正面影響。

3.1 Push (challenges and barriers) factors
3.1 推動(挑戰與障礙)因素

This section reviews and identifies challenges faced by international students, which make students to decide to leave the host country. Literature shows that the lower level of social satisfaction amongst international students in the USA has been found to be as one of the most influential challenging reasons for leaving the host country after finishing studies (Van Horne et al., 2018). The host country's academic standards and the issue of racial discrimination were also mentioned by Lee (2015) and Alho (2020), as potential barriers to stay for international students who encountered these issues in the host country.
本節回顧並確定了留學生面臨的挑戰,這些挑戰使學生決定離開東道國。文獻顯示,在美國,留學生的社會滿意度較低被認為是完成學業後離開東道國的最具影響力的挑戰性原因之一(Van Horne et al.)Lee(2015)和Alho(2020)也提到,東道國的學術標準和種族歧視問題也是留學生在東道國遇到這些問題時留下來的潛在障礙。
Similarly, several prior studies reported that international students whose first language is not English, encounter socio-linguistic difficulties in the host country (Yan and Berliner, 2013; Zhou et al., 2011). Chan (2013) argue that non-native speakers of the language feel embarrassed about their lack of fluency and that they believe they are being unfairly judged by the native speakers. Moreover, studies regarding the challenges faced by international students in the UK have found that factors such as homesickness, feeling of being isolated, stress and depression, culture shock and even dietary issues were amongst the main barriers and challenges influencing students to leave the host country when they finish their studies (Alloh et al., 2018; Cowley and Hyams-Ssekasi, 2018).
同樣,先前的一些研究報告指出,母語不是英語的留學生在東道國會遇到社會語言方面的困難(Yan 和 Berliner,2013 年;Zhou 等人,2011 年)。 Chan(2013)認為,母語非英語的人對自己的語言不流利感到尷尬,他們認為母語非英語的人對他們的評價是不公平的。此外,有關英國留學生所面臨挑戰的研究發現,思鄉之情、孤立感、壓力和憂鬱、文化衝擊甚至飲食問題等因素是影響學生完成學業後離開東道國的主要障礙和挑戰(Alloh et al.)
Moreover, cost-related factors like tuition fees, living costs and travel costs were found as influencing factors in international students' decision-making process to stay in or leave the host country (Binsardi and Ekwulugo, 2003; Chen, 2006; Eder et al, 2010; Maringe and Carter, 2007; Mazzarol and Soutar, 2002). In addition, challenges like culture shock (Alloh et al., 2018; Cowley and Hyams-Ssekasi, 2018), local language difficulty (Yan and Berliner, 2013; Zhou et al, 2011), racial discrimination (Lee, 2015), lack of financial aid (Wan, 2001) have been identified as the main challenges that international students face whilst being in the host country. Thus, we propose the following hypothesis:
此外,學費、生活費和差旅費等與成本相關的因素被認為是留學生決定留在或離開東道國的影響因素(Binsardi 和Ekwulugo,2003;Chen,2006;Eder et al,2010;Maringe 和Carter,2007;Mazzarolol;Eder et al,2010;Maringe 和Carter,2007;Mazzarolol;Eder et al,2010;Maringe 和Carter,2007;Mazzarol和Soutar,2002)。此外,文化衝擊(Alloh 等人,2018 年;Cowley 和Hyams-Ssekasi,2018 年)、當地語言困難(Yan 和Berliner,2013 年;Zhou 等人,2011 年)、種族歧視(Lee,2015 年)、缺乏經濟援助(Wan,2001 年)等挑戰被認為是留學生在東道國面臨的主要挑戰。因此,我們提出以下假設:
H8. Barriers and challenges (push factors) faced by international students in the host country has a direct negative effect on the intention to stay in the host country.
H8.留學生在東道國面臨的障礙和挑戰(推動因素)對其留在東道國的意願有直接的負面影響。
Based on the theoretical discussion presented above, this research develops a conceptual model (see Figure 1).
根據上述理論討論,本研究建立了一個概念模型(見圖 1)。

4. Methodology 4.方法論

This research follows the Finnish National Board on Research Integrity (TENK) Ethical principles of research with human participants and ethical review in the human sciences in Finland and other instructions and regulations. By using the knowledge and insights gained from the literature review, a survey questionnaire was developed to collect data. The collected data and research hypotheses were examined and analysed through partial least square structure equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The use of PLS-SEM as the statistical analysis technique adds rigour to the study, enabling the examination of multiple factors and relationships within a theoretical model and testing the research hypotheses (Sarstedt et al., 2014). By moving beyond traditional qualitative research and testing a theoretical model, we
本研究遵循芬蘭國家研究誠信委員會(TENK)關於芬蘭人類參與研究和人類科學倫理審查的倫理原則以及其他指示和規定。利用從文獻綜述中獲得的知識和見解,編制了一份問卷來收集數據。透過偏最小二乘法結構方程模型(PLS-SEM)對收集到的數據和研究假設進行了檢驗和分析。使用 PLS-SEM 作為統計分析技術可增加研究的嚴謹性,在理論模型中檢驗多種因素和關係,並測試研究假設(Sarstedt 等人,2014 年)。透過超越傳統的質性研究和檢驗理論模型,我們
Figure 1. 圖 1.
Source(s): Figure by authors
資料來源作者繪製的圖表

International students in the host country
東道國的留學生

HESWBL

14,1

82

aim to enhance our understanding of the antecedents influencing international students' decisions to stay in or leave Finland after completing their studies. The research methodology employed holds also practical implications for policymakers, educational institutions and other stakeholders by providing several evidence-based insights that can inform decisionmaking and contribute to the development of effective strategies to attract and retain international students.
本研究旨在加深我們對影響留學生在完成學業後決定留在芬蘭還是離開芬蘭的前因的理解。所採用的研究方法也對政策制定者、教育機構和其他利益相關者俱有實際意義,它提供了一些基於證據的見解,可以為決策提供依據,並有助於製定吸引和留住留學生的有效策略。
Drawing from the push-pull factor theory and a part of the TRA (Ajzen, 1991; Fishbein, 1979), we tested three sets of antecedents: (1) pull factors (five dimensions), (2) push factors (challenges and barriers) and (3) social influence (norms) together with attitude towards staying and assessed how these antecedents impact the outcome variable (intention to stay). The survey consisted of two sections: section one collects demographic information and section two collect data to measure the items (survey indicators) forming the nine constructs in the research conceptual model. It should be stated that we only surveyed students currently leaving in Finland, as Finland is the research context.
借鑒推拉因素理論和部分TRA 理論(Ajzen, 1991; Fishbein, 1979),我們測試了三組前因:(1) 拉動因素(五個面向),(2) 推動因素(挑戰和障礙),(3 ) 社會影響(規範)以及對留下的態度,並評估這些前因如何影響結果變項(留下的意願)。調查由兩部分組成:第一部分收集人口統計信息,第二部分收集數據,以測量構成研究概念模型中九個構造的項目(調查指標)。需要說明的是,我們只調查了目前在芬蘭離校的學生,因為芬蘭是研究背景。

4.1 Measures 4.1 措施

In this research, we used previously tested and validated survey measures. For example, measures for pull factors (aspects related to the host country, institutional factors, economic factors, environmental factors and recommendation from family and friends) were derived from Mazzarol and Soutar (2002) and Kruanak and Ruangkanjanases (2014). Survey items for measuring attitude towards staying and social norms (influence) were derived from Baruch et al. (2007), Okun et al. (2002) and Teo (2010). Items measuring push factors (challenges and barriers) were derived from Alloh et al. (2018), Van Horne et al. (2018) and Yan and Berliner (2013). Finally, items for measuring intention to stay in the host country were derived from Okun et al. (2002) and Teo (2010). All survey items were measured with the 5-points Likert scales, from 1 "strongly disagree" to 5 being "strongly agree".
在本研究中,我們使用了先前經過測試和驗證的調查措施。例如,拉動因素(與東道國相關的面向、制度因素、經濟因素、環境因素和親友推薦)的測量方法來自 Mazzarol 和 Soutar(2002 年)以及 Kruanak 和 Ruangkanjanases(2014 年)。用於衡量居留態度和社會規範(影響)的調查項目來自 Baruch 等人(2007 年)、Okun 等人(2002 年)和 Teo(2010 年)。衡量推動因素(挑戰與障礙)的項目來自 Alloh 等人(2018 年)、Van Horne 等人(2018 年)以及 Yan 和 Berliner(2013 年)。最後,衡量留在東道國意願的項目來自 Okun 等人(2002 年)和 Teo(2010 年)。所有調查題項均以五點李克特量表進行測量,從 1 分 "非常不同意 "到 5 分 "非常同意"。

4.2 Data collection 4.2 數據收集

An online survey was distributed amongst the universities in Finland. Prior to the distribution, the survey was pre-tested by an expert panel of professors, senior lecturers and researchers, as well as international students to check for the clarity of the survey statements. All comments and feedback received were used to adjust the readability, language and clarity of the survey. The invitations were sent to international students in Finnish universities over six weeks from October to November 2022. Many respondents did not qualify for our sampling strategy either because they were not international students, or they were just visiting Finland for a shorter period of time. However, exchange students if they were in Finland at least for one complete semester were included. The survey was opened by 720 potential respondents, 453 have started the survey, but at the end we collected 320 complete responses.
在芬蘭各大學中分發了一份線上調查問卷。在分發之前,由教授、高級講師和研究人員以及留學生組成的專家小組對調查表進行了預試,以檢查調查語句的清晰度。收到的所有意見和回饋都被用來調整調查表的可讀性、語言和清晰度。在 2022 年 10 月至 11 月的六週時間裡,我們向芬蘭各大學的留學生發出了調查邀請。許多受訪者不符合我們的抽樣策略,因為他們不是國際學生,或者他們只是在芬蘭進行短期訪問。不過,如果交換生在芬蘭至少待滿一個學期,他們也在抽樣之列。有 720 名潛在受訪者開啟了調查,453 人開始了調查,但最終我們收集了 320 份完整的回應。

5. Data analysis and descriptive results
5.數據分析和描述性結果

We used Smart PLS v. 4 to analyse the data. Of the 320 respondents, 28 were disqualified from further analysis as they did not engage fully in the survey or gave insufficient information. As a result, the final dataset contained 292 responses and were females, 111 were males and preferred not to indicate their gender. The age range was and over 35 years old . When asked to choose the option, which describes you the best, the following information was found. I am currently an international student , I have studied in Finland as
我們使用 Smart PLS v. 4 對資料進行了分析。在 320 名受訪者中,有 28 人因未完全參與調查或提供的資訊不足而被取消進一步分析的資格。因此,最終資料集包含 292 份回复,其中 為女性,111 為男性, 不願表明性別。年齡範圍為 ,35 歲以上的 。當被要求選擇最能描述您的選項時,我們發現以下資訊。我目前是國際學生 ,我曾在芬蘭作為

an international student , I am an exchange student and I have studied in Finland as an exchange student ).
我是一名國際學生 ,我是一名交換生 ,我曾作為交換生在芬蘭學習 )。
Of the respondents, studied for a bachelor's degree, were studied for a master's degree and were students. Of the respondents, were married, were single and did not want to reveal their marital status. Respondents were mostly from Iran, Germany, China, India, Bangladesh, Italy, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Spain, Sri Lanka, the UK, the USA, Turkey and Vietnam. Also, more than of the respondents indicated that they do not have other nationalities.
在受訪者中, 是攻讀學士學位的學生, 是攻讀碩士學位的學生, 的學生。受訪者中, 已婚, 單身, 不願透露自己的婚姻狀況。受訪者主要來自伊朗、德國、中國、印度、孟加拉、義大利、尼泊爾、奈及利亞、巴基斯 坦、俄羅斯、西班牙、斯里蘭卡、英國、美國、土耳其和越南。此外,超過 的受訪者表示他們沒有其他國籍。

5.1 Measurement results: validity and internal reliability
5.1 測量結果:效度和內部可靠性

Several statistical tests such as factor loadings, Composite Reliability (CR), Average Variance Extracted (AVE), Cronbach's alpha and Discriminant Validity were computed to check the internal validity, reliability and consistency of the scales. All survey items (except for a few items) exceeded the recommended threshold value of 0.70 for factor loadings (see Table 1). The internal consistency and reliability of latent construct was assessed via Cronbach alpha with recommended threshold value of 0.70 (Hair et al., 2012). The Cronbach alpha values for all constructs were above the recommended threshold, with 0.945 for the intention to stay in the host country as the highest and the economic level factor with 0.705 as the lowest Cronbach's alpha.
為了檢驗量表的內部效度、信度和一致性,我們計算了一些統計檢驗,如因子負荷、綜合信度(CR)、平均變異數提取(AVE)、Cronbach's alpha 和區分效度。除少數項目外,所有調查項目的因子負荷量均超過了建議的臨界值 0.70(見表 1)。潛在構念的內部一致性和可靠性透過 Cronbach alpha 進行評估,建議臨界值為 0.70(Hair 等人,2012 年)。所有構念的 Cronbach α 值均高於建議的臨界值,其中留在東道國的意願的 Cronbach α 值最高,為 0.945;經濟水準因子的 Cronbach α 值最低,為 0.705。
The composite reliability (CR) was computed to assess construct reliability, considering the value of 0.70 as the threshold (Hair et al., 2011). As shown in Table 1, the lowest CR (rho_c) value was 0.724 for the economic level factor and the highest was 0.931 for the intention to stay in the host country. The lowest AVE value was 0.606 for the social influence (norms) and the highest was 0.869 for the aspects related to the host country. All in all, these values indicate that all the constructs used in the measurement model met the threshold values, so we can establish an acceptable construct reliability. Convergent validity was also evaluated to determine how closely two measures of structures that ought to be connected theoretically are indeed related (Fornell and Larcker, 1981; Hair et al., 2011). The AVE can be used to analyse the relationship and threshold is 0.50 or higher. All the AVE values were between 0.52 and 0.66 , and thus, convergent validity was established in our data (see Table 1 ). We then calculated the discriminant validity, which, unlike the convergent validity, the aim is to establish that the measures or concepts have no association or relationship and to demonstrate that the items used to measure a construct accurately captured the intended construct and that the construct was not captured by other measures (Henseler et al., 2015). Following the Fornell and Larcker (1981) criterion, the distinctness of the constructs and the discriminant validity in the data were determined, see Table 2 .
考慮0.70 的臨界值(Hair et al.如表1 所示,經濟水平因子的CR(rho_c)值最低,為0.724;留在東道國的意願因子的CR(rho_c)值最高,為0.931。社會影響(規範)的AVE 值最低,為0.606,而東道國相關方面的AVE 值最高,為0.869。念信度。來分析兩者之間的關係,臨界值為0.50 或更高。效度,與收斂效度不同,區別效度的目的是確定測量指標或概念之間沒有關聯或關係,並證明用於測量構念的項目準確地捕捉到了預期構念,而且其他測量指標沒有捕捉到該構念(Henseler 等人,2015 年)。
In addition, we evaluated the discriminant validity of the construct using the HeterotraitMonotrait ratio (HTMT) approach. The HTMT is an alternative approach to establish the discriminant validity and the obtained values were below the desired threshold value of 0.85 as recommend by Henseler et al. (2015). Thus, the discriminant validity was established for the measurement model and constructs, see Table 3.
此外,我們也使用異類單特徵比(HTMT)方法評估了構念的區別效度。 HTMT 是建立區別效度的另一種方法,所獲得的值低於 Henseler 等人(2015 年)建議的 0.85 的理想閾值。因此,測量模型和構念的區別效度已經確定,見表 3。
As the dependent variable (intention to stay) was predicted by multiple independent variables and there is a risk of intercorrelation amongst the dependent variables, a multicollinearity test through the value of variance inflation factor (VIF) was computed. Hair et al. (1998) and Petter et al. (2007) suggested that the lowest acceptable VIF value is 3.3. The results of the VIF values show no issue; thus, multicollinearity was not a problem in our data, as the lowest value was 1.89 and the highest 3.091. Moreover, a common method bias (CMB) was examined to check if there was any bias attributable to the measurement method, following two different approaches, (1) Harman's one-factor test (Podsakoff and Organ, 1986) and (2) common latent factor (CLF) technique, as recommended by Podsakoff et al. (2003) and
由於因變數(逗留意圖)由多個自變數預測,且因變數之間存在相互關聯的風險,因此透過變異數膨脹因子(VIF)值進行了多重共線性檢定。 Hair 等人(1998 年)和 Petter 等人(2007 年)建議,可接受的最低 VIF 值為 3.3。 VIF 值的結果顯示沒有問題;因此,我們的資料不存在多重共線性問題,因為最低值為 1.89,最高值為 3.091。此外,我們也採用了兩種不同的方法,即(1) 哈曼單因子檢定(Podsakoff 和Organ,1986 年)和(2) 共同潛在因素(CLF)技術,對共同方法偏差(CMB)進行了檢驗,以檢查是否有可歸因於測量方法的偏差。
MacKenzie and Podsakoff (2012). The result of the Harman's one-factor test showed that none of the constructs explained more than of the variance. In the second approach, the CLF approach was examined through comparison of the chi-square value difference between unconstrained model and a model where all paths were restricted to zero. The CLF test results showed that the CMB had no effect on any of the model's path relationships.
MacKenzie 和 Podsakoff(2012 年)。哈曼單因子檢定的結果表明,沒有一個構念對變異數的解釋超過 。第二種方法是透過比較無約束模型與所有路徑均限制為零的模型之間的卡方值差異來檢驗 CLF 方法。 CLF 檢定結果表明,CMB 對模型的任何路徑關係都沒有影響。

5.2 Structural results 5.2 結構結果

We used the structural equation modelling (SEM) approach to assess the relationships between the constructs in the model. As Figure 2 shows, the SEM results revealed that the explained variance of intention to stay was explained by a variance of and attitude towards staying was explained by a variance of . Because we used PLS-SEM to examine
我們使用結構方程模型(SEM)方法來評估模型中各構 成要素之間的關係。如圖2 所示,SEM 結果表明, 的解釋方差解釋了入住意願, 的解釋方差解釋了入住態度, 的解釋方差解釋了入住態度。由於我們使用 PLS-SEM 來研究

the path relationships, it is not possible to report the model fit results. However, the Standardised Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) value can be used for the model fit. The SRMR refers to the difference between the observed correlation and the model implied correlation matrix, with the threshold value of less than 0.10 (or 0.08 in a more conservative version) (Hair et al., 2012). In our analysis, the SRMR value was (0.084).
因此無法報告模型擬合結果。不過,標準化均方根殘差(SRR)值可用於模型擬合。 SRMR 是指觀察相關性與模型隱含相關性矩陣之間的差值,閾值小於 0.10(或更保守的 0.08)(Hair 等人,2012 年)。在我們的分析中,SRR 值為 (0.084)。
Next, to obtain the significance of the estimates (t-statistics) in the path model, a bootstrap analysis with 5.000 resamples was computed, see Figure 2. The SEM results showed that the path between aspects related to the host country and attitude towards staying was positive and significant ; therefore, was accepted by the model. This is consistent with earlier findings of Luo et al. (2019) who also suggested that supports from host country positively influence students' decision. The direct paths between the institutional level factor and the economic level factors (a probability of finding high salary paid job) to the attitude towards staying were positive and significant. Thus, and were supported by the model. Ammigan (2019), Erturk and Luu (2022) and Pham and Jackson (2020) also found that institutional level and economic level factors positively relate to students' study abroad experiences. The SEM results further showed that the paths between environmental level factor (I plan to stay in Finland after my graduation because immigration procedures are less complex and student-friendly) and recommendation of family and friends (e.g. I plan to stay in Finland after my graduation because my parents/relatives recommended) were not significant and have no impact on the attitude towards staying. Thus, both and were rejected. These results are inconsistent with the findings of Cubillo et al. (2006) who argued that
接下來,為了獲得路徑模型中估計值(t 統計量)的顯著性,計算了 5.000 個重樣本的引導分析,請參閱圖 2。 SEM 結果顯示,東道國相關面向與居留態度之間的路徑為正,且顯著 ;因此, ,模型被接受。這與Luo等人(2019)的研究結果一致,他們也認為來自東道國的支持會對學生的決定有正面影響。制度層面因素 與經濟層面因素(找到高薪工作的可能性) 與留 學態度之間的直接路徑為正且顯著。因此, 得到了模型的支持。 Ammigan(2019)、Erturk 和 Luu(2022)以及 Pham 和 Jackson(2020)也發現,制度層面和經濟層面因素與學生的留學經驗呈正相關。 SEM結果進一步表明,環境層面因素(我計劃畢業後留在芬蘭,因為移民手續不那麼複雜,而且對學生友好)和親友推薦(例如,我計劃畢業後留在芬蘭,因為我的父母/親戚推薦)之間的路徑不顯著,對留學態度沒有影響。因此, 都被否定。這些結果與 Cubillo 等人(2006 年)的研究結果不一致,他們認為
Constructs ATT BAR ENV Host INS INT
Attitude towards act of behaviour
對行為的態度
0.79
Barriers and challenges 障礙和挑戰 -0.15 0.81
Economic level 經濟水平 0.57 -0.01 0.79
Environmental level 環境層面 0.52 -0.19 0.58 0.78
Host level 0.79 -0.11 0.63 0.44 0.93
Institutional level 機構層面 0.61 -0.06 0.61 0.52 0.55 0.87
Intention to stay in the host country
留在東道國的意願
0.53 -0.37 0.43 0.50 0.47 0.42 0.93
Recommendation level 建議等級 0.49 -0.01 0.55 0.43 0.47 0.60 0.32 0.80 Discriminant validity 區分效力
Social influence (norms)
社會影響(規範)
0.44 -0.09 0.40 0.41 0.35 0.43 0.42 0.71 0.77 Fornell and Larcker 福奈爾和拉克
Source(s): Table by authors
資料來源作者製作的表格
criterion
Construct ATT BAR ENV Host INS INT
Attitude towards act of behaviour
對行為的態度
Barriers and challenges 障礙和挑戰 0.21
Economic level 經濟水平 0.70 0.09
Environmental level 環境層面 0.61 0.24 0.77
Host level 0.85 0.15 0.78 0.52
Institutional level 機構層面 0.68 0.13 0.76 0.62 0.61 Table 3
Intention to stay in the host country
留在東道國的意願
0.58 0.44 0.53 0.57 0.50 0.46
1 able 3 .
Discriminant validity 區分效力
Recommendation level 建議等級 0.52 0.09 0.69 0.51 0.50 0.64 0.34 and Heterotrait- 和異質
Social influence (norms)
社會影響(規範)
0.48 0.12 0.50 0.48 0.39 0.48 0.44 0.84 Monotrait ratio 單特徵比率
Source(s): Table by authors
資料來源作者製作的表格
criterion

HESWBL

14,1
86
Figure 2. 圖 2.
Conceptual results 概念性成果
Note(s): -value -value -value
-value -value -value
Source(s): Figure by authors
資料來源作者繪製的圖表
recommendation from family, friends and professors influence prospective international students' institutional choice and James-MacEachern and Yun (2017) who argued that environmental cues are one of the most important pull motivational factors. The differences in the findings could be due to several plausible reasons when comparing the research results to earlier studies. Differences can be justified by considering the influence of contextual factors such as study design, population characteristics, geographical factors, time of data collection and the presence of random variation can all contribute to the observed disparities.
James-MacEachern和Yun(2017)認為環境線索是最重要的拉動動機因素之一。在將研究結果與先前的研究結果進行比較時,發現的差異可能是由幾個合理的原因造成的。考慮到研究設計、人口特徵、地理因素、資料收集時間等背景因素的影響,以及隨機變異的存在,都可能導致觀察到的差異。
Moreover, the SEM analysis showed that the path between the social influence (norms) and attitude towards staying was positive and significant ; thus, providing support for . The path between attitude towards staying and the intention to stay in the host country was positively related , providing support for H7. These results support the findings of Ozoğlu et al. (2015) who also indicated that social influence and norms positively relate to international students' attitude and intention to study abroad. Finally, we found that the challenges and barriers impact negatively students' decision to stay in the host country after completing their studies. Thus, H8 was also supported by the proposed model.
此外,SEM 分析表明,社會影響(規範)與居留態度之間的路徑是正相關且顯著的 ;因此,支持 。留下來的態度與留在東道國的意願之間的路徑呈正相關 ,為 H7 提供了支持。這些結果支持 Ozoğlu 等人(2015 年)的研究結果,他們也指出社會影響和規範與留學生的留學態度和意圖呈正相關。最後,我們發現挑戰和障礙對 學生完成學業後留在東道國的決定產生了負面影響。因此,擬議模型也支持 H8。
In addition, participants were asked to select up to three challenges and barriers, which they feel impact their decision to leave the host country (Finland) after graduation. We asked "which one of the following might have the most influence on your decision to leave Finland after your graduation? (You can select up to three). Table 4 shows the results.
此外,我們也要求參與者選擇最多三個他們認為會影響其畢業後離開東道國(芬蘭)決定的挑戰和障礙。我們問 "以下哪一項對您決定畢業後離開芬蘭的影響最大?(您最多可以選擇三項)。表 4 顯示了結果。
As Table 4 shows the top three challenges and barriers selected by the students are (1) difficult to find work , (2) language barrier and (3) difficult to become a part of the society or find a local friend . Of the respondents, 35 indicated other challenges and barriers such as: "I was not accepted by the Finnish society", "lack of opportunities for my spouse", "darkness in winter", "family and being away from family and loved ones", "socialisation with locals/Finnish prototype", "high cost of living", "it can be hard to make friends", "UK or US can offer better PhD opportunities since I want to be an academic in the future". These results are consistent with the research findings of Khanal and Gaulee (2019) who labelled the challenges of studying in overseas institutions into pre-departure; for example, obtaining accurate information, understanding the admission procedure and preparing documents for visa acquisition, post-departure; for example, language barriers,
如表4 所示,學生選擇的前三大挑戰和障礙是:(1) 找工作難 ,(2) 語言障礙 ,(3) 很難融入社會或找到當地朋友 。在受訪者中,有35 人指出了其他挑戰和障礙,例如"我不被芬蘭社會所接受"、"我的配偶缺乏機會"、"冬天的黑暗"、"家庭以及遠離家人和親人"、 "與當地人/芬蘭原型的社交"、"生活成本高"、"交朋友可能很難"、"英國或美國可以提供更好的博士生機會,因為我將來想成為一名學者"。這些結果與Khanal 和Gaulee(2019 年)的研究結果一致,他們將留學海外院校所面臨的挑戰歸納為出國前的挑戰(如獲取準確資訊、了解入學程序和準備簽證材料)和出國後的挑戰(如語言障礙)、
Challenges and barriers 挑戰和障礙 Percent (%)
students
in the host
country
Language 119 41.3
Difficult to find work
工作難找
194 67.4
Discrimination and racism
歧視和種族主義
56 19.4 Table 4.
Lack of professional networks
缺乏專業網絡
61 21.2 Challenges and 挑戰和
Bureaucracy 26 9.0
Climate 66 8.7 barriers students face 學生面臨的障礙
Difficulties in adapting the local cultural understanding
難以適應當地的文化理解
25 30.6 during their studies in
他們在
Difficult to become a part of the society or find a local friend
難以融入社會或找到當地朋友
88 26.4 the host country 東道國
Financial issues such as high taxation and/or low salaries
高稅收和/或低工資等財務問題
76 12.2 (Finland)
Others 35
Source(s): Table by authors
資料來源作者製作的表格
financial issues and cultural adjustment when they are in the host countries and post-study; for example, uncertain future.
在東道國和學習後的財務問題和文化適應問題,例如,前途未卜。

5.3 Results of mediation analysis
5.3 調解分析結果

We ran mediation analysis to assess if attitude towards staying mediates the relationships between the push factors and the social influence (norms) to the intention to stay in the host country. The mediation test results showed that attitude towards staying mediates the path between aspects related to the host country ( ), institutional level and social influence (norms) to students' intention to stay.
我們進行了中介分析,以評估 "留下的態度 "是否會中介推動因素和社會影響(規範)與留在東道國的意願之間的關係。中介檢驗結果表明,留下來的態度中介了與東道國相關的面向( )、制度層面的 和社會影響(規範) 與學生留下來的意願之間的路徑。
We also, ran the moderation test using the gender of respondents as a control variable. The results showed that factors influencing female students and male's students are different. In other words, different factors impact the decision of female and male students to stay or leave the host country after graduation. For example, the paths between the economic factors and institutional factors to attitude towards staying were only significant for the male students. Whereas the paths between (1) challenges and barriers ( ) to intention to stay in the host country and (2) social influence ( to attitude towards staying were only significant for the female students.
我們也使用受訪者的性別作為控制變量,並進行了調節測試。結果顯示,影響女生和男生的因素是不同的。換句話說,不同的因素會影響女生和男生畢業後留在或離開東道國的決定。例如,經濟因素 和製度因素 與去留態度之間的路徑只對男生顯著。而(1)挑戰和障礙( )與留在東道國的意願之間的路徑和(2)社會影響( )與留在東道國的態度之間的路徑只對女生顯著。

6. Discussion 6.討論

The SEM findings indicate that the student's decision is affected not only by the push-pull factors (Gesing and Glass, 2019; Leone and Tian, 2009), but also their social surrounding (influence of others). For example, Relyea et al. (2008) argue that student's propensity for risk and perceived value of the international experience influence student's decision on study abroad. We discuss our threefold contributions below. First, this research theoretically contributes to the literature by proposing a research model, informed by sound theoretical models (the push-pull factor theory and the TRA). The findings show that the proposed model can, to a large extent, predict the processes (influential factors) of decision-making of the international students to stay or leave the host country after graduation. It was discovered that the challenges and barriers that students encounter whilst pursuing their education (such as language barriers, employment difficulties, discrimination, difficulties assimilating into the community or making local friends and a lack of professional networks) have a
SEM 的研究結果表明,學生的決定不僅受到推拉因素的影響(Gesing 和 Glass,2019 年;Leone 和 Tian,2009 年),還受到其社會環境(他人的影響)的影響。例如,Relyea 等人(2008 年)認為,學生的風險傾向和對國際經驗價值的認知會影響學生的留學決定。下面我們將討論我們的三方面貢獻。首先,本研究在理論上為相關文獻做出了貢獻,提出了一個研究模型,並藉鑒了完善的理論模型(推拉因素理論和 TRA)。研究結果表明,所提出的模型可以在很大程度上預測留學生畢業後留在或離開東道國的決策過程(影響因素)。研究發現,學生在求學過程中遇到的挑戰和障礙(如語言障礙、就業困難、歧視、融入社 區或結交當地朋友的困難以及缺乏專業網絡等)對留學生畢業後的去留產生了影響。
HESWBL 14,1

88

negative effect on their intention to stay in the host country (Ammigan, 2019; Chen and Zhou, 2019).
對他們留在東道國的意願產生負面影響(Ammigan,2019;Chen 和 Zhou,2019)。
Second, the findings show that out of five pulling factors, only three (1) aspects related to the host country (e.g. "staying in Finland after my graduation can help enhance my career prospects"), (2) institutional factors (e.g. "I plan to stay in Finland after my graduation because my current university qualifications and reputation are recognised") and (3) economic factors (e.g. "I plan to stay in Finland after my graduation because of microeconomic and macroeconomic development') impact the decision of international students to stay in Finland. Two other factors, environmental factors (e.g. "I plan to stay in Finland after my graduation because geographical distance from my home country is not far") and the recommendation of family and friends (e.g. "I plan to stay in Finland after my graduation because my parents/relatives recommended") do not play a major role in the decision-making of the international students to stay in Finland.
其次,研究結果表明,在五個拉動因素中,只有三個因素(1)與東道國有關的方面(如"畢業後留在芬蘭有助於提高我的職業前景")、(2)制度因素(如"我計劃畢業後留在芬蘭,因為我目前的大學學歷和聲譽得到了認可")和(3)經濟因素(如"我計劃畢業後留在芬蘭,因為微觀和宏觀經濟的發展")影響了留學生留在芬蘭的決定。另外兩個因素,即環境因素(如"我計劃畢業後留在芬蘭,因為我的祖國與我的地理位置相距不遠")和親朋好友的推薦(如"我計劃畢業後留在芬蘭,因為我的父母/親戚推薦"),在留學生決定是否留在芬蘭的過程中並沒有發揮重要作用。
Third, we found that the social influence (norms) as a construct from an established theoretical model (i.e. TRA) directly impacts international students' intention to stay in the host country after completion of their studies (Mesidor and Sly, 2016). We also found that there is a difference between females and males students' intentions to study abroad. For example, the economic factors directly impact only male students' decision to stay in Finland. For female students, the influence of their surrounding (social influence) has a direct effect on their intention to stay in the host country (Finland) after their studies.
第三,我們發現,社會影響(規範)作為既定理論模型(即 TRA)中的建構,直接影響了留學生完成學業後留在東道國的意圖(Mesidor and Sly, 2016)。我們也發現,女生和男生的留學意圖有差異。例如,經濟因素只直接影響男生留在芬蘭的決定。而對女生來說,周遭環境的影響(社會影響)直接影響她們學成後留在東道國(芬蘭)的意願。

7. Conclusion, limitations and future work
7.結論、限制與未來工作

Our study was motivated by the lack of empirical research that conceptualises factors influencing the decision of international students to stay or leave the host country after graduation. Drawing from the push-pull factor theory and the TRA, this research investigates the following question: "What factors influence the intention of the international students to stay or leave the host country after graduation?" Using a unique dataset of 292 international students from different universities in Finland, an integrated conceptual model was developed to empirically evaluate the students' intention to stay or to leave the host country. Five dimensions of the pull factor theory (1) (aspects related to the host country, institutional factors, economic factors, environmental factors and recommendation from family and friends), (2) challenges and barriers faced by the students in the host country during their studies as push factors and (3) social influence (norms) were used to theoretically assess intentional students' intention to stay or leave the host country.
我們的研究是由於缺乏實證研究來概念化影響留學生畢業後留在或離開東道國的決定的因素。本研究借鑒推拉因素理論和TRA,探討了以下問題:"哪些因素會影響留學生畢業後留在或離開東道國的意願?透過對來自芬蘭不同大學的292 名留學生的獨特數據集進行分析,我們建立了一個綜合概念模型,對學生留在或離開東道國的意向進行實證評估。 )作為推動因素的學生在東道國學習期間面臨的挑戰和障礙以及(3)社會影響(規範)被用來從理論上評估學生留在或離開東道國的意向。
In this research, we expand previous research on the mobility of international students and make significant advancements in our comprehension of the dynamics involved. Based on the push-pull factor theory supplemented with the TRA, this research empirically investigates and analyses the factors influencing the decision of international students to stay in or leave the country after completing their studies. The findings show that several pull and pull factors directly and indirectly impact their decisions. For example, the strongest impact on the students' intention to stay in Finland after graduation is the aspects related to the host country Yun (2014). This factor includes the prospects students see to enhance their future job and career paths, as well as how they perceive their social status to be after graduation. Moreover, the results show that the links between pulling factors (e.g. aspects related to the host country and institutional factors) to the intention to stay are mediated through attitude towards staying. Because of the significance of the aspects related to the host country, seen through its direct relationship to the attitude and its indirect relationship to the intention to stay in the host country, we recommend that higher education institutions and universities, specifically in Finland, to pay closer attention to this crucial aspect.
在本研究中,我們擴展了以往關於留學生流動性的研究,並在理解相關動態方面取得了重大進展。本研究以推拉因素理論為基礎,輔以 TRA,透過實證研究分析了影響留學生完成學業後決定留在國內還是離開的因素。研究結果表明,一些拉動和被拉動因素直接或間接地影響留學生的決定。例如,對學生畢業後留在芬蘭的意願影響最大的是與東道國雲(2014)有關的面向。這個因素包括學生對未來工作和職業發展前景的看法,以及他們對畢業後社會地位的看法。此外,研究結果表明,拉動因素(如與東道國相關的面向和製度因素)與留下意願之間的聯繫是透過對留下的態度來中介的。由於東道國相關因素的重要性(透過其與態度的直接關係和與留在東道國意願的間接關係可以看出),我們建議高等教育機構和大學,尤其是芬蘭的高等教育機構和大學,對這一關鍵因素給予更多關注。
Moreover, the diversity in the sample allows for a more nuanced understanding of the experiences of international students in Finland and enables us to examine the intersection of various factors that influence their experiences. Finland is known for its high-quality education system, which is ranked amongst the best in the world. In addition, Finland offers a high standard of living, a safe and welcoming environment and excellent research opportunities, which are all attractive factors for international students. Furthermore, the Finnish government has implemented a range of policies and programmes to support international students, including tuition fee waivers (conditionally), scholarships and other forms of financial support. International students also have access to a range of services, such as language courses, career services and social events, which help them to integrate into Finnish society and navigate their new environment.
此外,樣本的多樣性使我們能夠更細緻地了解芬蘭留學生的經歷,並研究影響他們經歷的各種因素之間的交集。芬蘭以其高品質的教育體係而聞名,該體系在世界上名列前茅。此外,芬蘭也提供高標準的生活、安全溫馨的環境和絕佳的研究機會,這些都是吸引留學生的因素。此外,芬蘭政府還實施了一系列支持留學生的政策和計劃,包括學費減免(有條件)、獎學金和其他形式的經濟支持。留學生還可以享受語言課程、就業服務和社交活動等一系列服務,幫助他們融入芬蘭社會,適應新環境。
By providing a more detailed description of the sample of international students, as well as discussing the local context and the supports available to international students in Finland, this paper will offer a more comprehensive analysis of the experiences of international students in Finland. This will allow for a deeper understanding of the factors that influence their migration decisions as well as their experiences in Finland. If the goal is to make Finland an appealing place to study and leave, it is advised that higher education institutions pay close attention to the challenges and barriers that international students encounter (such as discrimination, bureaucracy and social integration) whilst pursuing their studies (Alho, 2020).
透過對留學生樣本進行更詳細的描述,以及討論芬蘭的當地環境和為留學生提供的支持,本文將對芬蘭留學生的經驗進行更全面的分析。這將有助於更深入地了解影響留學生移民決定的因素以及他們在芬蘭的經驗。如果我們的目標是使芬蘭成為一個吸引人學習和離開的地方,那麼建議高等教育機構密切關注國際學生在求學過程中遇到的挑戰和障礙(如歧視、官僚主義和社會融合)(Alho, 2020 )。

7.1 Practical implications
7.1 實際影響

The research findings reveal challenges for international students in foreign countries, particularly with regards to employment and career development. Policymakers and educators should address these challenges by creating targeted support programmes and closer partnerships between universities and industry. The implications of the research are not limited to Finland and should be considered by policymakers and educators in other countries to attract and support international students. Moreover, the findings have broader implications for international student recruitment and support policies in other countries beyond Finland. For instance, our findings suggest that factors such as language proficiency, cultural differences and the availability of career support services can all play a significant role in shaping international students' decisions to study and work abroad. Therefore, policymakers and educators in other countries should consider these factors to develop and implement policies and practices that attract international students.
研究結果揭示了留學生在國外面臨的挑戰,特別是在就業和職業發展方面。政策制定者和教育工作者應透過制定有針對性的支持計劃以及密切大學與企業之間的合作關係來應對這些挑戰。這項研究的意義並不限於芬蘭,其他國家的政策制定者和教育工作者也應考慮到這一點,以吸引和支持留學生。此外,研究結果也對芬蘭以外的其他國家的留學生招募和支持政策產生了更廣泛的影響。例如,我們的研究結果表明,語言能力、文化差異和職業支持服務的可近性等因素都會對留學生決定出國學習和工作產生重要影響。因此,其他國家的政策制定者和教育工作者在製定和實施吸引留學生的政策和實踐時,應該考慮這些因素。
In addition, the implications of hiring more international students for local jobs raise concerns about potential competition amongst the local workforce, but it is important to consider the benefits and control measures related to their retention in the host country. Retained international students can contribute to the local economy, foster knowledge transfer and cultural exchange and control measures such as visa policies, integration programmes and collaboration with educational institutions can help facilitate their successful transition and integration into the workforce.
此外,僱用更多的國際學生從事當地工作的影響引起了人們對當地勞動力之間潛在競 爭的擔憂,但重要的是要考慮到他們留在東道國的好處和相關的控制措施。留住的國際學生可以為當地經濟做出貢獻,促進知識轉移和文化交流,而簽證政策、融入計劃以及與教育機構的合作等控制措施則有助於促進他們順利過渡並融入勞動力隊伍。
The study is not without limitations. Information on the students' degree programmes was not collected, which could affect the study's results, as knowing more about the different study programmes could help to determine whether the type of education has a significant effect in the choices made by international students. Language barriers were acknowledged but participants' Finnish language skills were unknown and the sample size may also not be representative of all international students in Finland. This information can be included in future studies to help the Ministry of Education in the host country make policy recommendations. Finally, we propose additional research in various contexts to explore the proposed research model because this study only examined the international students' intention to stay in Finland after completing their studies.
這項研究並非沒有限制。沒有收集學生的學位課程信息,這可能會影響研究結果,因為更多地了解不同的學習課程有助於確定教育類型是否對留學生的選擇有重大影響。研究人員承認有語言障礙,但參與者的芬蘭語技能尚不清楚,樣本數也可能無法代表芬蘭的所有留學生。這些資訊可以納入未來的研究中,幫助東道國教育部提出政策建議。最後,我們建議在不同的背景下進行更多的研究,以探索所提出的研究模式,因為本研究只檢視了留學生在完成學業後留在芬蘭的意圖。

HESWBL

14,1

90

References 參考資料

Abbas, J. and Sagsan, M. (2020), "Identification of key employability attributes and evaluation of university graduates' performance: instrument development and validation", Higher Education, Skills, and Work-Based Learning, Vol. 10 No. 3, pp. 449-466.
Abbas, J. and Sagsan, M. (2020), "Identification of key employability attributes and evaluation of university graduates' performance: instrument development and validation", Higher Education, Skills, and Work-Based Learning, Vol. 1000 No.
Agnihotri, S., Shiva, A. and Khan, F.N. (2023), "Investigating forms of graduate capital and their relationship to perceived employability: an application of PLS predict and IPMA", Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp. 179-197.
Agnihotri, S., Shiva, A. and Khan, F.N. (2023), "Investigating forms of graduate capital and their relationship to perceived employability: an application of PLS predict and IPMA", Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Lapplication of PLS predict and IPMA", Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Lappearning . 13 No. 1, pp.
Ajzen, I. (1991), "The theory of planned behaviour", Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 50 No. 2, pp. 179-211.
Ajzen, I. (1991),《計劃行為理論》,《組織行為與人類決策過程》,第 50 卷第 2 期,第 179-211 頁。
Alberts, H.C. and Hazen, H.D. (2005), "There are always two voices...': international students' intentions to stay in the United States or return to their home countries", International Migration, Vol. 43 No. 3, pp. 131-154.
Alberts, H.C. and Hazen, H.D. (2005), "There are always two voices...': International students' intentions to stay in the United States or return to their home countries", International Migration, Vol. 43 No. 3, pp.
Alho, R. (2020), "You need to know someone who knows someone: international students' job-search experiences”, Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 3-22.
Alho, R. (2020), "You need to know someone who knows someone: International students' job-search experiences", Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp.
Aljohani, O. (2016), "A comprehensive review of the major studies and theoretical models of student retention in higher education”, Higher Education Studies, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 1-18.
Aljohani, O. (2016), "A comprehensive review of the major studies and theoretical models of student retention in higher education", Higher Education Studies, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp.
Alloh, F.T., Tait, D. and Taylor, C. (2018), "Away from home: a qualitative exploration of health experiences of Nigerian students in a U.K.university”, Journal of International Students, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 1-20.
Alloh, F.T., Tait, D. and Taylor, C. (2018), "Away from home: a qualitative exploration of health experiences of Nigerian students in a U.K.university", Journal of International Students, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp .
Ammigan, R. (2019), "Institutional satisfaction and recommendation: what really matters to international students", Journal of International Students, Vol. 9 No. 1, pp. 262-281.
Ammigan, R. (2019),"院校滿意度與推薦:對留學生來說什麼才是真正重要的",《留學生學報》,第 9 卷第 1 期,第 262-281 頁。
Baruch, Y., Budhwar, P.S. and Khatri, N. (2007), "Brain drain: inclination to stay abroad after studies", Journal of World Business, Vol. 42 No. 1, pp. 99-112.
Baruch, Y., Budhwar, P.S. and Khatri, N. (2007), "Brain drain: inclination to stay abroad after studies", Journal of World Business, Vol. 42 No. 1, pp.
Binsardi, A. and Ekwulugo, F. (2003), "International marketing of British education: research on the students' perception and the UK market penetration”, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, Vol. 21 No. 5, pp. 318-327.
Binsardi, A. and Ekwulugo, F. (2003),"英國教育的國際行銷:學生認知與英國市場滲透研究",《行銷情報與規劃》,第 21 卷第 5 期,第 318-327 頁。
Bourke, A. (2000), "A model of the determinants of international trade in higher education", Service Industries Journal, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 110-138.
Bourke, A. (2000), "A model of the determinants of international trade in higher education", Service Industries Journal, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp.
Branco Oliveira, D. and Soares, A.M. (2016), "Studying abroad: developing a model for the decision process of international students", Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, Vol. 38 No. 2, pp. 126-139.
Branco Oliveira, D. and Soares, A.M. (2016),"出國留學:為留學生的決策過程發展一個模型",《高等教育政策與管理雜誌》,第 38 卷第 2 期,第 126-139 頁。
Bredenkamp, D., Botma, Y. and Nyoni, C.N. (2023), "Higher education students' motivation to transfer learning: a scoping review”, Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp. 36-52.
Bredenkamp, D., Botma, Y. and Nyoni, C.N. (2023), "Higher Education Students' motivation to transfer learning: a scoping review", Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp .
Burke, A. (2019), "Student retention models in higher education: a literature review", College and University, Vol. 94 No. 2, pp. 12-21.
Burke, A. (2019),"高等教育中的學生保留模式:文獻綜述",《學院與大學》,第 94 卷第 2 期,第 12-21 頁。
Cai, Y. and Kivistö, J. (2013), "Tuition fees for international students in Finland: where to go from here?", Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 17 No. 1, pp. 55-78.
Cai, Y. and Kivistö, J. (2013), "Tuition fees for international students in Finland: where to go from here?", Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 17 No. 1, pp.
Cerna, L. and Czaika, M. (2021), "Rising stars in the global race for skill? A comparative analysis of Brazil, India, and Malaysia”, Migration Studies, Vol. 9 No. 1, pp. 21-46.
Cerna, L. and Czaika, M. (2021), "Rising stars in the global race for skill?對巴西、印度和馬來西亞的比較分析",《移民研究》,第9 卷第1 期,第21-46頁。
Chan, E. (2013), "A narrative research study—living in the space between participants and researcher as a narrative inquirer: examining ethnic identity of Chinese Canadian students as conflicting stories to live by", in Creswell, J. W. (Ed.), Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches, 3rd ed., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 303-326.
Chan, E. (2013), "A narrative research study-living in the space between participants and researcher as a narrative inquirer: examining ethnic identity of Chinese Canadian students as conflicting stories to ethnic Ed in Cese Canadian students as conflicting stories to live by", liveese Canadian students as conflicting stories to live by", liveese Canadian。 , Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design. Choosing Among Five Approach, 3rd ed., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp:3d ed., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp.
Chand, M. and Tung, R.L. (2019), "Skilled immigration to fill talent gaps: a comparison of the immigration policies of the United States, Canada, and Australia", Journal of International Business Policy, Vol. 2 No. 4, pp. 333-355.
Chand, M. and Tung, R.L. (2019),"技術移民填補人才缺口:美國、加拿大和澳大利亞移民政策比較",《國際商業政策雜誌》,第 2 卷第 4 期,第 333-355 頁。
Chang, I.C., Liu, C.C. and Chen, K. (2014), "The push, pull and mooring effects in virtual migration for social networking sites”, Information Systems Journal, Vol. 24 No. 4, pp. 323-346.
Chang, I.C., Liu, C.C. and Chen, K. (2014), "The push, pull and mooring effects in virtual migration for social networking sites", Information Systems Journal, Vol. 24 No. 4, pp.
Chen, L.H. (2006), "Choosing Canadian graduate schools from Afar: East Asian students' perspectives", Higher Education, Vol. 54 No. 5, pp. 759-780.
Chen, L.H. (2006), "Choosing Canadian graduate schools from Afar:東亞學生的觀點",《高等教育》,第 54 卷第 5 期,第 759-780 頁。
Chen, L.H. (2007), "East-asian students' choice of Canadian graduate schools”, International Journal of Educational Advancement, Vol. 7 No. 4, pp. 271-306.
Chen, L.H. (2007), "East-asian students' choice of Canadian graduate schools", International Journal of Educational Advancement, Vol. 7 No. 4, pp.
Chen, J.M. (2016), “Three levels of push-pull dynamics among Chinese international students' decision to study abroad in the Canadian context", Journal of International Students, Vol. 7 No. 1, pp. 113-135.
Chen,J.M. (2016),《加拿大背景下中國留學生留學決定的三層推拉動力》,《留學生學刊》,第7卷第1期,第113-135頁。
Chen, J. and Zhou, G. (2019), 'Chinese international students' sense of belonging in North American postsecondary institutions: a critical literature review”, Brock Education Journal, Vol. 28 No. 2, pp. 48-63.
Chen, J. and Zhou, G. (2019), "Chinese international students' sense of belonging in North American postsecondary institutions: a critical literature review", Brock Education Journal, Vol. 28 No. 2, pp.
Cowley, P. and Hyams-Ssekasi, D. (2018), "Motivation, induction and challenge: examining the initial phase of international students' educational sojourn”, Journal of International Students, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 109-130.
Cowley, P. and Hyams-Ssekasi, D. (2018), "Motivation, induction and challenge: examining the initial phase of international students' educational sojourn", Journal of International Students, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp.
Cubillo, J.M., Sánchez, J. and Cerviño, J. (2006), "International students' decision-making process", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 101-115.
Cubillo, J.M., Sánchez, J. and Cerviño, J. (2006),"國際學生的決策過程",《國際教育管理雜誌》,第 20 卷第 2 期,第 101-115 頁。
Curtis, T. and Ledgerwood, J.R. (2018), "Students' motivations, perceived benefits and constraints towards study abroad and other international education opportunities", Journal of International Education in Business, Vol. 11 No. 1, pp. 63-78.
Curtis, T. and Ledgerwood, J.R. (2018),"學生對出國留學和其他國際教育機會的動機、感知到的益處和限制因素",《商業國際教育期刊》,第11卷第1期,第63 -78頁。
Docquier, F. and Rapoport, H. (2012), "Globalization, brain drain, and development", Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 50 No. 3, pp. 681-730.
Docquier, F. and Rapoport, H. (2012),"全球化、人才外流與發展",《經濟文獻雜誌》,第 50 卷第 3 期,第 681-730 頁。
Eder, J., Smith, W.W. and Pitt, R.E. (2010), "Exploring factors influencing student study abroad destination choice", Journal of Teaching in Travel and Tourism, Vol. 10 No. 3, pp. .
Eder, J., Smith, W.W. and Pitt, R.E. (2010), "Exploring factors influencing student study abroad destination choice", Journal of Teaching in Travel and Tourism, Vol. 10 No. 3, pp. .
Erturk, S. and Luu, L.A.N. (2022), "Adaptation of Turkish international students in Hungary and the United States: a comparative case study", International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 86, pp. 1-13.
Erturk, S. and Luu, L.A.N. (2022),"土耳其留學生在匈牙利和美國的適應情況:比較案例研究",《國際文化間關係雜誌》,第 86 卷,第 1-13 頁。
Evans, P., Smale, A. and Björkman, I. (2018), "Macro talent management in Finland: contributing to a rapidly evolving knowledge economy", in Vaiman, B.V., Paul, S., Schuler, R. and Collings, D.G. (Eds), Macro Talent Management: A Global Perspective on Managing Talent in Developed Markets, Routledge, New York.
Evans, P., Smale, A. and Björkman, I. (2018), "Macro talent management in Finland: contributing to a rapidly evolving knowledge economy", in Vaiman, B.V., Paul, S., Schuler, R. and Collings , D.G. (Eds), Macro Talent Management:宏觀人才管理:發達市場人才管理的全球視角》,紐約Routledge 出版社。
Farivar, F., Coffey, J. and Cameron, R. (2019), "International graduates and the change of initial career mobility intentions", Personnel Review, Vol. 48 No. 4, pp. 1061-1078.
Farivar, F., Coffey, J. and Cameron, R. (2019), "International graduates and the change of initial career mobility intentions", Personnel Review, Vol. 48 No. 4, pp.
Findlay, A., Prazeres, L., McCollum, D. and Packwood, H. (2016), "It was always the plan": international study as learning to migrate”, Area, Vol. 49 No. 2, pp. 192-199.
Findlay, A., Prazeres, L., McCollum, D. and Packwood, H. (2016), "It was always the plan": international study as learning to migrate", Area, Vol. 49 No. 2, pp.
Fishbein, M. (1979), "A theory of reasoned action: some applications and implications", Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Vol. 27, pp. 65-116.
Fishbein, M. (1979), "A theory of reasoned action: some applications and implications", Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Vol. 27, pp.
Fornell, C. and Larcker, D.F. (1981), "Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error", Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 39-50.
Fornell, C. and Larcker, D.F. (1981),"Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error",Journal of Marketing Research,Vol.18 No.1,pp.39-50。
Fouarge, D., Özer, M.N. and Seegers, P. (2019), "Personality traits, migration intentions, and cultural distance", Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 98 No. 6, pp. 2425-2454.
Fouarge, D., Özer, M.N. and Seegers, P. (2019), "Personality traits, migration intentions, and cultural distance", Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 98 No. 6, pp.
Fowlie, J. and Forder, C. (2018), "Employability, work placements, and outward mobility: views from England and Germany", Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, Vol. 8 No. 2, pp. 151-163.
Fowlie, J. and Forder, C. (2018), "Employability, work placements, and outward mobility: views from England and Germany", Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, Vol. 8 No. 2, pp.
Gatfield, T. and Chen, C.H. (2006), "Measuring student choice criteria using the theory of planned behaviour: the case of Taiwan, Australia, UK, and USA", Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 77-95.
Gatfield, T. and Chen, C.H. (2006), "Measuring student choice criteria using the theory of planned behaviour: the case of Taiwan, Australia, UK, and USA", Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, Vol. 16 No. 1 , pp.
Gesing, P. and Glass, C. (2019), "STEM student mobility intentions post-graduation and the role of reverse push-pull factors", International Journal of Educational Development, Vol. 65, pp. 227-236.
Gesing, P. 和 Glass, C. (2019),"STEM 學生畢業後的流動意向和反向推拉因素的作用",《國際教育發展雜誌》,第 65 卷,第 227-236 頁。
Gribble, C., Blackmore, J. and Rahimi, M. (2015), "Challenges to providing work integrated learning to international business students at Australian universities", Higher Education, Skills and WorkBased Learning, Vol. 5 No. 4, pp. 401-416.
Gribble, C., Blackmore, J. and Rahimi, M. (2015), "Challenges to providing work integrated learning to international business students at Australian universities", Higher Education, Skills and WorkBased Learning, Vol.

International students 國際學生
Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L. and Black, W.C. (1998), Multivariate Data Analysis, 5th ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Hair, J.F., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2011), “PLS-SEM: indeed, a silver bullet”, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp. 139-152.
Hair, J.F., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2011), "PLS-SEM: indeed, a silver bullet", Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp.
Hair, J.F., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2012), "Partial least squares: the better approach to structural equation modelling?”, Long Range Planning, Vol. 45 Nos 5-6, pp. 312-319.
Hair, J.F., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2012), "Partial least squares: the better approach to structural equation modelling?", Long Range Planning, Vol. 45 Nos 5-6, pp.
Han, X., Stocking, G., Gebbie, M.A. and Appelbaum, R.P. (2015), "Will they stay, or will they go? International graduate students and their decisions to stay or leave the US upon graduation", PLOS ONE, Vol. 10 No. 3, e0118183.
Han, X., Stocking, G., Gebbie, M.A. and Appelbaum, R.P. (2015), "Will they stay, or will they go?International graduate students and their decisions to stay or leave the US upon graduation", PLOS ONE, Vol.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2015), "A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modelling", Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 43 No. 1, pp. 115-135.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2015), "A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modelling", Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 43 No. 1, pp .
Istad, F., Varpahovskis, E., Miezan, E. and Ayhan, K.J. (2021), "Global Korea Scholarship students: intention to stay in the host country to work or study after graduation", Politics and Policy, Vol. 49, pp. 1323-1342.
Istad, F., Varpahovskis, E., Miezan, E. and Ayhan, K.J. (2021), "Global Korea Scholarship students: intention to stay in the host country to work or study after graduation", Politics and Policy, Vol. 49 , pp.
James-MacEachern, M. and Yun, D. (2017), 'Exploring factors influencing international students' decision to choose a higher education institution: a comparison between Chinese and other students", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 31 No. 3, pp. 343-363.
James-MacEachern, M. and Yun, D. (2017), "Exploring factors influencing international students' decision to choose a higher education institution: a comparison between Chinese and other students", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 3, pp.
Khanal, J. and Gaulee, U. (2019), "Challenges of international students from pre-departure to post-study: a literature review", Journal of International Students, Vol. 9 No. 2, pp. 560-581.
Khanal, J. and Gaulee, U. (2019),"國際學生從出國前到留學後的挑戰:文獻綜述",《國際學生雜誌》,第9卷第2期,第560-581頁。
Kruanak, K. and Ruangkanjanases, A. (2014), "Brain gain for Thailand: the determinants of international students' intention to stay on after graduation", International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, Vol. 5 No. 4, pp. 337-346.
Kruanak, K. and Ruangkanjanases, A. (2014), "Brain gain for Thailand: the determinants of international students' intention to stay on after graduation", International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, Vol. 5 No. 4, pp .
Lee, E.S. (1966), “A theory of migration”, Demography, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 47-57.
Lee, E.S. (1966),《移民理論》,《人口學》,第 3 卷第 1 期,第 47-57 頁。
Lee, J. (2015), "International student experiences: Neo-Racism and discrimination", International Higher Education, Vol. 44, pp. 3-5.
Lee, J. (2015), "International student experiences:新種族主義與歧視",《國際高等教育》,第 44 卷,第 3-5 頁。
Leone, M. and Tian, R.G. (2009), “Push vs pull: factors influence student retention”, American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 122-132.
Leone, M. and Tian, R.G. (2009), "Push vs pull: factors influence student retention", American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp.
Li, M. and Bray, M. (2007), "Cross-border flows of students for higher education: push-pull factors and motivations of mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong and Macau", Higher Education, Vol. 53 No. 6, pp. 791-818.
Li, M. and Bray, M. (2007), "Cross-border flows of students for higher education: push-pull factors and motivations of mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong and Macau", Higher Education, Vol. 53 No.
Li, H. and Pitkänen, P. (2018), "Understanding the integration of mainland Chinese students", Nordic Journal of Migration Research, Vol. 8 No. pp. 107-115.
Li, H. and Pitkänen, P. (2018), "Understanding the integration of mainland Chinese students", Nordic Journal of Migration Research, Vol. 8 No. pp.
Luo, Z., Wu, S., Fang, X. and Brunsting, N.C. (2019), 'International students' perceived language competence, domestic student support, and psychological well-being at a US university", Journal of International Students, Vol. 9 No. 4, pp. 954-971.
Luo, Z., Wu, S., Fang, X. and Brunsting, N.C. (2019), "International students' perceived language competence, domestic student support, and psychological well-being at a USJournal university"s, of Internationalsupport, and psychological well-being at a USJournal university"s, of Internationalsupport, and psychological well-being at a USJournal university"s, of Internationalsupport, and psychological well-being at a USJournal university"s, Journals, International Studentent well-being at a US university"s, Journal International university"s, Journal International university"s, Journal International university"s, Journal Internationalentent) Vol. 9 No. 4, pp.
MacKenzie, S.B. and Podsakoff, P.M. (2012), "Common method bias in marketing: causes, mechanisms, and procedural remedies", Journal of Retailing, Vol. 88 No. 5, pp. 542-555.
MacKenzie, S.B. and Podsakoff, P.M. (2012),"行銷中的常見方法偏差:原因、機制和程序補救",《零售雜誌》,第 88 卷第 5 期,第 542-555 頁。
Maringe, F. (2006), "University and course choice: implications for positioning, recruitment and marketing", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 20 No. 6, pp. 466-479.
Maringe, F. (2006), "University and course choice: implications for positioning, recruitment and marketing", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 20 No. 6, pp.
Maringe, F. and Carter, S. (2007), "International students' motivations for studying in UK HE", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 21 No. 6, pp. 459-475.
Maringe, F. and Carter, S. (2007), "International students' motivations for studying in UK HE", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 21 No. 6, pp.
Mathies, C. and Karhunen, H. (2021), "Do they stay or go? Analysis of international students in Finland", Globalisation, Societies and Education, Vol. 19 No. 3, pp. 298-310.
Mathies, C. and Karhunen, H. (2021), "Do they stay or go?芬蘭留學生分析",《全球化、社會與教育》,第 19 卷第 3 期,第 298-310 頁。
Mazzarol, T. and Soutar, G.N. (2002), “Push-pull” factors influencing international student destination choice", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 82-90.
Mazzarol, T. and Soutar, G.N. (2002), "Push-pull" factors influencing international student destination choice", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp.
McDaniel, S.A., Wong, L.L. and Watt, B. (2015), "An aging workforce and the future labour market in Canada”, Canadian Public Policy, Vol. 41 No. 2, pp. 97-108.
McDaniel, S.A., Wong, L.L. and Watt, B. (2015), "An aging workforce and the future labour market in Canada", Canadian Public Policy, Vol. 41 No. 2, pp.
Mesidor, J.K. and Sly, K.F. (2016), "Factors that contribute to the adjustment of international students", Journal of International Students, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 262-282.
Mesidor, J.K. and Sly, K.F. (2016), "Factors that contribute to the adjustment of international students", Journal of International Students, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp.
Millea, M., Wills, R., Elder, A. and Molina, D. (2018), "What matters in college student success? Determinants of college retention and graduation rates", Education, Vol. 138 No. 4, pp. 309-322.
Millea,M.、Wills,R.、Elder,A.和Molina,D.(2018 年),"大學生成功的關鍵是什麼?大學保留率和畢業率的決定因素",《教育》,第138 卷第4 期,第309-322 頁。
Mok, K.H., Xiong, W., Ke, G. and Cheung, J.O.W. (2021), "Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on international higher education and student mobility: student perspectives from mainland China and Hong Kong", International Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 105, 101718, doi: 10.1016/j.ijer. 2020.101718 .
Mok, K.H., Xiong, W., Ke, G. and Cheung, J.O.W. (2021), "Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on international higher education and student mobility: student perspectives from mainland China and Hong Kong", International obility: student perspectives from mainland China and Hong Kong", International Journal of Education Research, Vol. 105, 101718, doi: 10.1016/j.ijer.2020.101718 .
Nghia, T.L.H. (2019), "Motivations for studying abroad and immigration intentions: the case of Vietnamese students", Journal of International Students, Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 758-776.
Nghia、T.L.H.(2019),"留學動機與移民意向:越南學生案例",《國際學生雜誌》,第9卷第3期,第758-776頁。
Nghiêm-Phú, B. and Nguyễn, T.H. (2020), "Impacts of perceived country image, institution image and self-image on students' intention to study abroad: a study in Hanoi, Vietnam”, Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, Vol. 30 No. 1, pp. 26-44.
Nghiêm-Phú, B. 和Nguyễn, T.H. (2020),《國家形象、院校形象和自我形象對學生留學意圖的影響:越南河內研究》,《高等教育行銷期刊》,第30 卷第1 期,第26-44 頁。
Nicholls, S. (2018), "Influences on international student choice of study destination: evidence from the United States", Journal of International Students, Vol. 8 No. 2, pp. 597-622.
Nicholls, S. (2018), "Influences on International Student choice of study destination: evidence from the United States", Journal of International Students, Vol. 8 No. 2, pp.
Nikou, S., Mezei, J. and Brännback, M. (2018), 'Digital natives' intention to interact with social media: value systems and gender", Telematics and Informatics, Vol. 35 No. 2, pp. 421-435.
Nikou, S., Mezei, J. and Brännback, M. (2018),《數位原住民與社群媒體互動的意圖:價值體系與性別》,《遠距資訊學與資訊學》,第35 卷第2 期,第421-435 頁。
Okun, M.A., Karoly, P. and Lutz, R. (2002), "Clarifying the contribution of subjective norm to predicting leisure-time exercise", American Journal of Health Behaviour, Vol. 26 No. 4, pp. 296-305.
Okun, M.A., Karoly, P. and Lutz, R. (2002), "Clarifying the contribution of subjective norm to predicting leisure-time exercise", American Journal of Health Behaviour, Vol. 26 No. 4, pp.
Özoğlu, M., Gür, B.S. and Coşkun, İ. (2015), "Factors influencing international students' choice to study in Turkey and challenges they experience in Turkey", Research in Comparative and International Education, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 223-237.
Özoğlu, M., Gür, B.S. and Coşkun, İ. (2015), "Factors influencing international students' choice in Turkey and challenges they experience in Turkey", Research in Comparative and International Education, Vol.(2015), "2015), " NFactors influencing, Vol.(2015), "2015), Factor international students' choice to study in Turkey and challenges they experience in Turkey", Research in Comparative and International Education, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp.
Petter, S., Straub, D., , D. and Rai, A. (2007), "Specifying formative constructs in information systems research", MIS Quarterly, Vol. 31 No. 4, pp. 623-656.
Petter, S., Straub, D., D. and Rai, A. (2007), "Specifying formative constructs in information systems research", MIS Quarterly, Vol. 31 No. 4, pp.
Pham, T. and Jackson, D. (2020), "Employability and determinants of employment outcomes", in Developing and Utilizing Employability Capitals, Routledge, pp. 237-255.
Pham, T. and Jackson, D. (2020),"就業能力和就業結果的決定因素",載於《開發和利用就業能力資本》,Routledge, 第 237-255 頁。
Pimpa, N. (2003), "The influence of family on Thai students' choices of international education", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 17 No. 5, pp. 211-219.
Pimpa, N. (2003),"家庭對泰國學生選擇國際教育的影響",《國際教育管理雜誌》,第 17 卷第 5 期,第 211-219 頁。
Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B. and Lee, J.Y. (2003), "Common method biases in behavioural research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 88 No. 2, pp. 879-903.
Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B. and Lee, J.Y. (2003), "Common method biases in behavioural research:應用心理學雜誌》,第 88 卷第 2 期,第 879-903 頁。
Podsakoff, P.M. and Organ, D. (1986), "Self-reports in organizational research: problems, and prospects", Journal of Management, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 531-544.
Podsakoff, P.M. and Organ, D. (1986),"組織研究中的自我報告:問題與前景",《管理雜誌》,第 12 卷第 4 期,第 531-544 頁。
Přivara, A., Rievajová, E. and Barbulescu, A. (2020), "Attracting high skilled individuals in the EU: the Finnish experience”, Migration Letters, Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 369-377.
Přivara, A., Rievajová, E. and Barbulescu, A. (2020), "Attracting high skilled individuals in the EU: the Finnish experience", Migration Letters, Vol. 17 No. 2, pp.
Relyea, C., Cocchiara, F.K. and Studdard, N.L. (2008), "The effect of perceived value in the decision to participate in study abroad programs", Journal of Teaching in International Business, Vol. 19 No. 4, pp. 346-361.
Relyea,C.、Cocchiara,F.K.和 Studdard,N.L.(2008 年),"感知價值對決定參加留學計畫的影響",《國際商務教學期刊》,第 19 卷第 4 期,第 346-361 頁。
Rivas, J., Hale, K. and Burke, M.G. (2019), "Seeking a sense of belonging: social and cultural integration of international students with American college students”, Journal of International Students, Vol. 9 No. 2, pp. 682-704.
Rivas, J., Hale, K. and Burke, M.G. (2019), "Seeking a sense of belonging: social and cultural integration of international students with American college students", Journal of International Students, Vol. 9 No. 2, pp .
Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C.M., Smith, D., Reams, R. and Hair, J.F., Jr (2014), "Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM): a useful tool for family business researchers”, Journal of Family Business Strategy, Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 105-115.
Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C.M., Smith, D., Reams, R. and Hair, J.F., Jr (2014), "Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM): a useful tool for family business researchers", a useful tool for family business researchers" Journal of Family Business Strategy, Vol. 5 No.
Segendorf, A.O. and Theobald, E. (2019), "Can immigration solve the problem of an aging population", Sveriges Riksbank Economic Review, Vol. 1, pp. 6-29.
Segendorf, A.O. and Theobald, E. (2019),"移民能否解決人口老化問題",《瑞典銀行經濟評論》,第 1 卷,第 6-29 頁。

International students in the host country
東道國的留學生
Shakoor, F., Fakhar, A. and Abbas, J. (2021), "Impact of smartphones usage on the learning behaviour and academic performance of students: empirical evidence from Pakistan”, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Vol. 11 No. 2, pp. 862-881.
Shakoor, F., Fakhar, A. and Abbas, J. (2021), "Impact of smartphones usage on the learning behaviour and academic performance of students: empirical evidence from Pakistan", International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences,empirical evidence from Pakistan", International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences,empirical evidence from Pakistan", International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences,empirical Vol. 11 No. 2, pp.
Shen, YJ. and Herr, E.L. (2004), "Career placement concerns of international graduate students: a qualitative study", Journal of Career Development, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp. 15-29.
Shen, YJ. and Herr, E.L. (2004), "Career placement concerns of international graduate students: a qualitative study", Journal of Career Development, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp.
Shields, R. (2019), "The sustainability of international higher education: student mobility and global climate change", Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 217, pp. 594-602, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019. 01.291 .
Shields, R. (2019), "The sustainability of international higher education: student mobility and global climate change", Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 217, pp.01.291 .
Singh, J.K.N. (2020), "Why do Chinese international students studying in Australia repatriate? Australian Chinese graduates tell it all', Journal of Further and Higher Education, Vol. 44 No. 9, pp. 1207-1219.
Singh, J.K.N. (2020), "Why do Chinese international students studying in Australia repatriate?澳大利亞的中國畢業生告訴我們這一切",《繼續教育與高等教育雜誌》,第44 卷第9 期,第1207-1219 頁。
Teo, T. (2010), "Examining the influence of subjective norm and facilitating conditions on the intention to use technology among pre-service teachers: a structural equation modelling of an extended technology acceptance model", Asia Pacific Education Review, Vol. 11 No. 2, pp. 253-262.
Teo, T. (2010), "Examining the influence of subjective norm and facilitating conditions on the intention to use technology among preervice teachers: a structural equation modelling of an extended technology acceptance model equation modelling of an extended technology acceptance model p.
Thomas, K.J. and Inkpen, C. (2017), "Foreign student emigration to the United States: pathways of entry, demographic antecedents, and origin-country contexts", International Migration Review, Vol. 51 No. 3, pp. 789-820.
Thomas, K.J. and Inkpen, C. (2017), "Foreign student emigration to the United States: pathways of entry, demographic antecedents, and origin-country contexts", International Migration Review, Vol. 51 No.
Tran, L.T., Blackmore, J. and Rahimi, M. (2021), "You are not as localised as I need": employability of Chinese returning graduates", Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, Vol. 11 No. 5, pp. 949-965.