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Unified Field Theory

2024.7.1


7th edition


Author: Zhang Xiangqian


Chapter 1, Unified Field Theory


Chapter 2 reveals the mystery of the nature of gravity


Chapter 3 unravels the mystery of the nature of electric charge and electromagnetic fields


Chapter 4, Zhang Xiangqian's Mathematical Theory


Chapter 5, Zhang Xiangqian's concise version of the unified field theory


Chapter 6 reveals the nature of light


Chapter 7: Successful Test of Gravitational Field Generated by Varying Electromagnetic Field (with Theoretical Derivation)


Chapter 8: Application Report for the Development of Artificial Field Scanning Technology


Chapter 1, Unified Field Theory


About the Author:


Zhang Xiangqian, a native of Lujiang County, Anhui Province, China, male, farmer, junior high school level, born in 1967.


In the summer of 1985, he came into contact with extraterrestrial civilizations and obtained from them information about the universe, time, space, mass, electric charge, field, speed of light, momentum, energy, force, motion...... The essence of the mysteries.


He obtained the grand unified equation of the universe, wrote the four forces of the universe in one equation, and obtained the core secret of the universe, the unified field theory, the space information field theory of the universe, the secret of the flying saucer at the speed of light, and the artificial field scanning technology.


For the first time in the world, it was discovered that the changing electromagnetic field produces a gravitational field.


Now living in Erlong New Street, Tongda Town, Lujiang County, he makes a living by welding and repairing bicycles, and researches and publicizes the theory of unified field theory and artificial field scanning technology in his spare time.


I welcome the cooperation between Polytechnic University and research institutes.


The author's phone and WeChat 18714815159


Mailbox zzqq2100@163.com


Directory:


Preface.


1. The constitution of the universe and the basic principles of unified field theory


Second, the definition of substance


Third, the falsity of the existence of the physical world


Fourth, how physical concepts are generated


5. Basic Physics Concepts and Derived Physics Concepts


6. Classification of basic physical concepts


7. How to describe the movement of space itself


8. Why do objects and space move in the universe?


9. The law of spiral motion


10. The principle of parallelism


11. Geometric symmetry is equivalent to physical conservation


XII. Continuity and discontinuity of space


Thirteenth, the description of motion cannot be separated from the observer


14. Why space is three-dimensional


Fifteenth, space can store information indefinitely


16. Unified basic assumptions of field theory


XVII. The Physical Definition of Time


XVIII. The space-time identity equation


XIX. Spiral space-time wave equation


20. Recognize the nature of the speed of light


XXXI, explaining the invariance of the speed of light in the Lorenz transform


XXII. A general definition of the four major fields in the universe


XXIII. Defining equations for gravitational field and mass


XXIV. Unified Field Theory Momentum Formula


XXV. Unified Field Theory Dynamical Equations


26. Explain Newton's three theorems


XXVII. Prove that inertial mass is equivalent to gravitational mass


XXVIII. Explain the nature of gravitation


XXIX. Gravitational Field and Space-Time Wave Equation


XXX, Defining equations for charge and electric field


XXXXI, the velocity multiplied by the rate of change of mass over time is the electromagnetic field force


XXXII. Defining equations for nuclear force fields


XXXIII. Defining equations for magnetic fields


XXXIV. Derivation of Maxwell's equations


XXXV. The gravitational field that varies with time produces an electric field


XXXVI. Changes in the gravitational field of a uniformly linear moving object produce an electric field


XXXVII. The magnetic field of a moving charge creates a gravitational field


XXXVIII. Experiments of changing electromagnetic fields to produce gravitational fields


XXXIX. Unified Field Theory Energy Equation


Forty, Photon Model


Appendix: Main Applications of Unified Field Theory


preface


The unified field theory was first proposed by Albert Einstein, who spent more than 40 years trying to unify the electromagnetic field with the gravitational field, but without success.


At present, human beings have discovered that there are four different forms of force in nature: weak force, electromagnetic field force, gravitational force, and nuclear force, among which the electric field force and the magnetic field force have been unified by human beings, and the nuclear force is currently very imperfect in human understanding, and the weak force is also unified in the electromagnetic field force in the eyes of mainstream scientists.


In this paper, it is argued that the electric field force and the magnetic field force are not the same force, and the weak force is the resultant force of the electromagnetic field force and the nuclear force, not the fundamental force.


The unification of electric field, magnetic force, gravitational force, and nuclear force discussed in this article is, simply put, to write the electric field force, magnetic field force, gravitational force, and nuclear force in a mathematical formula, and to use mathematical formulas to write the relationship between the electric field, the magnetic field, the gravitational field [referred to as the gravitational field], and the nuclear force field.


Since the unified field theory involves time, space, motion, force, speed of light, velocity, mass, charge, energy, momentum...... These are the essential problems of physics, so the completion of unified field theory is of great significance to mankind, but it is also extremely difficult.


Note:


In the absence of special indications, the capital letters in this article are vectors.


This article only describes the motion of the simplest and most basic particle in a vacuum, and does not describe the motion of a shaped object in a medium.


The concept of particle appears in this article is that in order to facilitate the description of the motion of the particles of the object, we do not consider the shape and line length of the particles of the object, and idealize the object as a point. If we want to discuss the volume and geometric length of a particle it is meaningless in this article because it violates our conventions.


Unified field theory attributes all properties of a particle to the motion of the particle in space or the movement of the space around the particle itself, and it is pointless to discuss the internal situation of the particle.


Unified field theory mainly describes the motion of the space itself around an object [or a particle], so unified field theory can also be called space kinematics.


The basic assumption of unified field theory is that the space around an object moves at the speed of light divergently, and then based on this assumption, the interpretation, modification, extension, and in-depth understanding of Newtonian mechanics, relativity theory, and Maxwell's equations are developed.


The core idea of the unified field theory is that the existence of the physical world is false, and all physical phenomena are just descriptions of human beings!


We must carefully comprehend this idea, otherwise we will not be able to understand the unified field theory.


The "vertical principle" of the article is a difficult point to understand, and it is important to pay attention to this when reading.


The Composition of the Universe and the Fundamentals of Unified Field Theory


The universe is made up of objects and the space around them, and there is no third thing that coexists with it.


All physical phenomena and concepts are the descriptions of the motion of objects in space and the movement of space around objects as observers.


Without the description of our observers, only objects and space are left in the universe, and the rest do not exist, and the rest are the result of our observers' descriptions of objects and space.


The universe we see and feel before our eyes is false, and the real universe that exists behind it – made up of objects and space.


Space and objects do not exist and are made up of a more fundamental thing, space and objects cannot be transformed into each other, and the universe is binary, not monistic.


The human brain describes objects and space in the universe in different ways, giving birth to the geometric world and the physical world.


When we describe the motion of objects and the motion of space, the physical world is born; When we describe the size, number, orientation, and structure of objects and space, the geometric world is born.


The physical world is mainly processed by people from their own feelings, while the geometric world is mainly processed by people from their own rationality.


The physical world is described by our observers, and the geometric world is also described by our observers, and apart from our observers, there is no physical world, and there is no geometric world, and the only thing that exists is objects and space.


The main differences between the physical world and the geometric world are:


Physics mainly describes motion, or describes phenomena that arise as a result of motion.


The geometric world is the primary, simple processing of objects and spaces in the universe by the human brain; Physics is the deep and complex processing of objects and spaces in the universe by the human brain, especially when it comes to the description and processing of motion.


Compared with physics, geometry has a wider range of descriptions, and the geometric world is closer to the origin of the universe.


We know that mathematics includes geometry, and in fact mathematics also includes physics, and we can also think of physics as just the part of mathematics that describes motion.


As for why the universe is made up of objects and space, and why can't objects and space be transformed into each other?


These questions cannot be answered by the unified field theory, which only identifies this fact and uses this fact as a theoretical basis to develop reasoning.


The main task of the unified field theory is to explain time, displacement, mass, electric charge, gravitational field, electric field, magnetic field, nuclear force field, energy, speed of light, velocity, momentum, gravitational force, electromagnetic force, nuclear force, motion, ......


The nature of these fundamental physical concepts, and the relationships between them.


Second, the definition of substance


What exists objectively without dependence on our observer is matter.


In the universe, only objects and space exist real and independent of the observer, so matter is made up of objects and space. Except for objects and space, the rest are only descriptions of people, and they do not exist apart from our observers.


Like a tree or a river in front of us is a "thing", the growth of a tree and the flow of river water are "things".


In the universe, objects and space are "things", and the rest are like time, displacement, mass, charge, field, energy, speed of light, velocity, momentum, force, temperature, sound, ...... They are all "things", and they are a property described by our observers when they move relative to our observers.


This basic principle denies that energy and time are part of matter, and that field is a special substance.


The field is either an effect caused by the motion of a particle of matter or an effect caused by the motion of space.


Unified field theory asserts that the essence of the field is the effect caused by the changing space of motion.


Starting from the basic principles of unified field theory, it is also possible to infer dark matter, dark energy, God particles, gravitons, ether, strings in string theory, membranes, ...... None of them exist, they are all made up by people.


The space of the universe is infinite, and so are the objects in the universe. Time is simply a description of a person's perception of the movement of space, and time is a physical quantity described by the observer.


As long as there is an observer, the time of the universe exists.


The universe has neither beginning nor end, the space and age of the universe are infinite, and the Big Bang theory can only adapt to local areas of the universe, and it is wrong to say that the entire universe was created by the Big Bang.


Third, the falsity of the existence of the physical world


Physics is born from the perception of objects and the movement of space by our observers, and then through the description of the brain.


The existence of the physical world that we see and feel before our eyes is false, and there is no existence without our observer, what really exists is the geometric world composed of objects and space behind it.


The geometric world is closer to the origin of the universe, and the physical world is mainly the description and processing of the geometric world by the brains of our observers.


Fourth, how physical concepts are generated


It is pointless to discuss the question of how objects and space came into being and how they originated, because objects and space are the most basic things that make up the edifice of the universe, and objects and space cannot be made up of more fundamental things.


Objects can be transformed from one form to another, but they do not arise or disappear for no reason.


Objects and space already exist, just as the universe exists for the same reason, and it is meaningless to discuss how the universe came into being and the origin of the universe.


We can't define object and space in terms of something more fundamental, because there is nothing more fundamental than object and space. However, we can use objects and space to define other physical concepts.


All physical phenomena and physical concepts are essentially derived from the sensations given by objects and spatial movements, and physical concepts are the result of the processing and calculation of these sensations by the human brain.


In addition to objects and space, all other physical concepts, such as time, field, mass, electric charge, speed of light, force, momentum, energy...... It is the movement of an object in space, or the motion of the space around the object itself, which is formed by motion with respect to a property exhibited by our observers, and is therefore related to displacement.


It can be thought of time, field, mass, charge, speed of light, force, momentum, energy, ...... Both are functions of spatial displacement, and we can both express them in terms of spatial displacement.


In physical concepts, such as sound, color, force, and temperature, these physical concepts are formed by the movement of objects in space that touches our observer and arouses the feelings of our observer, and our observer analyzes and generalizes these feelings.


However, field and time are a bit special, field is the effect of space motion around an object, and time is the sensation that we feel when we observe the space movement around our body.


5. Basic Physics Concepts and Derived Physics Concepts


Some of the physical concepts are fundamental, and some of the physical concepts are derived from these basic concepts. For example, time and displacement are fundamental, and velocity is derived from time and displacement.


Are there any more fundamental physical concepts than displacement and time?


Since the universe is composed of two things, object and space, object and space are the most basic physical concepts, the basic bricks and tiles that make up the edifice of the universe, which cannot be defined, while other physical concepts can be defined by objects and space.


Below is a diagram that represents these physics concepts from high-level, basic, to low-level.


Objects [or particles], space→ time, displacement, field→ velocity, speed of light→ mass, charge→ momentum→ force→ energy, work→ temperature, light, sound, color, etc.


6. Classification of basic physical concepts


There are two main categories of fundamental physical quantities, one is scalar and the other is vector, where scalar quantities can be represented by numbers, and vectors can be represented by numbers plus directions.


Scalars can be divided into positive and negative scalars and pure positive scalars that have no positive or negative distinctions. For example, a positive charge is a positive scalar, and a negative charge is a negative scalar.


7. How to describe the movement of space itself


Unified field theory believes that space itself is in motion all the time, and modern physics describes the motion of objects in space, so how can we qualitatively and quantitatively describe the motion of space itself?


We divide the space into many small pieces, each of which is called a spatial geometric point, or geometric point, or spatial point. The route traveled by the movement of a spatial point is called a spatial line. By describing the motion of these spatial points, it is possible to describe the motion of the space itself.


The mathematical methods of fluid mechanics and wave equations are equally applicable to describing the motion of space itself, which we actually think of as a special medium similar to a fluid.


The unified field theory also affirms that space exists objectively, that the existence of space does not depend on the perception of our observers, that space still exists if there is no person, but that time does not exist without people.


8. Why do objects and space move in the universe?


Physics is our description of the geometric world [composed of objects and space], so we can always find a corresponding geometric state for any physical phenomenon.


In physics, the state of motion we describe is equivalent to the perpendicular state in geometry. If we don't describe it, the state of motion is actually the vertical state in geometry.


Note that part of this is reasoning, because there must always be a geometric state corresponding to the state of motion, and it is necessary to assume what kind of state corresponds to the state of motion geometrically.


In the unified field theory, the principle of perpendicularity is used to explain why objects and space move, and the perpendicular principle is expressed as follows:


Relative to us observers, any object in the universe can make up to three straight lines perpendicular to each other at any point in the space around it, which is called the three-dimensional vertical state of space.


Any point in space in this vertical state must move relative to our observer, and the changing direction of motion and the trajectory can be reconstituted into a vertical state.


The above can be called a qualitative description of the vertical principle, and in the future, we will also ask for a quantitative description of the vertical principle.


The motion that changes direction must be a curvilinear motion, and a circular motion can make up to two tangents perpendicular to each other.


Space is three-dimensional, and three mutually perpendicular tangents can be made at any point along its trajectory, so it must superimpose linear motion in the vertical direction of the circular plane of motion.


It is reasonable to think that the points of space are moving in a cylindrical spiral (i.e., the combination of rotational motion and linear motion in the vertical direction of the plane of rotation).


Objects exist in space, and the location where the object is located moves due to the influence of the motion of the space itself.


This is the explanation of why all the objects in the universe move


We believe that the reason for the movement of objects is due to forces, but we only have a very superficial understanding that the reason behind the motion of all objects in the universe is caused by the movement of space itself. In turn, we can explain the nature of force in terms of spatial motion.


Objects can affect the surrounding space and thus the objects present in the space, so that the objects can interact through space without any special medium to transmit the interaction forces.


We need to realize that the movement of the space around the object is caused by the object, and the existence of the object in space can have an impact on the surrounding space, and the degree of this influence can be measured by the degree of movement of the surrounding space.


The existence of an object in space has an impact on the surrounding space, causing the surrounding space to move, and the movement of space is bound to affect the position of other objects existing in space, so that the position of this object changes in motion, or has a tendency to change in motion.


All the interactions between objects, gravitational force, electric field force, magnetic field force, nuclear force are essentially carried out through the movement of space itself, and objects transmit forces to each other through the space in which their motion changes.


Space exists objectively and does not depend on us observers. We can also think of space as a special medium.


Is it the object that causes the motion of space, or is the motion of space causing the motion of the object? This can only be said to be mutual cause and effect, regardless of priority, objects and space are closely linked


We need to note that the description of the motion of space has the same and some differences as we describe the motion of ordinary objects.


The motion of space described in the unified field theory refers to the space around the object, and it is meaningless to simply describe the motion of space if there is no object.


Because describing motion requires determining the spatial position of the beginning moment of time and the initial state, space alone cannot determine the spatial position of the starting moment and the initial state.


Determining the spatial position of the moment of the beginning of time and the initial state depends on the object and the observer.


The motion of space itself begins with an object and ends with an object, and without an object or observer, it makes no sense to describe the motion of space alone.


The principle of perpendicularity is one of the core secrets of the universe, which is closely related to spiral motion, and the principle of Faraday's electromagnetic induction in physics is also related to the principle of perpendicularity.


The vector cross product and curl in mathematics are also related to the perpendicular principle, however, the argument is too complex and is omitted here.


9. The law of spiral motion


Everything in the universe, from electrons, photons, and protons, to the Earth, the Moon, the Sun, the Milky Way, and ...... All the particles that exist freely in space without exception move in a spiral pattern, including the space itself in a cylindrical spiral motion.


The law of spiral motion is one of the core laws of the universe, and everything in the universe seems to be moving in a cycle, but it is not closed.


Vector cross-product in mathematics is related to the law of spirals, however, the argument is too complex and is omitted here.


10. The principle of parallelism


The parallel states described in physics correspond to proportional properties in mathematics.


If two physical quantities can be represented by line segments, they must be proportional to each other.


Vector dot multiplication in mathematics is closely related to this.


11. Geometric symmetry is equivalent to physical conservation


The conservation described in physics is equivalent to symmetry in geometry.


A conserved physical quantity, if it can be represented by a line segment, is linearly symmetrical in geometric coordinates, if it can be expressed in terms of area, it is planar symmetrical in geometric coordinates, and if it can be expressed in terms of volume, it is solidly symmetrical in geometric coordinates.


XII. Continuity and discontinuity of space


The space that we humans come into contact with, and our understanding of space, all think that space is continuous. Many of our mathematical systems for dealing with space by default assume that space is continuous.


However, in some cases, space can behave as discontinuous. For example, if an object moves at the speed of light relative to our observer, the length of space along the direction of motion is reduced to zero, and the space in which the object is located can behave discontinuously with respect to our observer. This is the fundamental reason for quantum entanglement in quantum mechanics.


This is related to the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, but this is another broad field of research that can only be clarified by many years of human beings and the efforts of many people, so I will not discuss it in detail here.


Thirteenth, the description of motion cannot be separated from the observer


The theory of relativity holds that many physical concepts such as time, displacement, electric field, magnetic field, force, mass, etc., are relative. There may be different values for different observers of relative motion, and the word "relative" is extended to be relative to the observer.


Due to time, displacement, velocity, force, mass, energy...... These physical concepts come from the motion of an object [relative to our observer] or the motion of the space around the object itself.


Therefore, it is meaningless to describe motion without us observers, or without specifying which observer, time, displacement, velocity, force, mass, energy, ...... Many physical concepts lose their meaning.


At first glance, the above view seems to be a kind of idealism, but idealism is also wrong to think that once there is no observer, no one, everything is gone.


The correct view should be this:


All motion in the universe is relative to us observers, and without the observer, the universe is like a freeze-frame shot of a camera, rather than not existing.


The state of motion in physics is a perpendicular state from a geometric point of view, and two phenomena are the same phenomenon behind them, and we observers look at them from different angles [that is, from a physical point of view and from a geometric point of view], and different results appear.


The state of motion is the constant affirmation, negation, affirmation, negation, affirmation, and negation of the position of an object in space...... results.


Some people believe that everything in the universe was still moving before there were no human beings, so the existence of motion has nothing to do with human beings.


In fact, the phrase "before there are no human beings" is a sick sentence, without human beings, where did there be no human beings.


The word "no one" means that people have been excluded, and since you have excluded people, you can no longer use people to define before or after.


Before or after it is defined by people, without us, where did we come from before and after, up and down, left and right, east and west, north and south?


Note that the motion described in physics, space, objects [or particles], and observers must not be missing, otherwise, the motion will lose its meaning.


It's a bit peculiar to describe the change in time, the observer and the object are actually the same thing – our human body.


There is a process of development in human understanding of motion, Newtonian mechanics believes that to describe the motion of an object, it is necessary to find a reference object that is considered to be stationary, as a reference, and the description of motion emphasizes the distance that the object travels in space in a certain period of time.


Newtonian mechanics holds that the measurement of the length of time and space has nothing to do with the motion of the observer.


The theory of relativity inherits the basic ideas of Newtonian mechanics, but the theory of relativity emphasizes that the values of other physical quantities such as space and time measured may be different for different observers.


The theory of relativity holds that the measurement of the length of time and space is related to the speed of the observer's motion. At low speeds, the relationship is not obvious, but close to the speed of light, it is especially noticeable.


Unified field theory holds that it is meaningless to describe motion without an observer or without specifying an observer.


The physical state of motion is described by us people, and the state of rest is also described by us people, and if there is no us human observer, there is no state of motion, and there is no state of rest, and the universe is only left with objects and space.


Without an observer, or without specifying which observer, it is uncertain whether objects and space are in motion or at rest, and there is no point in discussing motion or rest.


Choosing a reference to describe motion is sometimes unreliable.


The unified field theory holds that time is formed by the observer's own movement in space, and must be related to the observer's motion, that is, the measurement of time is related to the observer, and the time experienced by the same thing, different observers may have different results if they move with each other.


Since space itself is always in motion, the displacement of space is also related to the motion of the observer, and different observers may have different results.


Unified field theory, like the theory of relativity, emphasizes that your time and space, my time and space, and you and me are in motion with each other, are different and cannot be confused.


14. Why space is three-dimensional


We know that up to three directed straight lines perpendicular to each other can be made along any point in space, which is called three-dimensional space. Why happens to be three, not two, not four?


This reason is caused by the movement of space, if the space is a linear motion to produce a one-dimensional space, if the space is a curved motion to produce a two-dimensional space, the real situation is that the space is moving in a cylindrical spiral, so the generation is a three-dimensional space.


The reason for the three-dimensional space is that the space is in a cylindrical spiral motion at all times.


Since the three directions of space are equal, no one direction is special, when space moves, it must move in all three directions, coupled with the continuity of movement, resulting in space can only move in a cylindrical spiral.


In other words, space forms a three-dimensional space in a cylindrical spiral, and these two statements are mutually causal.


The space we live in is the spiral space of the right hand, that is, the direction of linear movement of the right thumb pointing to the space, and the direction of the four fingers of the right hand is the direction of the circular movement of the space.


As for whether there is a left-handed spiral space in the universe, the logical analysis is: if there is a left-handed spiral space, it will be repelled by the universal right-hand spiral space, and after hundreds of millions of years, it will be excluded to the infinite distance of the universe.


Two right-hand spiral spaces [both frontal and counterclockwise to our observers] collide with each other, and the space where the rotation touches each other will be reduced, which is manifested as mutual attraction, while the left-hand spiral space and the right-hand spiral space will repel each other when they meet.


Later, we also point out that both positive and negative charges are right-handed spirals in the space around them.


However, this issue still needs to be explored in theory and practice. It cannot be ruled out that human beings can artificially create a left-handed spiral space in the future.


Fifteenth, space can store information indefinitely


Definition of information: Information is the form of motion of matter [composed of objects and space].


The amount of information can be expressed in terms of possibilities, and the more possibilities there are, the more information is large.


The objects we know are divided into "things" and "things", and information belongs to things.


There is always a limit to the amount of information that any particle in the universe can store or carry.


Any space in the universe can store all the information of the past, present, and future of the entire universe. In other words, any piece of space can store information indefinitely.


In other words, in any finite area of the universe, an infinite amount of information can be stored.


The reason behind this is that space can be infinitely continuous and infinitely divisible.


It can also be proved logically:


The space around an object diverges at the speed of light, bringing all the information about the object into the surrounding space.


Due to the three-dimensional space that moves at the speed of light, the space along the direction of motion is shortened to zero in length due to the movement at the speed of light, and becomes a two-dimensional space.


Therefore, the space moving at the speed of light can bring all the information of an object to any space in the universe in an instant, instead of spreading it step by step at the speed of light as everyone thinks.


The universe has only two-dimensional space and three-dimensional space, and there is no one-dimensional space and four-dimensional space or above.


Since the two-dimensional space is zero volume, it can maintain zero distance from any three-dimensional space in the universe, so the information stored in the two-dimensional space can be permeated in any three-dimensional space in the universe.


Conversely, we can also say that any three-dimensional space in the universe implies all the information of the past, present, and future of the entire universe.


Why is the future information also included?


Because time is the sense of our observers, without us observers, there is no time, and all the information in the universe from eons of years ago and eons of time can be superimposed on a single point in space.


In addition to the infinity of time and space, the universe also contains infinite information.


The infinite nature of the universe containing information can be described in another sentence:


The universe contains infinite possibilities, and the repeated evolution of the universe requires all possibilities to be expressed, and it is repeated and infinitely expressed.


The information that occurs in the three-dimensional space can be saved in the two-dimensional surface space, and the strict proof can be used to use Gauss's theorem in field theory.


The information that occurs in the two-dimensional surface space, which can be saved in the one-dimensional linear space, can be rigorously proved using Stokes' theorem in field theory.


We need to pay attention to:


The generation of information requires the participation of object particles, and the object particles are completely excluded, and the simple space cannot create information, but it can be disseminated and stored believing. Information needs to be described by the observer, and without the observer, the information does not exist.


16. Unified basic assumptions of field theory


When any object in the universe [including the body of our observer] is at rest relative to our observer, the surrounding space is centered on the object, and the direction of the vector speed of light C can change in the form of a cylindrical spiral [the synthesis of uniform rotational motion and uniform linear motion in the vertical direction of the plane of rotation], and the vector speed of light C [the unified field theory holds that the speed of light can be a vector, and is represented by the capital letter C (quantity or modulus, or scalar quantity is c, c is unchanged), and the direction of the vector speed of light C can change].


The space around the object in the above diagram diverges in a cylindrical spiral.


The above theory of the Big Bang is wrong, the universe has no beginning, no end, the universe originally existed.


The strong evidence for the modern Big Bang theory is that space is expanding relative to any observer.


The real reason for the expansion of space is that any object in the universe, including any observer, the surrounding space is centered on the object, moving at the speed of light, in a cylindrical spiral, and the planets existing in space also move away from our observers.


So why don't the moon and the sun move away from our observers at the speed of light?


There is also a constraint here, which has to do with the initial state of motion of the object and the planet at the beginning.


For example, the Earth is stationary from the beginning with us observers, and the Moon is close to stationary with us at the beginning [compared to the speed of light]. There are only very distant planets, which have little to do with us observers, and they are very fast away from us.


XVII. The Physical Definition of Time


The Unified Field Theory Fundamentals state that all physical concepts come from the description of motion by our observers.


There are two most basic forms of motion in the universe, one is the movement of objects in space, and the other is the movement of space itself around objects.


The most basic concept of physics comes from the movement of an object in space or the movement of space around an object, giving us a sense of what the observer is. When we observers analyze, describe, and generalize these sensations, we form physical concepts.


We feel that time is passing all the time in our lives, and time can also be considered as something


The movement of the body in space or the movement of the surrounding space gives us a sense of the human being.


So what is it that is in motion that gives us the sense of time?


We send a person in a spaceship to a space area tens of billions of billions of light-years away, drop the person down, and the spacecraft flies back immediately.


The other planets in this space area are very, very far away, and it is conceivable that this person still has a sense of time.


What is it that is in motion that gives the person a sense of time? In this case, only the person's body and the space around it. Moreover, the person sees his body as stationary, and the only thing that moves is the space around the person.


The correct and reasonable view is:


Time is a sense of the movement of space around our body by our observers.


Combined with the above basic assumptions of unified field theory, all objects in the universe and the surrounding space are divergent at the speed of light and in a cylindrical spiral, we can give a physical definition of time:


The space around any object in the universe [including our observer's body] is centered on the object, in a cylindrical spiral, and divergent movement at the vector speed of light C, and this movement of space gives our observer the feeling of time.


It has been argued that there was time in the universe before human beings, so it is a mistake to think that time is a human sense.


In fact, the phrase "before there are no human beings" is a sick sentence, without people, where did there be no human beings?


This logical error is that in the first step, you have excluded people in the four words "in the absence of people", and in the second step, you have used people to define "before", since you have excluded people, you can no longer use people to define them.


Without us, where did we come from, before and after, in order, up and down, left and right, east and west, north and south?


"Time" is precisely a physical concept born from the description of the sensation given by the movement of the space around one's body.


XVIII. The space-time identity equation


The above physical definition of time also defines the speed of light. In unified field theory, time, space, and the speed of light are bundled together, and the speed of light reflects the identity of space-time, that is, the essence of time is what we describe the space of the speed of light.


We extend the speed of light to a vector, and the vector speed of light C [modulus is c] can vary with time t, the speed of the light source, and the speed of the observer.


C = scalar speed of light c times the unit vector N.


The scalar speed of light c does not change with time t, with the speed of the observer, with the speed of the light source.


From the above physical definition of time, it can be considered that:


Time is proportional to the distance traveled at the speed of light in the space around the observer.


With the help of the concept of spatial points, it can be argued that:


Time is the sensation that many points of space around our observer are moving around us in a cylindrical spiral, in a vector speed of light C.


A spatial point p, at moment zero, from where we are observers, at the vector speed of light C, elapsed time t, proportional to the distance traveled R.


From this, the space-time identity equation is derived:

R(t) = Ct = xi+ yj + zk


i, j, k are unit vectors along the x, y, and z axes, respectively. The scalar form is:

r² = c²t²= x² + y² + z²


These two equations can be thought of as space-time identity equations, corresponding to the relativistic space-time relativity equations, reflecting that space and time are of the same origin. It can also be said that time can be expressed in terms of spatial displacement moving at the speed of light.


What we need to pay attention to is that it's not just time, it's like mass, charge, field, momentum, force, energy...... These basic physical concepts, as well as all physical concepts, are caused by spatial displacement, and are composed of spatial displacement, and tracing the essence of these physical concepts, we will find that they can eventually be reduced and decomposed into spatial displacement.


This is also the essence of physics - physics is only a discipline that describes motion, and all motion is made up of spatial displacements.


XIX. Three-dimensional cylindrical spiral space-time equations


As mentioned above, all objects in the universe [or particles], including space itself, are moving in a cylindrical spiral, and the law of spiral motion is one of the most basic laws of the universe.


The unified field theory holds that the space around an object itself is moving in a cylindrical spiral.


Next, let's establish the three-dimensional cylindrical spiral space-time equation in the unified field theory to replace the four-dimensional space-time equation in the theory of relativity.


Suppose that there is a particle O point in a certain space region, and we take the O point as the origin to establish a three-dimensional Cartesian Cartesian coordinate system X,Y,Z.


At the moment t' = 0, we examine any point p in the space around the object o, the position of which we use x. ,y。 ,z。 To denote that the spatial displacement deviation from point o to point p [referred to as the vector] we use R. to represent.


After a period of time t, the movement of point p reaches the position x, y, z where point p is later located at moment t. That is, the spatial position coordinates of point p at time t" are x,y,z,


The spatial displacement deviation from point o to point p [referred to as the vector] is denoted by R.


In cylindrical spiral motion, it can be decomposed into rotational motion vector and linear motion vector, note that the displacement should not be confused with linear motion, and the displacement can be regarded as the synthesis of rotational motion vector and linear motion vector.


According to the above vertical principle, R changes with the spatial position x, y, z and time t, so there are:

R(t) =(x,y,z)


The specific relationship between R(t) and (x, y, z) is given, which is the above spatiotemporal homogenization equation:


R(t) = R。 + Ct = (x。 + x) i+ (y。 + y) j + (z。 +z) k


This equation can sometimes be shortened as:

R(t) = Ct = x i+ y j + z k


Scalar form: r² = c²t² = x²+ y²+ z²


r is the number of vector R.


The above equation also appears in the theory of relativity, which is considered to be a four-dimensional space-time distance, and the reality is that the essence of time is our description of space moving at the speed of light. Any dimension in three-dimensional space that moves at the speed of light can be considered time.


The existence of space is fundamental, time is not fundamental, and without anyone as an observer, time does not exist, but there is still space.


Since time is our observer's description of the space moving at the speed of light, the quantity of time is equivalent to the amount of spatial displacement moving at the speed of light.


The theory of relativity obviously fails to recognize this, and the theory of relativity does not know the nature of time, and sees time as another dimension equal to space, and three-dimensional space as a four-dimensional space-time.


The theory of relativity does not recognize that space is fundamental and real, that it still exists apart from our observer, that time is described by man, that time exists falsely, and that it does not exist without our observer.


The understanding in this regard is clearly flawed by the theory of relativity.


If point p rotates in the x,y plane with angular velocity ω, moves in a straight line at a uniform velocity h in the z-axis, and R projects a length r in the x,y plane, then there are:


x = x。 + r cosωt


y = y。 + r sinωt


z = z。 + h t


The above can also be expressed by the following vector equation,


R =R。 + Ct


= (x。 + r cosωt)i+ (y。 + r sinωt ) j +(z。 + h t ) k


The above can be called the three-dimensional spiral space-time equation.


Sometimes this equation can be simplified as:

R = r cosωt i+ r sinωt j + h t k


Unified field theory holds that all the mysteries of the universe are determined by the above equations, from the Milky Way and the planets to the motion of electrons, protons, and neutrons, as well as why objects have mass, why they have electric charges, and all the way to the human mind, and so on, all ...... related to this equation.


In the three-dimensional spiral space-time equation, what is the relationship between rotational motion and linear motion?


The spatial rotational displacement vectors X, Y along the coordinates x, y and the spatial linear displacement vectors Z along the z-axis should satisfy the following cross-product relation:

X×Y = Z

Y×X = - Z


X,Y is the amount of rotation, if X×Y = Z represents the right-hand helix relationship, then Y×X = - Z means the left-handed helix relationship.


The equations X×Y = Z and Y×X= - Z reflect the connection between the rotational motion and the rectilinear motion of space.


These two formulas are derived from the previous "parallel principle" and "perpendicular principle".


The "Parallel Principle" states that if two physical quantities can be represented by line segments, they must be proportional to each other.


The Perpendicular Principle states that the orientation of a plane or surface is perpendicular to it.


And the direction of circular motion is in the vertical direction of the circumferential plane, and the reason behind it is also the "vertical principle".


In the equation X×Y = Z, X×Y can be regarded as a vector area, the size of the area is equal to the number of X×Y, and the direction is perpendicular to X and Y, and parallel to Z.


According to the principle of parallelism, the vector area X×Y is proportional to Z, and of course, in some cases, it is also possible to make the proportionality constant 1, written as X×Y = Z.


For the above three-dimensional spiral space-time equations, we need to pay attention to the following points:


There are many spatial points around point 1, point o, and point p is only one of them. Style:


R =R。 + Ct


= (x。 + r cosωt)i+ (y。 + r sinωt ) j +(z。 + h t ) k


, it does not mean that there is only one vector like R around the point o, but that there are many vectors like this that are evenly distributed around the point o in a radial manner [when the point o is at rest relative to us].


However, because the motion is synchronized with each other, no direction of motion is opposite, so there are no two spirals intersecting in space around a single particle.


2. The spiral is generated at the particle point and ends at the particle point, and it will not appear for no reason in the space without the particle point.


In the case where the object o point is stationary relative to our observer, the movement of the surrounding space is uniform, and the spiral line taken by the space point is continuous and will not be interrupted for no reason.


We should also realize that the establishment and selection of coordinate axes are arbitrary, and coordinate axes are just a mathematical tool for us to describe space, and will not affect the distribution of spirals and motion spaces.


3. The cylindrical spiral motion of space is the superposition of two kinds of motion: linear motion and rotary motion. Linear motion can also be considered a special case of r = 0 in the cylindrical spiral motion mentioned above.


The essence of the field is the effect of space moving in a cylindrical spiral, and in field theory, divergence describes the part of space that moves in a cylindrical spiral, and curl describes the part of rotational motion.


4. What is described in the cylindrical spiral equation is: one end of the space vector R does not move on the object o point, and the other end p draws a circle and moves in a straight line along the vertical direction of the circle plane, which cannot be understood as just a point at p point drawing a spiral, but a space vector R is drawing a spiral.


5. The space point p is at zero time, and it is possible to start from a plane of the O point, not just from the O point.


6. The spiral equation R = R. + Ct


= (x。 + r cosωt)i+ (y。 + r sinωt ) j +(z。 + h t ) k, if x and y are equal to zero, and the spatial point moves in a straight line along the z-axis, the spiral equation should not be considered unsuitable in this case, but should be changed to a linear equation of motion.


The correct understanding should be that x and y are approaching zero, and that the radius of rotation of the cylindrical spiral motion at point p is approaching zero. And the spiral equation still applies.


Of course, there are also cases where x or y approaches infinity and z approaches zero.


All of these cases can be included in the spiral equation, which simplifies our understanding of the problem.


7. The vector speed of light is obtained by taking the derivative of the spiral equation of motion against time, which cannot be understood as only obtaining the derivative of the straight part of the cylindrical spiral motion from time, because in this way there is a superluminal speed. Rather, it is obtained by finding the derivative of the position vector R [linear displacement plus rotational displacement] against time t.


8. A space point corresponds to a helix, the radius of the spiral is between 0 and infinity, it is meaningless to ask how many meters the specific value is, just as it is meaningless for us to ask how many electric field lines there are around a charge.


9. When the particle point o is at rest with respect to our observer, the movement of the surrounding space is uniform, and the distribution of the spiral is uniform and continuous.


When the o point moves relative to our observer, the uniformity of the expected motion of the surrounding space is broken. When the speed of motion at point O reaches the speed of light, the helix is expected to be interrupted.


20. Recognize the nature of the speed of light


1. The nature of the speed of light


With the in-depth development of physics, the importance of the concept of the speed of light has attracted more and more attention...... These basic physical concepts become equally important.


When people think of the speed of light, they can't help but think of light, but in fact, the speed of light is more reflective of the essential laws of nature than the phenomenon of light.


In unified field theory, expanding the speed of light into a vector is equivalent to broadening people's understanding of the speed of light. Unified field theory also has a deep understanding of the speed of light.


In the unified field theory, the speed of light reflects the identity of time and space, that is, space is fundamental, the movement of space forms time, and time is the description of space moving at the speed of light by our observers.


The physical definition of time binds space, time, and the speed of light together, and the use of moving space defines time and the speed of light.


Time and space are the same source, and it is the speed of light that connects the two.


The assumption that the speed of light is a constant, and that space and time are originally the same thing, means that space is extended, time is correspondingly extended, and space is shortened accordingly, and space is shortened accordingly, which is space-time identity.


The above equation R(t) = Ct = x i + y j + z k is the space-time homogenization equation.


The electrons in the atom live in a small spatial range and move extremely fast with an extremely short period of motion. In the solar system, the planets move in a wide range of space, with small speed and long periods, all of which are due to the identity of time and space.


The spatiotemporal identity of the unified field theory and the spatiotemporal relativity of the relativistic theory are contradictory on the surface, but the essence is the same, the spatiotemporal identity equation is fundamental, from the spatiotemporal identity of the relativistic theory can be derived, and the derivation process will be given later.


2. Explain the relativistic effect associated with the speed of light


Let's start with the question of why the speed of light is the highest speed in the universe.


According to the theory of relativity, the speed of light is the highest speed in the universe. The theory of relativity is mainly based on mathematical formulas, because if the speed of motion of an object exceeds the speed of light, some physical quantities will appear imaginary and lose their meaning.


In fact, it is very simple to logically reason that the speed of light is the highest speed of the universe.


Imagine an alien spaceship that is 10 meters long relative to us at rest, and when it moves relative to us at a certain speed, we find that the length of the spacecraft is shortening to 5 meters, and when the speed of motion reaches the speed of light, it is reduced to zero.


If the spacecraft were moving relative to us at the speed of light, would it be possible to analyze the trend of change, and the spacecraft would be shorter than the length of zero? - Apparently not.


The theory of relativity holds that a clock is placed inside the spacecraft and we hold another clock in our hands, and the two clocks travel the same time when they are stationary.


When the ship moves relative to us, the clock inside the ship slows down relative to a clock in our hand.


The observer inside the ship measures the time interval between two events occurring in the same location inside the ship, and from the outside of the ship, we observers see that the time interval between the two events is extended.


When the spacecraft reaches the speed of light, it seems to us observers outside the spacecraft that the length of the spacecraft is reduced to zero, and the clock inside the spacecraft moves very slowly, so slow that it freezes and does not go.


An alien planet 50 light-years away from us, aliens driving light-speed spaceships to our Earth, and we think it will take 50 years for the spacecraft to reach our Earth.


However, the aliens inside the spaceship think that they have traveled an infinite distance in zero seconds, so they have reached our Earth in an instant.


If there is a faster-than-light speed, according to the tendency of motion, is there a motion that is faster than the infinite distance that does not take time? - Apparently not.


The above involves the famous shrinkage and slowness of the theory of relativity.


An object with zero length, zero volume, and zero volume does not exist, and the conclusion of relativity makes many people unacceptable.


Some people think that this is a kind of observer effect, and the reason is the observation of the observer.


Is the slow clock a real thing, or is it just an observer effect? In contrast, the majority of people think it is the observer effect.


Many people think:


The slowness effect is relative to an observer outside the ship, and the actual size of the ship does not change. An object does not deform itself when it moves at close to the speed of light, but the light and electromagnetic waves it reflects change, and it appears to us observers that the object is deformed.


To put it simply, the clock is not slow, the ruler does not shrink, everything is just your observation and measurement.


However, some people believe that the shrinkage and slow planting do not happen only when you observe, and if you do not observe, you will not shrink and slow down. As long as there is a relative velocity of motion, slow clock slowness has already occurred.


Some people have adopted a compromise solution, saying that the "shrinkage effect" is the observation effect, and the "bell slow effect" is the actual effect.


The unified field theory holds that the ruler and the clock are tied together, and there is no such thing as an observer effect or a real effect.


According to the unified field theory, the shrinkage and slow clock are both real effects and observer effects.


In unified field theory, there is no absolute difference between the real effect and the observer effect, and the two are unified.


First of all, you can't completely oppose the observer effect to the real effect, there is no essential difference between the two.


Why does the universe you see happen to be the way it is - because this is what your brain describes, the real universe only exists in objects and space, and the rest is just the description and calculation of your brain.


In unified field theory, space is formed by motion, from which space is born from a positive charge, diverges to the surrounding space at the speed of light, and converges to a negative charge at the speed of light.


The movement of space needs to be described by people, and the space you see is not static, but moving at the speed of light, and this movement has a definite meaning relative to us observers.


There is no point in talking about the movement of space without connecting it with the observer.


The state of existence of space is also the state of motion, and the three-dimensional vertical state of space is caused by the cylindrical spiral motion of space at all times.


The geometrically three-dimensional vertical state of space and the physical state of motion are equivalent.


The state of motion of space is the result of our description of the three-dimensional vertical state of space. Why is the space you seeing the way it is? It's exactly what you describe.


The red you see, why it's red, because that's how you describe it. Without our human descriptions, the universe does not exist red.


Everything you see, the blue of the sky, the beauty of the flowers and plants, is the result of the brain's processing and analysis of the obtained electromagnetic wave signals.


The reason why it is the way it is is is exactly what your brain tells you after doing the math.


What is the heat you feel, heat is described by your brain, without the description of your brain, there is no heat, the essence of heat is the description of the degree of irregular movement of molecules by people.


The sound you feel is also from your description, the difference between sound and no sound is that the position of the molecules in the air is different.


Sound is not a real thing, no one describes it, and sound doesn't actually exist.


A lot of people think of the real effect as opposed to the observer effect – this is the thinking of ordinary people.


However, the core idea of the unified field theory is that the existence of the physical world is false, and all other physical phenomena in the universe are just descriptions of us, except for the existence of objects and space, which are not described by us.


In unified field theory, there is no absolute difference between the observer effect and the real effect.


We say that colors, sounds, and heat are all descriptions of how people feel about themselves, and they are all observer effects, not real things, and some people can understand them now.


However, once it is said that the state of motion is also described by people [what we need to note is that the state of rest is also described by us, and without us observers, there is no state of motion in the universe, and there is no state of rest], many people's thinking will not be able to adapt.


Except for one case where it is not the observer effect [that is, there are objects and space in the universe], everything else in the universe is the observer effect, which is described by our observers, including the state of motion and the state of rest.


Why is the existence of objects and space not an observer effect?


Because what really exists in the universe are objects and space, and the rest are our descriptions of the motion of objects and space, and the rest are the observer effect.


The existence of objects and space is the basis for the birth of all phenomena in the universe, and everything else is a description of man, including motion, rest, time, mass, charge, energy, force, ......


Some people will ask:


How to distinguish between some observer effects and real occurrences, and some observer effects that are inconsistent with real occurrences?


- There are no inconsistencies.


What you see is what really happens, and what really happens must be described by an observer, and there is no point in talking about the so-called real situation without an observer to describe it.


There are many things going on in the universe all the time, and when we discuss these things, we always have to connect with a certain observer, in short, how and how it is in relation to so-and-so.


If you don't say it's relative to so-and-so, you ignore which observer it's relative to, and you often get plausible and ambiguous results.


This is where the theory of relativity is often questioned and criticized, and it can only be said that the theory of relativity is an incomplete theory, and a thorough theory should be a unified field theory.


According to the unified field theory, there are objects and spaces in the universe, which have nothing to do with our observers, this is an objective fact, the rest are human descriptions, and the rest are subjective, all of which belong to the observer effect.


In the unified field theory, the slow effect of the ruler clock can be applied concretely.


The unified field theory holds that when an object moves at the speed of light, the length in the direction of motion is shortened to zero, which does not occupy our space, and it is possible for an object with zero volume to pass through a wall, and both the wall and the object are intact.


The unified field theory can also be explained by the principle of perpendicularity for the shortening of space due to motion. Since the physical state of motion and the perpendicular state of the geometry are equivalent, when the object moves in a straight line along the x-axis at a constant speed at each speed, it causes the x-axis to tilt, and when the speed of motion reaches the speed of light, it rotates 90 degrees - resulting in zero projected length of space along the x-axis along the direction of motion.


In specific applications, the Unified Field Theory holds that objects have mass and charge because the space around the object diverges at the speed of light, and the number of divergent bars is proportional to the mass of the object.


When the changing electromagnetic field is used to generate an anti-gravitational field, irradiating the object, it can reduce the number of rays moving at the speed of light in the space around the object, and when the number of rays moving at the speed of light in the space around the object is reduced to zero, the mass becomes zero, and it will suddenly move at the speed of light relative to us [this is the principle of alien light-speed UFO flight].


When the mass is close to zero, it does not move at the speed of light, but it is in a quasi-excited state and can pass through walls without any damage to walls and objects.


If the slow clocking is a pure observer effect, it is obviously impossible for the rigid body predicted by the unified field theory above to pass through the wall, and both intact.


Some people believe that the mass of the object is zero, and the molecules inside the object have no force on each other and disperse like dust.


In this case, one observer thinks that the mass of the object is zero, and the other observer thinks that the mass is the same.


There is a difference between this and zero mass relative to any observer.


The theory of relativity holds that a spaceship moves relative to us at the speed of light, and we find that the length of the spaceship in the direction of motion is zero, resulting in zero volume;


Observers inside the spacecraft believe that there is no process from the beginning of the spacecraft to the end of the movement, and this journey, no matter how far away, is reached in an instant.


It's hard for us to accept.


Unified field theory holds that time is formed by the divergent movement of the speed of light in space around the observer, and when you move at the speed of light, you have caught up with space, and when you have caught up with the speed of light in space, you have caught up with time.


So, it seems to us that you have no space, your time is gone, it freezes.


So that it is easy for us to understand.


The theory of relativity holds that an object moves at the speed of light, and the moving mass becomes infinite, and the infinite mass is difficult for us to accept.


According to the unified field theory, the mass of an object reflects the number of spatial displacements around the object at the speed of light within a certain solid angle.


When the object moves at close to the speed of light, the solid angle will become close to zero due to the relativistic spatial contraction, and the number of bars will not change with velocity, so the mass tends to infinity.


Since mass is the physical quantity observed by our observer, mass reflects the degree of motion of the space around the object, and the essence of mass is the effect of space motion, so it is easy for us to understand that the mass of the object is infinity or zero.


In the unified field theory, all physical concepts and quantities are described by our observers.


Speed is no exception, only the speed of movement relative to the observer is the real meaningful speed, and only the speed of light relative to our observer is the constant speed of light, and the speed of light is the largest in the universe.


For the speed of motion and the events formed by the motion, the beginning and end of the event are related to the observer, and there will be a definite result. For speeds and events that I don't associate with the observer, there's no point in talking about the results.


For example, if we rotate our bodies on Earth, one revolution per second, relative to an alien planet tens of billions of years ago, the linear speed of the planet's rotation must be faster than the speed of light relative to our observers.


However, this faster-than-light has no causal connection with us observers, so it doesn't make sense.


For example, if we are an observer standing on Earth and we see two spacecraft moving at 0.9 times the speed of light, one to the east and one to the west, in relative motion.


We observers believe that no matter what the speed of motion of that ship is relative to our observers, there is no faster than the speed of light. However, it seems to me that the relative speed of movement between the two ships is 1.8 times the speed of light. However, this superluminal speed is not relative to us observers.


There is no faster-than-light relative to us observers.


In unified field theory, there is a case where the speed of light can be less than 300,000 kilometers per second.


When the light source moves in a straight line with a constant velocity V relative to our observer, the speed of light along the vertical direction of V is indeed less than 300,000 kilometers per second.


3. The physical definition of time is used to explain the invariance of the speed of light in the theory of relativity.


The theory of relativity is based on the constant speed of light, but the theory of relativity does not explain or have the ability to explain why the speed of light does not change, and the theory of relativity only takes the constant speed of light as a factual basis, and expands and modifies Newtonian mechanics.


The invariance of the speed of light in the theory of relativity means:


When the light source is stationary or moving at a velocity v, the velocity c of the light emitted by the light source remains constant relative to us observers.


If you know the physical definition of time, you immediately know why the speed of light does not change.


The above physical definition of time is:


The space around any object in the universe [including our observer's body] is centered on the object and diverges to the surroundings at the speed of light, and light is still in space and is carried outward by the movement of space, and this movement of space gives us the impression of time.


Thus, the quantity t of time is proportional to the displacement r of the space of the speed of light c motion, i.e.,

r = c t


The speed of light c = r/t is a fraction, and we know from elementary school mathematics that the fraction is the numerator divided by the denominator.


The numerator at the speed of light - the spatial displacement r and the denominator at the speed of light - time t are actually one thing, and we artificially call one thing two names.


For example, Zhang Fei, also known as Zhang Yide, although they are two names, they refer to the same person.


Therefore, if there is any change in the numerator of the speed of light, the spatial displacement r, the denominator of the speed of light, time t, must change synchronously, because r and t are originally the same thing, and we observers have called two names.


In this way, the value of the speed of light c = r / t is always constant, which is the reason why the speed of light does not change.


For example, we see that Zhang Fei has gained weight by 5 pounds, and we can immediately conclude that Zhang Yide's weight must have increased by 5 pounds, because the two names refer to the same person.


Zhang Fei and Zhang Yide's weight is increasing, but the ratio of Zhang Fei's weight to Zhang Yide's weight remains the same.


When the light source moves with velocity v relative to us, it causes a change in the speed of light, the numerator, the spatial displacement, r, which must cause the denominator of the speed of light, time t, to change synchronously.


When a light source moves in any way relative to us, the molecule that causes the speed of light, the spatial displacement, r, changes in some way, and it must cause the denominator of the speed of light, time t, to change synchronously in that way.


From the above, it can be inferred that the speed of light is always the same relative to our observer, whether it is moving at a uniform speed or at an accelerated rate.


This shows that the general theory of relativity is basically correct, because the basic principle of general relativity is that observers who are moving at an accelerated pace observe that the same beam of light has the same velocity.


XXXI, explaining the invariance of the speed of light in the Lorenz transform


1. An explanation of the invariance of the speed of light in the Lorenz transform


There are two Cartesian inertial coordinate systems S system and S' system, and the location of any event [we call it the investigation point P] and time, and the space-time coordinates in the S system and S' system are represented by (X, Y, Z, T), (X', Y', Z', T') respectively.


This article focuses on the simplest case of the Lorenz transform, where the point p is at rest in the s' system.


In the diagram below,


The x-axis and x' coincide with each other, and at t' = t = 0, the origin of the s system o point [the observer in the s system is standing on point o] and the origin of s' o' [the observer in the s system is standing on point o'] points coincide with each other.


Subsequently, the o' point moves in a straight line along the positive x-axis with a uniform velocity v with respect to the o-point.


Suppose that at some point in time, an explosion occurs, and the spatial and temporal coordinates of the explosion at point p are x', y, z', and t', respectively.


That is, the explosion occurred at time t', and the coordinates of the place p on the x' axis are at x' distance from the origin o'. Also, the p-point is stationary with respect to the s' system.


The spatial and temporal coordinates of the explosion event at point P are x, y, z and t, respectively.


That is, the explosion occurred at time t, and its coordinates were at x distance from the origin o on the x-axis. Also, the point p is moving at a rate v relative to the s system.


Let's find the relationship between the temporal and spatial coordinates of an explosion event at point p, and the coordinate values in two inertial reference frames.


In the above figure, you can intuitively see:

x'= xvt 

x = x'+ vt'


According to Galileo's principle of relativity, the measurement of the length of time and space has nothing to do with the speed v of the observer, and the above equation can be true, and t = t'.


However, the theory of relativity holds that the measurement of time and space length is related to the speed v of the observers' mutual motion, and that the length of space shrinks and decreases as the velocity v increases.


In the S system, the equation x' = x–vt needs to be shortened by multiplying a relativistic factor of 1/k for the equation to hold, so there is the equation:

1/ kx' = x - vt


So there are:

x'= k(x - vt)             (1)


In the opinion of the observer in the s' system, the x in the formula x = x' + vt' must be multiplied by a relativistic factor of 1/k to be true, so there is the formula:

1/ kx = x'+ vt'


So there are:

x = k(x'+ vt')           (2)


Since the s-system is a uniform linear motion with respect to the s' system, we should reasonably assume that the relationship between x' and (x–vt), x and (x'+ vt') should be linear, and be satisfied with a simple proportional relationship.


The relativity principle of relativity holds that the laws of physics are the same or equal in all inertial frames of reference, and the form of physical equations in different inertial frames should be the same.


So equations (1) and (2) can be given with the same constant k.


For the value of k, the Lorenz transform is calculated using the invariant speed of light.


Suppose that a beam of light travels in the positive direction of the x-axis from the origin o, o' at the coincident zero moment, and the speed of light is c.


Let the spatiotemporal coordinates of the wavefront [or photon, space point] p point of the beam be (x,y,z,t) in the s system and (x',y',z',t' in the s' system).


We take the event that the wavefront [or photon, space point] p point of the beam reaches its position later as the object of our investigation.


If the speed of light c is the same in the s and s' systems, there is

x = ct                (3)

x= ct'             (4)


By combining equations (1), (2), (3), and (4), you can derive:

ct'= k(x - vt)

ct = k(x'+ vt')  


Multiplying the above two equations can be derived:

c²t t'= k² (x vt) (x'+ vt') 

=  k² (xx+ xvt - vtx'- v²tt') 


= k² (xx'+ ctvt' – vtct'- v²tt')

=  k² (c²tt - v²tt') 


Export again:

c²=  k² (c² - v²

k = 1/√(1- v²/c²)  


Bringing the above equation into equations (1) and (2), we can get:

x'= (xvt) /√(1- v²/c²)       (5)

x =(x'+ vt') /√(1- v²/c²)       (6)


From Eq. (5) and Eq. (6), subtract x' to obtain:


t'=(t-v x/c²)/√(1-v²/c²) (7)


From Eq. (5) and Eq. (6), subtract x to obtain:

t=(t'+ vx'/c²)/√(1- v²/c²) (8)


Style:


x'= (x–vt) /√(1- v²/c²) (9)

y'= y  (10)

z' = z  (11)


t'=(t–vx/c²)/√(1- v²/c²) (12)


This is the Lorenz positive transformation.


Style:

x = (x'+ vt') /√(1- v²/c²)

y = y

z = z 

t=(t'+ vx'/c²)1/√(1- v²/c²) 


It's the inverse Lorenz transform.


Note that y and z are invariant in the Lorenz transform.


Let's use the physical definition of time to explain that the speed of light in equations (3) and (4) is constant.


As per the previous physical definition of time.


The observation in the S' system suggests that there will be a spatial point p [or wavefront, photon] that leaves the o' point [or o point, because the o and o' points coincide with each other at zero time], and moves in a straight line along the x' axis [or the x axis, because the x axis and the x' axis coincide with each other] at the speed of light c, and after a period of time t', it travels such a distance as x' to the position where it is later at p point. So there is x'/t' = c.


The observations in the S system suggest that there will be a spatial point P that leaves point O at time zero [or point O', because point O and Point O' coincide with each other at time zero], moves in a straight line along the x-axis [or X'-axis, because the x-axis and X'-axis coincide with each other], and after a period of time t, travels so far as X to the position where point P is located later.


The above physical definition of time tells us that time is proportional to the distance traveled by a spatial point p in the space around the observer.


Therefore, the time t in the S system is greater than the time t in the S system, which is equal to the distance x traveled by the space point in the S system than the distance x traveled by the space point in the S system, that is:

t/t’ = x/ x’


Take the above equation as a transformation,

x/ t = x'/t'


Since x/t and x'/t' are both displacement ratio time, the dimension is velocity, and x'/t'= c, so


x/t = x'/t' = rate = c


So, the above shows that there must be a special rate [which we denote by c] that is closely related to time, and the value of c is equal to the two observers moving against each other.


As long as the above physical definition of time is correct, it must be able to prove that the speed of light c in equations (3) and (4) is equal.


Next, we use the idea of unified field theory to interpret the above Lorenz transformation.


(1), the Lorenz transform inherits the Galilean transform, in which the S system sees the S' system moving with velocity v, and the S' system sees the S system moving with velocity-v.


The temporal and spatial position of the same thing is considered invariant in the Galilean transform in the two inertial frames, which is negated by the Lorenz transform.


The Lorenz transform inherits part of the idea of Galileo's transformation, negating a part, not a complete negation.


(2) The unified field theory believes that all forms of motion and physical phenomena are described by our observers, and it is meaningless to talk about physical phenomena and states of motion without us observers.


We always default to the S' frame and the S frame, where there must be an inertial frame of reference that is the frame of reference in which the observer and I are located.


(3), S' system and S system only I see you as sporty, you see me as sporty, equal, not absolutely equal.


We always default to the S' system and the S system, where only one of them is the frame of reference where I am located, the frame of reference where I am located is superior, all physical quantities and concepts are described by me, and only relative to me has a definite physical meaning, and I have only one.


(4) The unified field theory believes that there are four basic conditions to describe motion, one is space and the other is time, including the beginning, process and end moment of time.


One is the observer, and the other is the object being described, i.e., the object or the event formed by the change in the motion of the object.


4 conditions, missing one, it makes no sense to describe the movement.


In special cases, the object being described and the observer can be the same thing, that is, to describe the movement of our observer himself, but this description is only meaningful in special cases, and it is also meaningless in general cases.


In the unified field theory, space is in motion, and to describe the motion of space, it must be the space around the object, and it is meaningless to describe the motion of space alone without an object, or without specifying which object.


So, in the Lorenz transform, we must:


It is necessary to identify the observer, determine the object to be described [composed of an event formed by an object or the movement of an object], determine the beginning and end moments of the event and the time elapsed, and determine the spatial location where the event occurs, otherwise it may cause confusion.


(5) Although it is not possible to say which one of the S' and S systems is in absolute motion, absolute motion is meaningless. However, relative motion [i.e., motion relative to a definite observer] is meaningful.


It is customary for us to call the system where the object being described P point [the object or the event formed by the change of the motion of the object] is called the S' system, also known as the dynamic system, and the S system is called the static system.


It has been suggested that it is necessary to introduce a third system, the reference frame where the earth's surface is commonly located, to compare the s system with the s' in order to determine who is static and who is dynamic.


If you introduce me [I am the only one] into the frame of reference, you don't need a third system to compare, and you can distinguish between static and dynamic systems.


(6), when I, the observer, are standing in the s system by default [i.e., I am moving relative to the point p of the object being observed], the Lorenz positive transform will be used;


When I am standing in the s' system by default [i.e., I am stationary relative to the observed object p], the inverse Lorenz transform will be used.


2. Explain why the speed of light does not change in a frame of reference


We have one more question: why is the speed of light also constant in a frame of reference?


This can be understood in such a way that time is exactly equivalent to the motion of the space around the observer, i.e.:


Space for movement = time.


In order to physically make the dimension of "space = time in motion" not chaotic, we need to multiply a constant in front of time that does not change with time and motion space - the speed of light,


Space moving = speed of light multiplied by time.


From a mathematical point of view, a variable takes its derivative of itself, and the result is 1 or constant.


3. Explanation of the constant speed of light when the direction of motion of a point in space is perpendicular to the velocity v


Some people may think that light can run in any direction, but isn't space also running in any direction? There is a reference to describe any motion, and to whom is the motion of space to be referenced?


In the unified field theory, the space around an object is indeed centered on the object and moving towards the surroundings.


The motion of space refers to the object, and the motion of space refers to how the space around an object moves.


In the special case, there is no object, and the motion of the space we describe is relative to our human body.


In the absence of any object, it makes no sense to simply describe the motion of space.


Next, let's consider the explanation of the constant speed of light when the direction of motion of the space point is perpendicular to the velocity v of the observed object.


In the figure below, the x-axis and x' coincide with each other, and at t' = t = 0, the origin of the 2D Cartesian coordinate system S system O point [the observer in the S system is standing on point O] and the origin point of the 2D Cartesian coordinate system S' [The observer in the S system is standing on point O'] points coincide with each other.


Subsequently, the o' point moves in a straight line along the positive x-axis with a uniform velocity V [scalar v] relative to the o point.


Suppose there is a particle o' that is always stationary on the origin o' of the two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system s'.


At time zero, the S' observer, defined by the physics of time, discovers that a spatial point P starts from point O', and in time T', travels so far in the direction of y'p at the speed of light c [so there is O'p / t' = C], and goes to the place where point P is located later, which is the point P marked in the diagram.


The fact that point P in space departs to move to point P at time zero seems to an observer of the S department that point P travels so far in time T.


Although the distance of OP is farther than that of O'P, all time t should be longer than time T'.


Because, according to the physical definition of time, time is proportional to the point p in space relative to the distance traveled by the observer. So, there is the formula:

op /o’p = t / t’


Deforming the above equation yields:

op /t = o’p / t’


From o'p/t' = c gets:

op /t = o’p / t’ = c


The above equation explains why the speed of light is constant relative to the values of two observers moving in motion.


Let's find the relationship between t and t' satisfaction to see if it agrees with the theory of relativity. composed

op /t = o’p / t’ = c


op = √(o'p²+v²t²), we get:

t’ = t(1v²/c²)


The differential form can be obtained:

d t /dt’ =1/(1v²/c²)


The theory of relativity holds that when something happens, the observer is stationary relative to the place where the event occurs, that is, the beginning and end moments of the event are in the same place, and the time elapsed to measure this event is inherent time, that is, the above t'.


The theory of relativity has the shortest intrinsic time, and this result is the same as the result of the theory of relativity.


We find the derivative of the inverse Lorenz transform t=(t'+ vx'/c²)/√(1- v²/c²) on both sides of the time t', and get:

dt/dt' =1/√(1- v²/c²)


Note that x' in the equation does not change with time t', because the quantities of x' and t' are observed in the s' system, whereas in s', the position x' at point p is stationary.


We take the derivative of the Lorenz positive transformation t'=(t - vx/c²)1/√(1- v²/c²) on both sides of time t, and get:

dt’/dt =1/√(1- v²/c²)- v²/c²)/√(1- v²/c²)

= (1- v²/c²)/√(1- v²/c²) =√(1- v²/c²)


So, there are:

d t /dt’ =1/(1v²/c²)


Note that x in the equation is the position of point p in the s system, which varies with time t, so there are dx/dt = v and d(vx/c²)/dt = v²/c², because the quantities of x and t are observed in the s system, and in s, the position x of point p is moving with velocity v.


This result is the same as above.


We have one more question:


Is the distance traveled by the spatial point p on the y-axis equal to that in the s system and in the s' system?


All this is proved by the special theory of relativity with a hypothetical experiment of a train drilling into a cave:


Suppose there is a cave, a train is parked outside, the height of the carriage is equal to the height of the top of the cave, and now the train is driven into the cave at a constant speed, does the height of the moving train change?


Suppose that the height of the train decreases due to its motion, so that the observer standing on the ground thinks that the height of the train decreases due to its motion, and the height of the cave does not change due to its motion, and the train must have entered the cave smoothly.


However, the observer inside the train believes that the train is stationary, so the height of the train is constant, the cave is moving, the height of the cave will be reduced, and the train will not be able to pass through the cave, and this is a contradiction.


However, whether or not a train can go into a cave is a definite physical fact and should not be related to the observer's choice, and the only reasonable point is:


Uniform linear motion cannot shorten the length of space in the vertical direction of motion, and in the same way, it cannot be elongated, and the result is unchanged.


Maybe people still have a question? There are many points in space around the observer, why is the motion of one point a representation of time?


This should be understood in this way, time reflects a property of space motion, and we observers can express that space has the changing nature of time by describing one of the many spatial points in space, which also shows that time cannot exist independently of the observer.


4. The relationship between the velocity V of the light source and the vector speed of light C


We introduced the vector speed of light concept earlier, but we didn't discuss it in depth.


Whether the speed of light can be regarded as a vector is not discussed in depth in the theory of relativity, according to the theory of relativity, the speed of light has nothing to do with the speed of movement of the light source, has nothing to do with the choice of the observer, has nothing to do with time, has nothing to do with the position in space, and is purely a constant.


Therefore, relativity tends to think that the speed of light cannot be regarded as a vector, in other words, it makes no sense to discuss the vector nature of the speed of light in relativity.


The speed of light is a constant that first comes from Maxwell's wave equation of electromagnetic waves, in which the speed of light appears as a constant.


Unified field theory proposes a different view, arguing that the speed of light can behave as a vector in some cases, and its direction is a function of the speed of the light source.


In order to distinguish between them, the vector speed of light is called the speed of light, which is represented by a capital C, and the magnitude of C [i.e., modulo c] does not change, but the direction can change.


The speed of light is called the rate of light, also known as the scalar speed of light, which is represented by the lowercase letter c, and c is unchanged.


The magnitude of the vector speed of light C, Cx, Cy, Cz, on the axes of Cartesian coordinates x, y, and z can vary, and since the scalar speed of light does not change, the sum of the squares of the three components is always the square of the speed of light.


In unified field theory, the relationship between the velocity V of the light source and the vector speed of light C is very important, and we will explore this relationship below.


Let's start with a special case.


We make the angle between the vector speed of light C and the speed of motion of the light source V θ = (π/2)-β.


Let's first roughly determine the scalar v of V and the range of values of β.


From the theory of relativity, we know that from the constant speed of light, it can be deduced that V can cause a change in the speed of light perpendicular to V, but it cannot cause a change in the speed of light in the parallel direction of V.


In the unified field theory, the change of C is only the change of direction, and the quantity does not change.


As V increases, the direction of C gradually deviates from its original position. When the angle of deviation is slightly greater than 0 β, it corresponds to a v that is slightly greater than 0. The angle of the deviation β = 90 degrees, corresponding to the number of Vs v equal to the speed of light c.


Therefore, the β value should be between 90 degrees and 0 degrees, and the value of the number V v should be between 0 and the speed of light c [including the speed of light].


In the image below:


The origin o of the S-system and the origin O of the S' system of the two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system coincide at time 0, and the x-axis and x'-axis also coincide.


Later, they move in a straight line along the positive direction of the x-axis with a uniform velocity V [scalar v].


A particle O has been stationary at the origin of the S' system, O, and now, the S system and the observer of the S' system work together to investigate a spatial point P.


Point P is at time zero, and from point O, it moves at the speed of light along the y' axis.


If we think of light as a photon, where particle o is the light source, point p is a photon, and if we think of light as a wave, the point p here is the wavefront.


In unified field theory, light is regarded as the movement of excited electrons with space, even if there are no excited electrons, or there are no photons, the particle o does not emit light, it is not a light source, it is just an ordinary object, but the surrounding space still moves outward at the vector speed of light C.


In the latter case, point P can be seen as a point of space, i.e., point P is represented as a small piece of space around point O.


The observer of the s' system thinks that point p departs from this point o at time zero, passes through time t', and travels to the position where point p is located later, and travels so far as op = C't' at the vector speed of light C'.


Observers of the s system believe that point p starts at time zero and travels as far as op = ct at the vector speed of light C [quantity c] in time t.


As you can see in the diagram above:

| Vt| /| C t| = sinβ = v/c


Eliminate t, you get:

| V| /| C | = sinβ = v/c


Since the angle between C and V is θ = (π/2)-β, there are:

cosθ=| V| /| C | = v/c


From the above equation, sinθ =√(1- v²/ c²) can be derived, which is actually the reason for the relativistic factor.


Based on the above analysis, the following observations can be drawn:


In the initial state that V and the vector speed of light C are perpendicular to each other when the quantity v of V is close to zero, when the number of V v gradually increases, C will gradually deviate from its original position, and when v approaches the quantity c of the speed of light C, C will deviate by 90 degrees.


The velocity of the light source V can cause the direction of the vector speed of light C to be deflected in the vertical direction of V, which can also be explained by the inverse theorem of the perpendicular principle above.


The principle of perpendicularity tells us that the perpendicular state of space at an angle of 90 degrees can lead to motion.


The inverse theorem is that motion can cause the vertical state of space to tilt, and when the speed of motion reaches the speed of light, the vertical state completely disappears [lying flat].


The above formula sinβ = v/c or cosθ = v/c can be seen as a quantitative analysis of the perpendicular principle.


The essence of the perpendicular principle is that the angle and speed of motion in space are equivalent and complementary.


The above is only an analysis of the relationship between the vector speed of light C and the speed of light source V [scalar v] in special cases.


To reveal the universal relationship between them, the vector speed of light C needs to be transformed between the inertial frame s' and the s frame.


In s', the three components of the vector speed of light C' are: Cx', Cy', Cz',


In s, the three components of the vector speed of light C are: Cx, Cy, Cz,


Using the relativistic velocity positive transformation [we have proved above that the Lorenz transform is correct, and the relativistic velocity transformation is obtained by finding the time derivative of the Lorenz transform, so the relativistic velocity transformation can be used] we can derive the relationship between the three components of C' and the three components of C as follows:

Cx’ = (Cx – v)/[1- (Cx v/c²)]

Cy’ = [Cy√(1-v²/c²)]/ [1- (Cx v/c²)]

Cz’ = [Cz√(1-v²/c²)]/ [1- (Cx v/c²)]


From the above you can derive:

(Cx’)²+(Cy’)²+(Cz’)²

= [(Cx – v)²+ Cy²(1-v²/c²) + Cz²(1-v²/c²) ]/[1- (Cx v/c²)]²

= c²c²[Cx²+ Cy²+ Cz²-2 Cx v+ v²-(c²-Cx²)v²/c²]/(c²-Cx v)²

= c²c²[c²-2 Cx v+ v²-(c²-Cx²)v²/c²]/(c²-Cx v)²

= c²[c²c²-2 c²Cx v+ Cx²v²]/(c²-Cx v)²

= c²


From this the vector speeds of light C and C' are derived, satisfying the following relationship:


C’· C’ = C·C = c²


C and C' are not in the same direction, however, the quantity is the same.


The relationship between C and V is not fully understood, and this question is still to be explored.


5. Derive the spatiotemporal interval invariance of the theory of relativity


Now suppose that there are two observers in the s-system [spatio-temporal coordinates are (x, y, z, t)] and the s' system [spatio-temporal coordinates are (x, y, z, t')], and the s-system is moving in the positive direction of the x-axis with velocity V relative to the s' system.


Suppose that at the moment t = t' = 0, the origin of the S system and the S' system O point and the o' point coincide. A spatial point p starts at time 0, departs from point o and o', and after a period of time reaches the current position of point p.


Multiply R(t) = Ct = x i+ y j + z k by its own point, and the result is:

r²= c²t² = x²+ y²+ z²


r is the number of vector R. r reflects the distance that the observer in the s system measures the spatial point p to move relative to the origin.


The above equation also appears in the theory of relativity, which is considered to be a four-dimensional space-time distance.


In the same way, it can be derived that in the S' system, the observer measures the distance traveled by point P relative to point O':

r’² = c²t’²= x’²+ y’² + z’²


From r² = c²t²= x²+ y²+ z² it is possible to export:

c²t² -x²+ y² + z²) = 0


From r'² = c²t'² = x'² + y'² + z'² can be exported:


c²t'²-(x'²+ y'² + z'²) = 0


From the above equations, it can be concluded that the space-time interval is invariant in two inertial frames moving in a relatively uniform linear motion.


The unified field theory believes that the invariance of space-time intervals is essentially the homogenization of space-time, and time is formed by the space moving at the speed of light.


6. Correctly explain the twin son Yang Miao


According to the special theory of relativity, the moving clock moves slowly.


So some people imagine that when twins A and B were born, A would travel to distant space in a high-speed spacecraft, while twin B would stay on Earth and return to Earth after a few years.


According to B on the earth, A is in motion, and A's life process is slow, so A is younger than B;


According to A on the spaceship, B is athletic, so B is younger.


Returning to the comparison of encounters, the result should be unique, and it seems that special relativity has encountered insurmountable difficulties.


The explanation of the paradox of the twin sons is confusing for both those who support and oppose the theory of relativity.


According to the Unified Field Theory, describing and calculating a motion process requires the identification of the observer, the time and place of the beginning, and the moment and place of the end.


Without knowing the observer, the moment and place of the beginning and end, there is no point in discussing the outcome of the movement.


In the twin problem, A and B begin to break up, and in the end, the place where A and B meet is on Earth, so Earth can be used as a reference point.


Since A is in motion with respect to the earth, A is younger than B. B is stationary with respect to the earth, and B's time is an inherent time.


What if A and B were born in space, hugged each other, and later, the two broke up, without the earth as a reference point? How can we tell?


At this time, it is necessary to determine which of the two people began to accelerate and leave the other.


This actually involves a fundamental question about motion - there is a reason for the change in the state of motion of an object [i.e., acceleration], and the object does not change the speed of motion for no reason [including acceleration from a state of rest with zero velocity to a certain velocity]. That is, the two people A and B, who were originally hugging each other, will not be separated for no reason.


Suppose that at a certain moment, A starts to accelerate and leaves B, A turns around and comes back, and when the two meet, A is young.


If in space, A and B hug each other, and later kick each other, both of them leave each other with the same force, exactly the same kicking method, and meet after a circle in the universe, who is younger?


In this case, A and B should be the same young.


XXII. A general definition of the four major fields in the universe


In mathematics the midfield is defined as:


If each point in space (or a part of space) corresponds to a definite quantity, then such space is called a field.


When the quantity corresponding to each point in space is a quantity, the space is called a quantity field, and when the quantity corresponding to each point in space is a vector quantity, such a space is called a vector field.


From the definition of a field in mathematics, it can be seen that a field is represented by a point function in space, and conversely, if a function of a point in space is given, a field is given.


In the previous section, we have done a lot of analysis, and related the gravitational field (referred to as the gravitational field), the electric field, the magnetic field, and the nuclear force field with the motion of space itself, and determined that the four major fields [gravitational field, electric field, magnetic field, and nuclear force field] together are the space moving in a cylindrical spiral.


In the unified field theory, it is considered that the weak force field is not a fundamental field, but a combination of electric, magnetic, and nuclear fields. The electric field and the magnetic field are not the same field, because the electric field and the magnetic field are sometimes in different directions, cannot be superimposed on each other, and cannot directly act on the force.


The same seed fields can be superimposed or subtracted from each other, and interaction forces can also occur.


Therefore, we give a unified definition of the four major fields of physics here, and then we give the precise definitions of gravitational field, nuclear field, electric field, and magnetic field respectively.


The unified definition of the 4 major fields of physics is:


Relative to our observers, any space point p in the space Ψ around the particle o, the displacement vector [referred to as the position vector] R from the point o to the point p, changes with the spatial position (x, y, z) or with time t, such a space Ψ is called a physical field, which can also be called a physical force field.


Mathematically speaking, a field is the derivative of the spatial displacement vector around an object to the position in space or the derivative of time, which is actually the degree of motion of space relative to our observer.


In practice, we use the degree of motion in the motion space around the particles of an object to define the four physical fields.


This is also in line with the basic principle of unified field theory we mentioned earlier - all physical phenomena are formed by the motion of a particle in space (or the space around the particle itself) relative to our observer.


To put it simply, the field is the space in motion, the space itself is in motion, and all the effects of the field are the motion effects of the space.


The effect of the field on the object, the force exerted on the object, and the motion of the object, are all achieved by changing the spatial position of the object [or will change, with a tendency to change].


From the above definition, we can know that the four major fields of physics are all vector fields, and different fields are just different degrees and forms of motion that our observers observe the cylindrical spiral motion space from different angles and different ways.


Note that the field is a property of the space around the particle relative to the motion of our observer, and none of the four basic conditions of space, particle, observer, and motion can be missing [under special circumstances, the particle and the observer can be the same thing], otherwise, the field will lose its meaning.


We also need to recognize that there are three forms of field.


We describe the motion of an object in space relative to our observer, measure the displacement of the object in space, and then take the derivative of time, that is, compare it with time, and get the velocity, which indicates the degree of motion of the object in space, and the acceleration indicates the degree of change in the speed of motion.


Since the essence of the field is the amount of displacement in the moving space around the object [relative to us observers], the derivative of the spatial position or time.


To describe the field, we first point out the amount of displacement in the space around the object. In the second step, we look for a motion that can be used as a reference like time to compare with the amount of spatial displacement.


Of course, we can say that the field is:


What is the amount of spatial displacement in a certain place in the space around the object in a certain time interval,


However, there are many cases where we can say that the field is:


What is the amount of displacement of space in a certain stationary three-dimensional range,


What is the amount of displacement of space in the three-dimensional range of a certain motion,


What is the amount of displacement of space on a stationary surface,


What is the amount of displacement in space on a moving surface,


What is the amount of displacement of space on a curve at rest.


What is the amount of displacement of space on a curve of a certain motion.


What is the amount of spatial displacement in a certain space range in a certain time interval.


In this way, the field has three forms:


The distribution of the field on a three-dimensional surface.


The distribution of the field on a two-dimensional surface.


The distribution of fields on a one-dimensional curve.


With the help of Gauss's theorem in field theory, we can use divergence to describe the relationship between the distribution of the field on the solid and the distribution on the surface.


With the help of Stokes' theorem in field theory, the relationship between the distribution of the field on the surface and the distribution of the field on the curve can be described in curl.


With the help of the gradient theorem of field theory, the distribution of physical quantities on a certain curve in a scalar field [or quantity field] can be described.


The essence of the field is space with cylindrical spiral motion, cylindrical spiral motion is the synthesis of rotational motion and linear motion in the vertical direction of the plane of rotation, while divergence describes the linear moving part of space, and curl describes the rotational moving part of space.


XXIII. Defining equations for gravitational field and mass


In the unified field theory, the mass m of the object at point o represents the number of spatial displacements R moving at the speed of light in a cylindrical spiral divergence at the speed of light in a 4π solid angle around point o.


The gravitational field A generated around point o represents the number of spatial displacements that diverge at the speed of light across the Gaussian sphere s s that surround point o.


1. Definition equation of gravitational field:


Suppose that there is a particle o that is stationary relative to our observer, and any space point p in the surrounding space, starting from point o at the vector speed of light C at time zero, moves in a cylindrical spiral in a certain direction, goes through time t, and reaches the position after p at time t'.


Let's let the point o be at the origin of the Cartesian coordinate system xyz, and the sagittal diameter R from the point o to the point p is given by the previous space-time homogenization equation R = C t = x i + y j + zk:


R is a function of the spatial positions x, y, z and time t, which varies with the change of x, y, z, t, and is denoted as:

R = R(x,y,z,t)


Note that the trajectory of point p in space is cylindrical spiral, and we can also think of it as one end of the sagittal diameter R o does not move, and the other end p moves so that R crosses a cylindrical spiral trajectory in space.


We take the scalar length r of R in R = Ct as the radius, and make the Gaussian sphere s = 4πr² [in general, the Gaussian sphere can not be a regular sphere, but the sphere is continuous and cannot have holes] to surround the particle o.


We divide the Gaussian sphere s = 4πr² into many small pieces uniformly, and we choose a small vector plane element ΔS where the p point is located [the direction of ΔS is represented by N, and its number is the surface Δs], and we find that there is Δn on Δs, which is similar to the displacement vector R of the space point of p, which passes perpendicularly.


Note: The radius of the Gaussian sphere s can also not be equal to the scalar length of R, we set it to be equal, and the advantage is that the investigation point p happens to fall on the Gaussian sphere s.


Thus, the gravitational field A [quantity a] produced by point o at point p in space is as follows:


a = constant multiplied by Δn/Δs


The definition of the gravitational field given in the above equation is simple and straightforward, but it is too rough to express the vector properties of the gravitational field, nor does it bring into the equation the spatial displacement R moving at the vector speed of light.


In order to achieve this, we mainly look at the situation around point P.


The vector displacement R = C t perpendicular to ΔS at point p, and in general, the vector displacement R = C t can not pass perpendicular through ΔS, but can have an angle θ with the normal direction N of the vector plane member ΔS.


At point o at rest relative to our observer, the motion of the space around point o is uniform, no direction is special, and the Gaussian sphere we use is a perfect sphere, and under these conditions, the vector R = C t is perpendicular through the vector plane element ΔS.


In this way, the gravitational field A [vector form] produced by point o at the point p of the surrounding space can be written as:

A = - g kΔn(R/r)/Δs


where g is the gravitational constant and k is the proportionality constant. Note that the gravitational field A and the vector R pointing from point o to point p in space are in opposite directions.


Suppose there are n spatial displacement vectors similar to R around point o, centered on point o, in a radial distribution, but the direction of any two of them is different.


And the physical meaning of n multiplied by R = nR means that the direction of n spatial displacements is the same, superimposed.


Therefore, when the above R is a vector, only if Δn=1 has physical significance. However, we need to note that n multiplied by r [r is the number of R], when n is an integer greater than 1 still has physical significance.


So there is a formula:

A = - g kΔn(R/r)/Δs = - g k(R/r)/Δs 


Why is the unit of R used as the vector R/r instead of the vector R?


Because we can only examine the direction and number of vector R on the Gaussian sphere, but not the length of vector R, the formula Δn R/Δs actually has no physical significance.


If R does not pass completely perpendicular to the vector plane ΔS [the quantity is Δs], and the normal direction N of the vector plane has an angle θ, the above equation can also be expressed by the vector point multiplication formula when the displacement R of the space point is set to 1.

A·ΔS = - a Δs cosθ = - g kΔn


In the above equation, a is the quantity of the gravitational field A.


The gravitational field A is determined by two quantities, magnitude and direction cosine.


Magnitude refers to the density (1/Δs) of the spatial displacement R of the speed of light moving on the Gaussian sphere s.


1/Δs or Δn/Δs represents a function with two independent variables, which varies with Δn and Δs.


The directional cosine is the cosine of θ between the normal direction N and R of ΔS, that is, cosθ.


The directional cosine cosθ is a function with only one independent variable, which varies with θ.


The physical meaning of the equations a = constant multiplied by Δn/s and A = - g kΔn(R/r)/Δs tells us:


On a small vector plane ΔS of the Gaussian sphere s=4πr², the density of the perpendicular space vector displacement R [R = C t] reflects the strength of the gravitational field there.


We denote Δs in the equation A = - g k Δn(R/r)/Δs by the solid angle Ω and the radius r of the Gaussian sphere, i.e., Δs = Ωr².


A = - g k Δn(R/r)/ Ωr² = - g k ΔnR/Ω r³


In the figure above, we represent a small piece of vector plane Δs in a Gaussian sphere as ds. Rule:

ds = r dθ r sinθ dφ = r² dθ sinθ dφ = r²dΩ


2. The definition equation of mass


What is the essence of quality? What is the relationship between mass and gravitational field?


Since the concept of mass originates from Newtonian mechanics, we compare the above definition equation A = g k ΔnR/Ω r³ of the geometric form of the gravitational field of unified field theory with the gravitational field equation of Newtonian mechanics A = - g m R/r³, and we can conclude that the equation for defining the mass of the object at point o should be:

m = kΔn/Ω


The differential formula is:

m = k dn /dΩ


The above equation k is a constant. Since space can be divided infinitely, the above differential of n, i.e., dn, makes sense.


Wrapping the integral to the right of the above equation, and the integration region is between 0 and 4π, then:

m = k∮dn / ∮dΩ =k n /4π


The physical meaning of the above equation is:


The mass m of the point o represents that there are n spatial displacement vectors distributed in the surrounding solid angle 4π R = C t.


The above m = k dn /dΩ is the differential definition equation for the geometric form of mass.


In many cases, we set n to 1 to get a simplified definition of mass:

m = k /Ω


Once we know the nature of mass, we can explain the gravitational field equation A = - g m R/r³ in Newtonian mechanics.


According to Newtonian mechanics, we take the earth [represented by point o, we observers stand on the earth] as an example, a satellite above the earth [represented by point p], and the position vector [intermediate symmetrical vector] from point o to point p is represented by R [quantity r].


Then the gravitational field A = - g m R/r³ generated at point o at point p indicates that on a Gaussian sphere s = 4πr² with radius r, a small vector plane ΔS is split, and a vector R is crossed on ΔS, and R and A are in opposite directions.


The reciprocal of the number of ΔS reflects the magnitude of the gravitational field, and the opposite direction of ΔS is the direction of the gravitational field.


It is important to note that the gravitational field equation of the unified field theory reflects a certain moment in time, or a certain moment in time.


For the stationary gravitational field A = - g k Δn R/Ω r³ of the unified field theory, in the case where Δn and Ω are constants [i.e. the mass is constant], only R/r³ is a variable, and the result is zero:

▽×A = 0


For the divergence of the resting gravitational field A = - g k Δn R/Ω r³, in the case where (m = kΔn/Ω) is a constant, only R/ r³ is a variable, the result is also zero:


▽· A = 0


However, in the case that r is close to zero [it can also be said that the space point p is infinitely close to the o point], and the o point can be regarded as an infinitesimal sphere, the equation appears 0/0, and the Dirac δ function can be obtained:


▽· A =4π g u


g is the gravitational constant, u = m/ΔxΔyΔz is the density of the object o point.


The curl and divergence of the gravitational field definition equation given by the unified field theory are consistent with the divergence and curl of the gravitational field given by Newtonian mechanics.


4. The relativistic mass-velocity relation is derived from the mass-defining equation


The theory of relativity uses the equations of conservation of momentum and relativistic velocity transformation, and the relativistic mass-velocity relation can be derived, in which the mass increases with the increase of the velocity of the object.


The theory of relativity also uses the mass-velocity relationship to derive the relativistic mass-energy equation, so the mass-velocity relationship is very important.


Below we use the definition equation of mass to derive the mass-velocity relationship directly.


Suppose a mass O of mass m' that is always stationary at the coordinate origin O of the S' system.


The s system moves in the positive direction of the x-axis with a uniform velocity V [scalar is v] relative to the s' system, and the x-axis of the s system and the x' axis of the s' system coincide with each other.


In the opinion of the observer in the s system, the mass of point o is m, and we use the above mass geometry definition equation m∮dΩ = k ∮dn to find the mathematical relationship between V and m, m'.


When the o point moves, we should reasonably assume that it will not cause a change in the number n of the space point vector displacement R, but it may cause a change in the Ω of the solid angle. Therefore, we only need to find the satisfying relationship between the velocity V and the Ω, that is, the relativistic transformation of the Ω, and we can find the relationship between m' and m.


The definition of solid angle Ω is:


On the spherical surface s with o point as the center of the sphere and radius r = 1, a small piece of Δs is divided, with Δs as the base and o point as the vertex to form a cone h, then Δs is equal to the solid angle of the cone h.


The magnitude of the solid angle Ω of the cone h is the ratio of the base area Δs of the vertebrae to the radius r squared of the sphere, and when Δs is infinitely small, it becomes ds, and there are:

dΩ = ds/r²


When r = 1, the above equation becomes dΩ = ds.


The above is to use the base area of the vertebral body to define the solid angle, and now we will generalize the above definition of the solid angle, and use the volume of the vertebral body to define the solid angle.


On a sphere s with o point as the center of the sphere and radius r = 1, a small piece of Δs is divided, with Δs as the base and o point as the vertex to form a cone h, then the volume of the cone h is divided


Δv is equal to the solid angle of the cone h.


The size of the solid angle Ω of the cone h is the ratio of the volume of the cone, Δv, to the radius r cube of the sphere, when Δv is infinitely small, it becomes dv, there are:

dΩ = dv/r³


When r = 1, the above equation becomes dΩ = dv.


With the above preparatory knowledge, let's consider the above o points in the s' system, the quality at rest

m = k∮dn/∮dΩ


If we take a unit sphere volume of radius 1 and divide a cone with a vertex at the center of the sphere o and a volume of dv', instead of dΩ' in the above equation, then:

m = k∮dn/∮dv


Correspondingly, in the s system, when the point o moves in a straight line at a constant velocity V [scalar is v], the mass

m = k∮dn/∮dv


Note that n is the same in the s' system and in the s system, that is, the velocity V of point o cannot change the number of displacements n of the geometric point.


We can find the relationship between m and m' by simply finding the relationship between dv'= dxdydz' and dv = dx dydz.


According to the simplest version of the Lorenz positive transformation in the theory of relativity [because we default to the observer I am in the s system, and the particle o is in motion relative to me]:

x’ = (x - vt )/√(1- v²/c²)

y = y

z = z


In the simplest version of the Lorenz transform, since the position x' of the investigation point o in the s' system is stationary, it moves with velocity V in the s system.


It only makes sense to compare x and x' to time t in the s system at a fixed moment, so dt/dx=0 gives the differentiation:

dx = dx/√(1- v²/c²)

dy = dy

dz = dz


This leads to this:


m' = k∮dn/∮dv' = k ∮dn/∮dxdydz'

m = k ∮dn/∮dv = k∮dn/∮dx dy dz


由∮dxdydz' = ∮dy dz dx/√(1- v²/c²)


You can export:

m= m√(1- v²/c²)


When point o moves at velocity V, the mass increases by a relativistic factor √ (1- v²/c²), which is consistent with the theory of relativity.


5. Lorenz transform of the gravitational field


With the defining equation of gravitational field and mass, the mass-velocity equation, and the Lorenz transform of relativistic theory, it is possible to derive the transformation of the gravitational field between two reference frames s' and s systems that move in a straight line at uniform speed with each other.


Suppose that the inertial frame of reference s, with respect to the s' frame, moves in a uniform linear motion along the x-axis with velocity V [scalar v]. In the s' system, a stationary, very thin rectangular panel with mass creates a gravitational field A on top of the sheet.


Let's make the sheet perpendicular to the x-axis,


To an observer in the s system, then, the component Ax of the gravitational field A along the x-axis does not seem to change.


Because the previous gravitational field definition equation tells us that the gravitational field strength is proportional to the number of spatial displacements across the surface, i.e., to the density. The area of the sheet does not change, the number of strips does not change, and the density does not change.


However, the mass of the sheet increases by a relativistic factor √ (1- v²/c²).


The increase of mass, from a geometric point of view, should be the corresponding change between the direction of the spatial displacement vector and the solid angle of the investigation, so:

Ax = Ax/√(1- v²/c²)


Ax' is the component of the gravitational field A along the x' axis in the s' system.


When we put the sheet parallel to the x-axis,


The sheet should shrink by a relativistic factor, and increase the mass by a relativistic factor. Note that the projections of the skewed gravitational field lines on the x-axis cancel each other out with zero positive and negative components. So, we get:

Ay = Ay/(1- v²/c²)

Az = Az/(1- v²/c²)


Ay' and Az' are the two components of the gravitational field A in the s' system on the y' and z' axes.


Defining the equation from the previous gravitational field, we get:

Ax = -g mx’/r³

Ay = -g my’/r³

Az = -g mz’/r³


From this:

Ax = -(g mx/r³)/√(1- v²/c²)


Ay = -(g m'y'/r'³)/(1- v²/c²)

Az = -(g mz/r³)/(1- v²/c²)


The result:


Ax = - g mγ( x- vt)/{√[γ²(x-vt)²+y²+z²]}³


Ay = - g mγy /{√[γ²(x-vt)²+y²+z²]}³


Az = - g mγz /{√[γ²(x-vt)²+y²+z²]}³


The result:

A= - g mγ[( x- vt)i+ yj+zk]/{√[γ²(x-vt²+y²+z²]}³


Let θ be the angle between the sagittal diameter R [scalar r = √[γ²(x-vt)²+y²+z²] and the velocity V [scalar v], and A can be expressed as a polar form:


A = - g m /γ²r² [√(1- β ²sin²θ)] ³【r】


where g is the gravitational constant, γ = 1/√(1- v²/c²), β = v/c, and [r] is the unit vector of the vector diameter R (scalar is r).


This result is the same as the relativistic transformation of the electric field, which shows that Gauss's theorem applies to both the gravitational field at rest and the gravitational field moving in a straight line at uniform velocity.


In the S' department there is,


▽· A=∂Ax'/∂x' +∂Ay' ∂y'+∂Az' /∂z' = g m'/dv'


In the S department there are:


▽· A=∂Ax/∂x +∂Ay /∂y+∂Az /∂z = g m/dv


where g is the gravitational constant, dv' in s' system = dxdydz' with mass m', and dv in s system = dxdydz with mass m.


From the above gravitational field transformation, it can be proved that these two Gaussian formulas can be established, and Gauss's theorem is not only applicable to the stationary gravitational field of stationary objects, but also to the gravitational field of moving objects.


Note that γdx = dx' is derived from the Lorenz positive transform x' = γ (x-vt).


XXIV. Unified Field Theory Momentum Formula


1. Unified field theory formula for momentum at rest


The basic assumptions of the unified field theory are:


At any point in the universe, when the object is at rest relative to our observer, the surrounding space is always centered on the object, at the speed of vector light, and diverging outward in a cylindrical spiral.


Suppose there is a particle o that is stationary relative to our observer, and any space point p in the surrounding space, starting from point o at time zero, moves in a certain direction with the vector speed of light C', goes through time t', and arrives at point p at time t".


Assuming that there are a total of n vector displacements of space points in the space around particle o, we denote the displacement of one of them by R'= C't'.


Let's take an appropriate solid angle around the o point, Ω it happens to contain a spatial vector displacement R = C't'

L = k R


It can reflect the amount of movement in the space around the local area around the point O. where k is a constant of proportionality, Ω is a solid angle of any size.


Finding the partial derivative of R' to time t' in L = k R'/Ω can reflect the degree of motion of the local area of the point o with time t'.


∂L /∂t' = k (∂R'/∂t')/Ω = kC'/Ω


Note that R'= C't'. Using the preceding defining equation of mass m = k / Ω,


The above equation can be rewritten as a formula for the stationary momentum of the unified field theory:


P static = m 'C'


In the momentum definition equation here, the mass is expressed by m' in order to distinguish the moving mass m that will appear, and C' is to distinguish the motion vector that will occur at the speed of light C.


The momentum at rest at point o reflects the degree of motion of the surrounding space at point o at rest.


We should realize that the stationary momentum of point o is the degree to which the displacement of the motion of the surrounding space point p R' varies with the change of the solid angle Ω and time t', and does not change with the change of the distance between point o and point p.


Therefore, we measure the amount of stationary momentum at point o of an object without considering the distance between point o and an investigation point p in the surrounding space, which is different from the gravitational field. The situation is similar for the momentum of motion when the point o is moving.


2, Kinetic momentum formula


Suppose that the s' system moves in a straight line along the positive x-axis with a uniform velocity V [scalar v] relative to the s system.


The above o point is at rest with respect to the s' observer and has a momentum at rest m'C'.


As we have previously analyzed, when the o point moves with velocity V relative to the observer in the s system, the two parts of the momentum at rest, the mass and the vector speed of light, have to change.


In the S' system, the rest mass of the O point is m', which becomes the moving mass m in the S system.


In the s' system, the vector speed of light of the space point p around point o is C' relative to the observer in the s' system, and in the s system, the speed of light of the space point p around point o is C relative to the observer in the s system.


C and C' are not in the same direction, but the modulus is the same, both are c, that is:


C’· C’= C·C = c²


The detailed proof is in subsection 4 "The relationship between the speed of light source V and the vector speed of light C" in section 22 "Explaining the speed of light in the Lorenz transform".


In the s system, can the kinetic momentum be written as m C?


Obviously, no, because C is the velocity of the spatial point p around the particle o point relative to the observer in the s system, not the velocity of motion relative to the particle o point.


Momentum reflects the motion of the space around the particle o, not the space around the observer.


In the S' system, the observer and the particle O are relatively stationary, and there is no difference between the velocity of the P point relative to the particle O and the velocity relative to the observer.


However, there is a difference in the s system, because in the s system, the particle o point is moving in a straight line along the x-axis with velocity V relative to the observer.


In the s system, C is the velocity of point p relative to the observer in system s, and C is also the superposition of the velocity of point p relative to point o [we denote it by U] and V, that is, C = U+V.


So, in the s system, the velocity of point P relative to point O should be:

U = C - V


So, kinetic momentum can be written as:


P = mU = m(C-V)


Relativistic mechanics and Newtonian mechanics believe that the speed of light motion in the space around an object does not exist, that is, C = 0, therefore, the momentum equation of Newtonian mechanics and relativity is


P = m V


It can also be said that the momentum mV of relativity and Newtonian mechanics is only a change in the unified field theory momentum formula P = m C in m(C-V).


The Unified Field Theory Momentum Formula only expands the Newtonian and relativistic momentum formulas to include the vector light-speed motion of the surrounding space when an object is at rest, and does not completely negate the momentum formulas of relativity and Newtonian mechanics.


3. The momentum of an object when it is in motion and the amount when it is at rest are equal


Multiply the two sides of the kinetic momentum formula P = m(C–V) by their own points, and the result is:


p² = m²(c ²– 2C· V + v²)


p = m√(c ²– 2C· V + v²)


It is reasonable to assume that the amount of momentum m'C' when the object is at rest m'c, and the amount of momentum m (C–V) when moving m√(c ² – 2C· V + v²) should be equal, the difference is only the direction. So, there should be:


m’c = m√(c ²– 2C· V + v²)


Due to the constant speed of light and the maximum limitation of the speed of light, when the speed of the object V is very large, close to the speed of light C, the angle θ between V and C will also tend to zero, if it does not tend to zero, there will be faster than the speed of light. The rigorous proof is as follows:


The s' system moves in a straight line along the x-axis [or the x'-axis, where the x' axis and the x-axis coincide with each other] with a uniform velocity V relative to the s-system.


In the s' system, the vector speed of light of the space point p around the object o is C', Cx' is the component of C' on the x' axis, and θ' is the angle between the C' and x' axes [or Cx', because the Cx' and x' axes are parallel]. So there are:

cosθ= cx/c


cx' is a scalar of Cx' and c is a scalar of C'.


In the S department, there are:

cosθ= cx/c


θ is the angle between C and Cx in the s system. cx is a scalar of Cx, the component of C on the x-axis.


According to the inverse transformation formula of the Lorenz velocity transformation:

cx=(cx+v)/(1+ cx v/c²)


Add the above cosθ = cx/c, cosθ' = cx'/c, you can export:

cosθ= (cosθ+v/c) / [1+(v/c)cosθ]


As can be seen from the above equation, when the quantity v of velocity V is close to the speed of light c, cosθ is close to 1, that is, θ is close to zero.


When the velocity V and the speed of light C are very close, we ignore the difference between the quantity V v and the quantity c of C, and the angle θ between V and C also tends to zero, with the result:


v≈c, C·V≈v² [If we choose C· V≈c², the result will be an imaginary number without meaning], the result is:

m’c = m√(c ²– v²)


Note that in the above equation, although we ignore the difference between c and v, we keep the difference between c² and v².


For example, the difference between 9 and 8 is 1, and the difference between 9² and 8² is 17, so we can only ignore the small value and keep the large value, so that it is reasonable.


Divide the two sides of the above equation by the scalar speed of light c to get:

m’= m√(1–v²/c²)


Isn't this style familiar to everyone? Yes, it is the famous relativistic formula for mass velocity.


It turns out that when the object moves at velocity V, the mass m increases at the cost of reducing the speed of light C in the surrounding moving space, and the total amount of momentum is still conserved.


This is to extend the range of conservation of momentum to different frames of reference, that is, observers who are moving with each other, measure the momentum of the same object, and the total amount is constant.


The philosophical idea is ----- observer can only observe the state of motion, but cannot change it.


We then use the component form of (C–V) to analyze the formula m'c = m√(c ² – 2C· V + v²)。


The three components of (C–V) are (Cx–Vx), (Cy–Vy), (Cz–Vz), and the quantity of (C–V) is u, then:

u = √[(Cx–Vx)²+(Cy–Vy)²+(Cz–Vz)²]


=√(Cx²+Cy²+Cz²+Vx²+Vy²+Vz²- 2C· V)


=√(c²+ v ²- 2C· V)


The situation is the same.


Multiplying m' = m√(1 - v²/c²) by the square of the scalar speed of light gives the relativistic energy equation:


Energy = m'c² = mc²√(1 - v²/c²)


There is a detailed argument later.


XXV. Unified Field Theory Dynamical Equations


1. A general definition of force


Force is the degree to which the motion of an object [or particle] in space relative to the motion of our observer [or the space around the object itself] changes in a certain spatial range [or in a certain time].


Mathematically speaking, force is the derivative of the amount of motion of an object to its position in space and to time.


Forces are divided into inertial forces and interaction forces.


The inertial force is the derivative of the motion of an object with respect to the position of space, which is a solid angle. Therefore, the object being stressed has nothing to do with the object to which the force is applied, and the distance from the observer. The force of inertia is relatively simple.


The interaction force is the derivative of the object's motion with respect to the spatial position, which can be a volume, a surface, or a vector.


Therefore, the object being subjected to force is related to the object to which the force is applied, and the distance from the observer.


There are inertial forces and gravitational forces in Newtonian mechanics.


The inertial force of an object is independent of the distance between the stressed object and the applied object. Whereas, gravitational force belongs to the interaction force and is related to distance.


In electromagnetism, the Lorentz force belongs to the inertial force, while the ampere force belongs to the interaction force.


In this section we will also generalize the inertial forces of Newtonian mechanics to electromagnetic and nuclear forces.


2. Write the four inertial forces of the universe in one equation


We describe the momentum P of point o by the degree of motion of a certain point p in the space around the particle o = m(C–V). The momentum of point o is independent of the distance from point o to point p and has similar properties to inertial forces.


We follow the idea of Newtonian mechanics - the inertial force is the derivative of momentum to time, and it can be considered that the degree of change of the general momentum P = m(C–V) with the change of time t is the four inertial forces in the universe.

F = dP/dt = Cdm/dt - Vdm/dt + mdC/dt - mdV/dt


(C-V)dm/dt is the acceleration force and m(dC–dV)/dt is the acceleration force.


In the unified field theory, Cdm/dt is considered to be the electric field force, Vdm/dt is considered to be the magnetic field force, mdV/dt is the inertial force in Newton's second theorem, which is also equivalent to the gravitational force, and mdC/dt is the nuclear force.


The mdC/dt force is considered nuclear in the Unified Field Theory for the following reasons:


The energy of the atomic bomb explosion can be calculated using the mass-energy equation e = m c² [here E is not used but e, because the capital letter is specified as a vector in this article], so the integral of calculating the product of displacement and nuclear force in the direction of the nuclear force should have the same and similar form as mc², and mdC/dt has this condition.


The dynamical equations of the unified field theory should include nuclear forces, because the unified field theory holds that all interaction forces arise from the degree of change in the motion state of the particle in space, or the degree of change in the motion state of the space around the particle.


If we consider the mass-energy equation e = mc² in the theory of relativity, we can reflect that the nuclear force [F = m(d/dt)C] is the work done by the particles of the object moving the distance R along the direction of the nuclear force, and the equation defined by work and energy is:


e=∫0,r F·dR = F· R


The above equation r is the number of the displacement vector R, and the integration range is between 0 and r,


e = F· R = mC·R(d/dt)


From the previous spatiotemporal homogenization equation R=Ct [differential formula dR/dt=C], we get:


e = F· R = mC·R(d/dt)= mC·C = mc²


The motion caused by the added mass force (C-V) dm/dt can also be referred to as the added mass motion. The added mass motion is a discontinuous motion, the change in the velocity of the light being reflected back on the irradiated glass does not take time, it is discontinuous, and the light is a added mass motion.


The mass motion is that it takes time for the mass of an object to change with time, and when the mass changes to zero, it can suddenly reach the speed of light from a certain velocity, and the observer who moves with the object finds that this motion process does not require time, and he suddenly disappears from one place and suddenly appears in another place.


The change in mass has a discontinuous property. The causes of the energy discontinuity of electromagnetic wave radiation in quantum mechanics are:


A photon needs a fixed energy that turns the mass to zero before it can be excited into a photon. Less than this energy, the photon cannot be excited to move at the speed of light, and when the energy of the photon reaches the excitation condition, it moves at the speed of light, and if you add energy, you can't add it.


If space is assumed to be stationary, i.e., C = 0, then the formula

F = dP/dt = Cdm/dt - Vdm/dt + mdC/dt - mdV/dt


C = 0, thus returning to the dynamical formulas of relativity and classical mechanics:

F = dP/dt = - Vdm/dt - mdV/dt


The inertial force and the interaction force are related, there are commonalities, there are also differences, both forces, we can use the motion of a space point p in the space around the stressed particle o to investigate the force of the particle o.


However, the inertial force is independent of the distance r from point o to point p, whereas the interaction force is related to r.


The force of inertia is investigated by us in terms of solid angles, which are independent of the length of the distance. The interaction force is investigated by using a three-dimensional cone, or a Gaussian surface, which is related to distance.


26. Explain Newton's three theorems


Newtonian mechanics includes three major theorems and the theorem of universal gravitation.


The three theorems of Newtonian mechanics are formulated as:


1. Any object [or particle] tries to maintain a uniform linear motion or a stationary state until an external force changes.


2. When the force on the object accelerates the object, the acceleration generated is proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object, and the direction of acceleration is consistent with the direction of the force.


3, The force exerted by one object on another object is always subjected to a reaction force that is equal in size to another object and opposite in the opposite direction.


Newtonian mechanics is only true in relation to a certain observer according to modern view.


Newton defined the mass m and velocity V of an object as momentum P = mV,


After careful analysis, the core of Newtonian mechanics is the concept of momentum, and the concept of momentum first came from Newtonian mechanics.


1. Relative to a certain observer, any particle with mass m in space tries to maintain a definite momentum mV, and V is the speed of the particle moving in a straight line in a certain direction, including the state of rest with zero velocity [momentum must be zero at the same time].


2. The particle is affected by the external force, which will change the momentum, and the rate of change of momentum P with time t is the external force F= dP/t = d(mV)/dt = m A


3. The momentum of the particle is conserved, in an isolated system, when the particles interact, the momentum gained by one particle is always lost by the other particle, while the total momentum is constant.


In Newtonian mechanics, it is believed that mass m is invariant, while the theory of relativity holds that mass is variable, however, the theory of relativity inherits some other ideas from Newtonian mechanics.


The momentum formula of relativity is the same as the Newtonian mechanical form, except that in relativity the mass m can be a variable.


Unified field theory unravels the nature of mass and thus provides a thorough explanation of Newtonian mechanics.


According to the view of unified field theory, Newton's three theorems can be further understood as:


1. Relative to our observer, the space around any object itself diverges outward at the vector speed of light C, and in the range of the solid angle 4π, the number of spatial displacements n of the speed of light motion is the mass m = k n/4π of this object.


So, when an object is at rest it has a momentum mC, when we try to make the object move, we have to apply a momentum [mass m times velocity V,] to change mC.


2. Force is the reason for changing the state of motion of the space around the object diverging at the vector speed of light C and moving at the speed V, that is, the reason for the change of momentum, so we use momentum to find the derivative of time to express the force.


Force is defined as the amount of change in the motion state of an object moving in space [or in the space around the object itself] in a certain range of space [or in a certain period of time].


3. Momentum is the synthesis of the amount of motion of the object in space (mV) and the amount of motion of the space itself around the object (mC) m(C-V), and is a conserved quantity, the form of momentum measured by the observers of mutual motion is not the same, while the number of total momentum remains unchanged and has nothing to do with the observer's observation.


XXVII. Prove that inertial mass is equivalent to gravitational mass


According to Newtonian mechanics, inertial mass reflects the degree to which an object is not easily accelerated, while gravitational mass reflects the ability to accelerate other objects.


At the above point o with mass m, with respect to our observer at rest, if there is a point p with mass m' at a distance from r, the gravitational force F of point o will cause point p to have an acceleration pointing towards point o - A, and

F= - (g m m’/r²)

F= - mA


Newton, without giving an explanation, equated the inertial mass m' in the formula F= - mA with the gravitational mass m' in the formula F= - (g m m'/r²)[R], and the following equation was obtained:

A= -g m /r²)【R


r is the quantity of R, and [R] is the unit vector of R. This is what is often said to be the equivalent of inertial mass to gravitational mass.


If we prove that the acceleration A at point p is equal to the gravitational field generated at point o at point o, we can prove that the inertial mass is equivalent to the gravitational mass.


Let's prove it.


In the gravitational field equation A = - g k n R/Ω r³ given above, in order to facilitate the analysis of the problem, we make the number n of the spatial displacement vector R = C t of the speed of light motion is 1, and the vector from point o to point p is represented by R, then the gravitational field equation is:

A= - g k R/Ωr³


In the above equation, we make the quantity r of R constant, but the direction changes, so that the gravitational field A becomes the corresponding change between the direction of the spatial displacement R of the speed of light and the solid angle Ω.


Ω is a solid angle on the Gaussian sphere s= 4πr² surrounding point o, and the magnitude of the Ω is proportional to R· R = c²t²。


Because the number of R, r, is constant, R is a vector quantity, and an area can be drawn on the Gaussian sphere s by changing in two directions perpendicular to the radial direction of R, and this area is proportional to Ω. Because the magnitude of the Ω is equal to the area of a Gaussian sphere s = 4πr² (r is set to 1 or a constant).


So, there are:

A= - g k R/ c²t²r³


Since g, k, c, and r are all constants, combine the constants to get:


A = - constant multiplied by R/ t²


Finding the derivatives of R and t² twice against t yields:


A= - constant multiplied by d²R/ dt²


Since Newtonian mechanics is the earliest mechanical system in human history, the above constants can be set to 1, just as the proportionality constant of Newton's second theorem can be set to 1. So there are:

A= - d²R/ dt²


Proof is complete.


XXVIII. Explain the nature of gravitation


The most perplexing question for human beings about gravitational force is how the gravitational force between any two objects in the universe is generated, and how the gravitational force is transmitted to each other.


Actually, the essence of gravity is very simple.


As an example, if a car is coming towards you, and the driver feels that he is stationary, he must think that you are facing the motor movement. If a car is speeding towards you, the driver thinks that he is stationary, and must think that you are accelerating towards the car.


It doesn't matter whether you are in motion or the car is in motion, the key and meaningful thing is that the space between the car and the person is changing.


The essence of gravitational attraction is the change of spatial motion between particles relative to the property exhibited by our observers.


The change in the motion of space between two particles and the relative motion between two particles should be essentially the same thing.


Human beings are blindfolded by the word "force" of gravity, and they always wonder what force is and what is force? The more I think about it, the more confused I become!


A girl walked in front of me, I said the girl was beautiful, a knife, I said it was sharp. Pretty is a quality we describe to girls, and sharpness is a quality we describe to knives.


Force is a property that we describe the relative motion between objects, and force is not a concrete thing.


If two objects have a relative acceleration or a tendency to move with relative acceleration, we can say that there is a force between them.


Imagine if in China, a person holds a small ball in his hand, and at a certain moment, this person puts the ball down, and the ball accelerates from a standstill and crashes into the earth. According to the previous view, it can also be said that the ball is always stationary, and it is the earth that hits the ball.


Some may argue that if we put a small ball in Brazil, our symmetrical country, at the same time, wouldn't it be a small ball that would accelerate into the air?


This refutation actually requires a premise: space is static and immobile, all objects move in the static ocean of space like fish, and the existence of space is irrelevant to the movement of particles.


The key point is that space itself is moving and changing all the time, and the movement of space and particles is closely linked.


We, the observers, stand on the earth and drop a stone with our hands, which is not subjected to any other force but the gravitational pull of the earth, and starts to do a free fall motion from a resting state and falls towards the center of the earth.


In the absence of this stone, the space where the stone is located still falls towards the center of the earth in the same way as the stone. If you can color the space, you will see that the space is constantly falling towards the center of the earth, and this is the nature of the gravitational field.


Compared with our observers, the space movement around a single earth is uniform, and the distribution of the gravitational field is also uniform, and there is no gravitational force.


The existence of a stone with mass in the space around the earth will change the uniform motion of the earth and the space around the stone, and the amount of change in the solid angle of the unit is the gravitational force.


We set this stone as point p, with m for the mass of the stone, and earth as point o, and m' for the mass of the earth.


According to our previous explanation of Newton's three theorems, the gravitational force F at point p at point o can be expressed as:

F = m A


In the previous proof of the equivalence of inertial mass to gravitational mass, we know that the gravitational field A (which is essentially the accelerated motion of space itself) generated by the Earth at point p and the acceleration of point p (the accelerated motion of an object in space) are equivalent, such that:

A = - g mR/r³


In the above equation, g is the gravitational constant, R is the position vector from point o to point p, and r is the distance from point o to point p.


The formula for gravitation is derived from the equations F = - m A and A = g m'R/r³:

F = - g m mR/r³


The above tells us that the essence of gravitation comes from relative motion, and the essence of the interaction force is also an inertial force. This is in line with the basic principle of the Unified Field Theory above, which states that all physical phenomena are formed by motion.


We regard the gravitational field A = - g m'R/r³ around the earth as the degree of motion of the space around the earth, if another particle p suddenly appears around the earth, the space around the particle p will also have the same motion of the space around the earth, so that the gravitational field A = - g m'R/r³ around the earth will change.


We understand the gravitational force F of the earth at point p as the degree of change in the gravitational field around the earth caused by the mass m [m proportional to n/4π] at point p.


The degree of change can certainly be expressed as changing n bars in the range of angles of 4π


A = g m'R/r³, so,


F = - constant multiplied by n/4πg( m'R/r³) = - g m m'R/r³


An object with mass m' creates a gravitational field A around it, and another object with mass m is in the gravitational field A, which causes a change in A, and the degree of change is the gravitational force.


We need to note that the change in the gravitational field A here is not the degree of change of A with time and space position, but the change of A multiplied by the mass m of the object at point p, which causes the change of A.


This is like a line segment, multiplied by another line segment in the vertical direction, causing the original line segment to change and become a rectangle.


According to Newtonian mechanics, a satellite [represented by point p] over our earth [represented by point p] rotates in a perfect circle around the earth, and at a certain moment, the acceleration A from point p to point o is the gravitational field generated by the earth at point p.


We can imagine that the satellite is small, tiny, and its acceleration A towards the Earth can still represent the magnitude and direction of the gravitational field where point p is located.


According to the idea of unified field theory - the field is the motion of space itself, when we take away the satellite, just the space point where the satellite is located [we still use the point p] revolves around the earth, and its acceleration towards the earth can still represent the magnitude and direction of the gravitational field where the space point p is located.


If we use R to denote the sagittal diameter of the position from point o to point p, then R and A are proportional to each other, but in opposite directions, satisfying the following relation:

A = - k R


k is a constant. The above equation shows that the gravitational field generated around the stationary object is a gradient field.


Since the gravitational field is equivalent to acceleration, we know that acceleration and displacement are proportional to the opposite direction, which is a wave process.


This shows that the gravitational field is fluctuating. This wave is the wave of space itself, a spiral wave, and the speed of the wave is the speed of light.


If the magnitude of the sagittal diameter R does not change, but only a change in direction, fixed at one end, and one end orbits, and the curl of the above stationary gravitational field is zero, then:

∮A·dR = 0


The above indicates that the gravitational field generated by a stationary object in the surrounding space is a conservative field.


From the perspective of the cylindrical spiral motion in space, the gravitational field is the part of the acceleration of the first circle of the cylindrical spiral rotation in space towards the center.


The space around the Earth and the Sun [facing us observers] rotate counterclockwise, and the rotation touches each other, and the space moves in opposite directions, canceling out a part of the space, resulting in the space between the Sun and the Earth decreasing and approaching each other, showing mutual attraction.


XXIX. The space-time wave equation and the gravitational field


It has been pointed out that the space around the object diverges to the surroundings in a cylindrical spiral, and the vector displacement of the space point outside the particle changes with the spatial position and with time.


The physical quantity [here is the displacement of the spatial point outside the particle, referred to as the vector] changes with the spatial position and time, and can be regarded as having a fluctuation process.


We know that there is a big difference between a wave and a cylindrical spiral motion, which is the propagation of a vibration in a medium, unlike a spiral motion, which is the movement of a particle in space. But for this particular thing of space, the two sports are compatible.


There is no wave effect in the motion of a spatial point, but the same is true for a group of spatial points.


You may remember the famous saying that no two leaves on a tree are exactly the same, but this is not true for spatial points.


There is absolutely no difference between one point of space and another. It can be concluded that the cylindrical spiral motion of space contains a wave form.


Next, we deduce the wave equation of space-time from the previous space-time homogeneity equation R(t) = Ct = x i+ y j +z k, and point out the relationship with the gravitational field.


Suppose that there is a mass o somewhere in the universe, which is stationary relative to our observer, according to the previous physical definition of time and the space-time identity equation, the time t of the o point and the observer can be represented by the displacement of a space point p around the point o R(t) = Ct = x i + y j + z k.


We take R as a derivative of time t, and we have the result:

dR/dt = C


Square the two sides of the above equation and have the result:


(dR/ dt)· (dR/dt )= c ²= dr dr/dt dt


c is the scalar of the vector speed of light C, and r is the scalar of R.


Now let's consider another point in space, p', which moves around point o, and we denote its displacement by L, which varies with time t and is a function of time t, and from the relationship between R and t, we can conclude that L is a function of R.


We find the derivative twice of the displacement L of the spatial point p' against the number r of the spatial displacement R, and we have the result:

²L/ r² = ²L/ c ²

²L/x² + ²L/y² +²L/z² = ²L/c²


r is the number of vector R. The above differential sign d has been changed to a partial differential ∂.


The partial differential equation ∂²L/∂t²=c²∂²L/ ∂r² is solved, and the general solution is:

L(r, t) = f(t r /c)+g(t + r /c)


f and g denote two independent functions, and the equation L(r,t) = f(t - r/c) can be thought of as the wave of the space point traveling outward from the point of mass o.


Whereas the equation L(r,t) = f(t + r/c) is traditionally considered to be non-existent in physics and is considered to be a wave converging from infinity to point o.


For ordinary media, it seems that there is no such physical significance, but for the special medium of space, there is physical significance. This can actually explain the source of the negative charge, which will be discussed in more detail later.


The above equation also includes the form of linear motion in all directions centered on point O, and the motion of converging straight lines from all directions to point O. This motion can be seen as the limit case where the amplitude of the spiral wave approaches zero.


Equation ∂²L/∂t²=c²∂²L/ ∂r² has two special solutions: L = Acosω(t–r/c) and L = Asinω(t–r/c) satisfies this equation.


The wave velocity c above is the speed of light, and the wave of space-time is a transverse wave.


If the continuity of motion is considered, the components of displacement L on the x-axis, y-axis Lx and Ly are combined, and the form of motion in the vertical plane of the z-axis should be a circle.


So, in some cases, Lx and Ly take a cosine wave in one and a sine wave in the other. Thus, there is the following cylindrical spiral space-time wave equation:

Lx = Acosω(t–z/c)

Ly = Asinω(t–z/c)


In the unified field theory, the gravitational field is the source of the fluctuations formed by space vibrations, while the electromagnetic field is the propagation of space vibrations, and the speed of propagation is the speed of light.


XXX, the defining equation of charge and electric field


1. The equation for the definition of electric charge


In the unified field theory, charge and mass are both motion effects of the space around the particle diverging to the periphery at the speed of light and in a cylindrical spiral, and the two have a common origin - the speed of light and spiral divergent motion of space.


Suppose that the particle o is stationary relative to our observer, and the vector from the point o points to the surrounding space point p is R, and we make a Gaussian sphere s=4πr² with the number r of R to surround the point o.


One of the endpoints of R is at point o, and the other endpoint p is moving in a cylindrical spiral, in which the rotational motion draws a solid angle Ω on the Gaussian plane s.


As previously stated, point o with mass m can be expressed as:

m = k(1/Ω)


The mass m represents the spatial displacement vector R that passes through the space displacement vector R in the solid angle 4π surrounding point o.


The equation m = k(1/Ω) is a simplification of the mass-defining equation, indicating that there happens to be an R on the solid angle Ω unit.


In unified field theory, if the particle o has a charge q, q denotes the number of R's that pass through a solid angle per unit of time. That is, the degree of change in mass m with time t is the charge, so there is a defining equation for charge:

q = k’dm/dt = - k’k (dΩ/dt)/ Ω²


where k' is a constant.


The above is the differential definition equation of charge, which can also be considered as the geometric form of charge definition equation.


This charge definition equation reflects that the magnitude of the charge is related to the angular velocity of the solid angle of rotational motion in space around the particle.


Since Ω is a solid angle, 4π is one of the most important values, which is the fundamental reason for the quantization of charge.


The change of (dΩ/dt) is the change of angle, and the change is reciprocating, so the change of time t is periodic.


From this definition, it can be seen that the nature of the charge is closely related to the frequency of rotation in space.


The definition of charge here is partly hypothetical and partly inferential. That is to say, the electric charge is the degree of movement of the space around the particles of an object at the speed of light, in a cylindrical spiral.


We get this charge definition equation to see if it matches our knowledge, and if it all does, it shows that the charge definition equation is correct and reliable.


This charge definition equation can only be applied to a single charge particle, and for macroscopic objects, there are many positive and negative charge particles in it, which cannot be directly used, because most of the positive and negative charges of macroscopic objects cancel each other out.


2. Prove the relativistic invariance of electric charge


In the theory of relativity, the electric charge does not change with the speed of motion, however, the theory of relativity does not prove it. Below we give a proof with the equation for the definition of charge.


When the particle O point of the object is at rest relative to our observer, it has an electric charge q, which is determined by the above equation of charge and mass:

q = k’dm/dt


It is easy to see that when point O moves with velocity v relative to our observer, the mass m and time t [relative to the intrinsic time] increase by a relativistic factor √ (1- v²/c²), so that q remains constant.


3. For the definition of electric charge, we need to pay attention to some issues


The dm/dt in the definition of charge q, which means that the amount of charge of the particle is proportional to the rate of change of the particle's mass, does not seem to be consistent with the facts, and we do not find that the mass of the charged particle changes drastically, nor does we find that the mass increases or decreases continuously over time.


The reason for this may be that the mass change of the charge particles is periodic, not to infinity over time.


Moreover, the frequency of this change can be extremely fast, as in the case of alternating current, because the frequency of the change is so fast that we cannot feel the change and it is difficult to detect the change.


In the above mass definition equation m = k n/Ω, k is a constant, a single object particle, in the case of no other particles close by, the number of spatial displacement n will not change logically, the change is the change of the solid angle Ω, and we know that the change of the solid angle is periodic.


If this is confirmed, then in quantum mechanics, the waves of matter, the particles have wavelengths, frequencies, and are likely to be related to this.


4. Geometrically defined equations for the electric field


With respect to the point o at rest of our observer, with a charge q, which generates an electric field E at the point p in the surrounding space, we surround the point o with a Gaussian sphere s = 4πr², p is an investigation point on s, and the vector from o to p is R, so that the number of R is r.


The equation for defining the electric field given by Coulomb's theorem is E = q R/4πε. r³, 4π ε. is a constant, we don't need to think about it, R is the space displacement vector, r is the Gaussian spherical radius, the only thing we don't know is what the charge q means.


Once we understand the geometric meaning of the charge q, we also have a thorough understanding of the geometric meaning of the electric field E, so we define the equation for the charge q

q = k’dm/dt = - k’k (dΩ/dt)/ Ω²


Bring in to E = q R/4πε. r³, the geometrically defined equation for the electrostatic field E is given:


E = - k’k (dΩ/dt) R/Ω²4πε。 r³


The electric field is expressed as the density of the spatial displacement R passing through the Gaussian sphere s per unit time over s, which has more time factors than mass.


When the direction of the electric field of a charged particle coincides with the displacement of the surrounding space, it is a positive electric field, and vice versa.


5. Explain Coulomb's law


Coulomb's law is formulated as follows:


Relative to us observers, the force F between two stationary point charges q (the charge q) and q' (the charge q') in a vacuum is proportional to the product of their charge and inversely proportional to the square of the distance r between them, and the direction of the force is on the line between them.


There are positive and negative charges, with charges of the same number repelling each other and charges of different numbers attracting each other. The mathematical formula is:


F = (k q q’/r²)【R】= q q’R/4πε。 r³


where k is the proportionality constant, ε. is the dielectric constant in a vacuum, R is the vector of q pointing to q', its quantity is r, and [R] is the unit vector along R.


From the above equations for defining the charge and electric field, it can be seen that the electric field generated by the charge q at q' should be


E = - k’k (dΩ/dt)R/Ω²4πε。 r³


Since the charge q' = k'k (dΩ'/dt')/Ω'² occurs at point p near q, the electric field E of charge q at point p is changed.


We understand this field change [because the essence of the field is a cylindrical spiral moving space, in fact, the space is changing in motion] as the force of q on q', and the product of E and q' is used to express the effect of this change, which is the above Coulomb's theorem.


6, Positive and negative charge models


In the unified field theory, it is determined that the charge of the particle is caused by the cylindrical spiral motion of the space around the particle itself.


We know that cylindrical spiral motion can be decomposed into rotational motion and linear motion in the vertical direction of the plane of rotation.


The positive electric field generated by the positive charge of the particle is caused by the divergent movement of the linear part of the space around the particle with respect to our observer, and the rotation part rotates counterclockwise, and satisfies the right-hand spiral.


The radial velocity [note that instead of the speed of motion in a straight line, the rotational speed is superimposed on the speed of motion in a straight line] is the vector speed of light, and the direction is directed by a positive charge towards space at infinity.


The negative electric field generated by the negative charge of the particle is caused by the linear motion of the space around the particle relative to our observer, from infinity to the particle, and the rotation part is also counterclockwise. The same meets the right-handed spiral.


The radial velocity is the vector speed of light, and the direction is directed from space at infinity towards a negative charge.


The cylindrical spiral type of space around the charged particle is the reason why the particle is charged. We know that cylindrical spiral motion is a superposition of rotational motion and linear motion in the vertical direction of the plane of rotation, which we can illustrate with the right-hand rule.


We make many rays around the punctual charge that are directed by the positive charge to the surrounding space, and we hold any one of the rays with our right hand, and the thumb is in the same direction as the ray, then the direction of the four fingers around is the direction of rotation of the space around the punctual charge.


We make a number of rays around the negative charge that point to the negative charge from any space, and we hold any one of the rays with our right hand, and the thumb and the direction of the ray are the same, then the direction of the four fingers around is the direction of rotation of the space around the negative charge.


The space around the positive and negative charges is a right-hand spiral space.


Facing us observers, the space around the positive charge rotates counterclockwise.


Facing us observers, the space around the negative charge rotates clockwise.


The equations for defining electric field and charge given above are partly our assumptions and partly our logical reasoning.


If this equation is consistent with all the knowledge we already have, then these defining equations are reliable.


We should also note that the above equations for defining electric fields and charges are not absolute and unique, and we can give other forms of defining equations according to the nature of charges and electric fields.


7. Geometric figures explain the repulsion of the same charge and the attraction of different charges


Since the charge is formed by the cylindrical spiral divergent motion of space around the particle of an object, can we use a cylindrical spiral motion model to explain all the laws of the charge?


Also, when the same amount of positive and negative charges collide, why do the charges cancel each other out to zero? Can this be rigorously proven mathematically?


The answer is yes, and the proof is similar to Gauss's theorem for magnetic fields. It is to use a tiny curved surface dS to intercept the vector displacement line of the cylindrical spiral motion in space.


On a finite, fixed-size surface, how many spatial displacement lines go in, there must be how many spatial displacement lines come out, and the two cancel each other out to zero. Integrating dS across the Gaussian sphere surrounding the object particles, the total result is zero.


Why are positive and negative charges attracted to each other?


In the diagram above, red represents positive charge field lines and blue represents negative charge field lines.


With equal amounts of positive and negative charges approaching, the space around the charge moves in a cylindrical spiral motion, and the radial part proceeds from the positive charge at the speed of light to the end of the negative charge.


Where the rotating parts of space touch each other, cancel each other out due to the opposite direction.


Note that each electric field line has a rotation, and the electric field line is actually a cylindrical spiral, and for the sake of brevity, the rotation line is not fully drawn.


In this way, the amount of space between the positive charge and the negative charge is decreasing, and there is a tendency to contact each other, which is manifested as mutual attraction.


Whether the two charges move away from each other or close to each other depends on the cylindrical spiral rotation of space, because the speed of movement in the radial direction is the speed of light, and according to the theory of relativity, the space in which the speed of light moves is reduced to zero, or it is no longer part of the space we are in.


Once the positive and negative charges are extremely close together and are equivalent to a point, the surrounding linear motions cancel each other out due to the opposite direction, and the rotational motion cancels each other out due to the opposite direction.


This is the reason why when the positive and negative charges of equal amounts come together, the effects of the motion of the surrounding space (including the rest mass) disappear, and the charges cancel each other out.


The figure above shows two positive charges with equal amounts close to each other, and the amount of space increases because the rotating parts of space are close to each other and move in the same direction.


Note that each electric field line has a rotation, and the electric field line is actually a cylindrical spiral, and the above diagram is not all drawn for the sake of brevity.


In this way, the amount of space between the two positive charges is increasing, and there is a tendency to depart from each other, which is manifested as mutual repulsion.


The figure above shows that two negative charges with equal amounts are close together, and the amount of space increases because the rotating parts of the space are close together and move in the same direction. In this way, the amount of space between the two negative charges increases, and there is a tendency to leave each other, which is manifested as mutual repulsion.


XXXXI, the velocity multiplied by the rate of change of mass over time is the electromagnetic field force


The momentum formula P = mV given by relativity theory and Newtonian mechanics is not the same as the momentum formula P = m (C-V) given by the unified field theory.


Kinetic equations for unified field theory:

F = dP/dt = (d/dt)m(C-V

= Cdm/dt-Vdm/dt+mdC/dt- mdV/dt


where m is the mass of the particle, C is the vector speed of light, V is the speed of the particle's motion, and t is the time.


In the above equation, (C-V)dm/dt= Cdm/dt -Vdm/dt is the force of velocity multiplied by mass over time, referred to as the added mass force.


The unified field theory holds that its essence is the electromagnetic field force, where Cdm/dt is the electric field force and Vdm/dt is the magnetic field force.


According to the view of the unified field theory, when the above o point is at rest in s', it has a rest mass m', and the surrounding space moves away from o point with a vector speed of light C', with an electric charge dm'/dt' [why this can be expressed, see the previous charge definition equation], if it is subjected to the electric field force of another charge, the electrostatic field force F can be expressed as:


F static = C'dm'/dt',


In the s system, when the point o [the mass of motion is m] moves along the x-axis with velocity V, the surrounding space moves away from the point o at the vector speed of light C [C and C' are in different directions, and the same pattern] moves away from point o, and the electric field force Fx moves in the parallel direction of V [i.e., along the x-axis], which can be expressed as:


Fx dynamic = Cx dm/dt,


The quantitative formula is:


fx motion = c dm/dt ,


Correspondingly,


Fx static = Cx'dm'/dt'


The quantitative formula is:


fx static = c dm'/dt '


Since neither the speed of light c nor the charge varies with velocity V, i.e., dm'/dt '= dm/dt, therefore,


Fx static = Fx moving


c is a scalar of C, v is a scalar of V, and f is a scalar of force F. C'x represents the vector speed of light C' on the x-axis in the s' system, and Cx represents the vector speed of light C on the x-axis in the s-system.


Note that t and t' are not the same. C' and C are not in the same direction, however, the modulus is a scalar speed of light c, and c is invariant.


The vector speeds of light C' and C are subjected to an electric field force if they are perpendicular to V:


In the S' department,


Fy static = Cy'dm'/dt'


The quantitative formula is:


fy static = c dm'/dt'


In the S department,


Fy = Cy dm/dt,


Transformed by relativistic velocity, its quantitative formula is:


fy = [c√(1-v²/ c²)]dm/dt


So, there are:


√(1-v²/c²)Fy static = Fy motion


The same reasons can be drawn:


√(1-v²/c²)Fz static = Fz dynamic


The above conclusion is consistent with the transformation of the relativistic electromagnetic force. Let the charge at point o be q if the electrostatic field is expressed as:


E' = F static/q = (C'dm'/dt')/q


The electric field is expressed as:


E = F/q = (Cdm/dt)/q


When point o moves in a straight line along the positive direction of the x-axis with a uniform velocity V, on the x-axis, the number of C and C' is the same, both are c, since dm'/dt' and q are constant, so,

Ex = Ex’


On the y-axis and z-axis, the number of C's is c√ (1-v²/c²) and the number of C' is c,


So

Fy =dm/dt c√(1-v²/ c²

=(dm/dt c[(1-v²/ c²)] [(1-v²/ c²)]/[(1-v²/ c²)]

=dm/dt c(1-v²/ c²/√(1-v²/ c²


If it is considered that Ey'=Fy/q = (Cy'dm'/dt')/q


is the component of the electrostatic field E' on the y-axis,


Ey=(dm/dt)c/q √(1-v²/c²) is the component of the moving electric field E on the y-axis, then:

Ey’= Ey√(1-v²/ c²

注意dm’/dt’ c/q =dm/dt c/q


The analysis of Ez yields the same result, which is the same as the relativistic electric field transformation.


We can also see that the electric field force in motion can be written in the perpendicular direction of the velocity V;


F垂=(dm/dt )c(1-v²/ c²)/√(1-v²/ c²)


It has become two parts, one of which has nothing to do with velocity V [quantity v], and one part that has to do with velocity V.


If it is considered (dm/dt) c/√(1-v²/ c²)


is the electric field force, the part of the force that is related to the velocity V [quantity v].

dm/dt cv²/ c²/√(1-v²/ c²


is the force of the magnetic field [denoted by B], then E and B satisfy the following vector cross-product relation [denoted by vector]:

B= V×E/c²


This result is the same as the theory of relativity.


XXXII. Defining equations for nuclear force fields


All the fields can be obtained by the gravitational field variation. The nuclear field, like the electromagnetic field, can also be expressed in terms of changes in the gravitational field.


The electric field is generated by the change of mass in the gravitational field with time, and the nuclear field is different from the change of the position vector R [modulus r] of the space point in the gravitational field with time.


The gravitational field A = - g m R/r³= - R/r³ in g(k/Ω)R/ r³ varies with time t, resulting in a nuclear force field:

D = - g m [d(R/r³)dt]


= - g m[(dR/ dt)- 3 (R/r)(dr/dt)]/ r³

= - g m[(C- 3 (R/r)(dr/dt) ]/ r³


The C above is the vector speed of light.


The above formula is just speculation, the nuclear force field is different from the electric field and the magnetic field, the electric field and the magnetic field human beings have a formula to describe, but human beings do not know what the charge in the electric field and magnetic field formula is, once we know the geometric form of the charge, we only need to bring the geometric form of the charge into the electric field, magnetic field formula, unified field theory can be completely used geometric form to represent the electric field, magnetic field.


However, the nuclear force field is different, and mankind does not have any formula regarding nuclear force, nuclear force field.


In addition, the nuclear force comes from the protons and neutrons in the nucleus, and the protons and neutrons are always in motion, so even if the above nuclear force field formula is correct and reliable, it cannot be used directly, and needs to be generalized to moving particles before it can be used.


Whether the above formulas of nuclear force fields are reliable or not, as well as the precise formulas of nuclear interaction forces, need to be explored both theoretically and experimentally.


For the nuclear interaction force, a guess is given here that the nuclear force exerted by the mass (mass m) on the nearby particle p (mass m') is equal to the nuclear force field D (given by the nuclear field definition equation above) produced at point o at point p multiplied by the mass m' at point p or the cross multiplied by the momentum m'V or angular momentum R×m'V at point p.


XXXIII. Defining equations for magnetic fields


In the unified field theory, the magnetic field and the electric field are not the same field, and they cannot directly interact with each other and cannot be directly superimposed.


Human beings have discovered that when charged particles move in a straight line with a uniform velocity relative to our observer, they can cause changes in the electric field, and the part of the electric field that changes can be considered to be the magnetic field, that is, the electric field that changes with the speed produces the magnetic field, and the unified field theory inherits this view.


Suppose that in the inertial frame of reference s', an o point at rest relative to our observer, with a mass of m' [m when moving with velocity V], with a positive charge q, generates an electrostatic field E' at the surrounding space p [point p can be regarded as a space point, or as a field point or investigation point], [if it is a negative charge, add a negative sign, and it is E when moving with velocity V], and the vector diameter from point o to point p is R' [R when moving with velocity V].


We take the length of R' r' [r when moving with velocity V] as the radius to make a Gaussian surface s' = 4πr'² to surround the point o.


In the inertial frame of reference s, when the point o moves in a straight line along the x-axis with a uniform velocity V relative to us, it can cause a change in the electric field in the perpendicular direction of V, and the part of the change can be regarded as the magnetic field B.


The very simple idea is that the moving electric field E multiplied by the velocity V is the magnetic field B, because when the velocity V and the electric field E are perpendicular to each other, the magnetic field generated is the largest, so there should be a vector cross product between them, so there is the following relationship,


B = constant multiplied by (V×E)


In order to obtain the geometric formal equation of the moving electric field E, we define the electrostatic field E'= q R'/4πε obtained from Coulomb's theorem. r'³, corrected by the Lorenz positive transform [because the charge o point is in motion relative to our observer], obtains:


E =γq [( x-vt)i+ yj+zk]}/ 4πε。 {√[γ²(x-VT)²+y²+z²]}³


So


V×E =γq V×[( x- vt)i+ yj+zk]/4πε。 {√[γ²(x-vt)²+y²+z²]}³


The vacuum permeability is μ. , because we are talking here about a vacuum, then:


B =μ。 {γq V×[( x- vt)i+ yj+zk]}/4π{√[γ²(x-vt)²+y²+z²]}³


=μ。 ε。 {γq V×[( x- vt)i+ yj+zk]}/ 4πε。 {√[γ²(x-vt)²+y²+z²]}³


=μ。 ε。 V×E


Due to μ. ε。 = 1/c²


Therefore, the above equation can also be written as B = V×E/c²


So, the equation for defining the magnetic field is:


B =μ。 {γq V×[( x- vt)i+ yj+zk]}/4π{√[γ²(x-vt)²+y²+z²]}³


In the above equation, human beings have not been clear about what charge q is, but now once we know the geometric form of charge q, we can use the above charge definition equation q = kk' (1/Ω²)dΩ/dt to get the geometric form of the magnetic field to define the equation:


B =μ。 {γ[-kk' (1/Ω²)dΩ/dt] V×[( x- vt)i+ yj+zk]}/4π{√[γ²(x-vt)²+y²+z²]}³


Let θ be the angle between the sagittal diameter R [scalar r=√[γ²(x-vt)²+y²+z²]] and the velocity v, and B can be expressed as a polar form:


B=μ。 {[-kk' (1/Ω²)dΩ/dt]v sinθ/4πγ²r² [√(1- β ²sin²θ)] ³}【r】


where β=v/c, c is the speed of light, v is the scalar form of V, and [r] is the unit vector of the vector R (scalar is r).


Using the relationship between mass and charge q = k'dm/dt, we can obtain the equation for defining the magnetic field with mass:


B =μ。 {γ(kdm/dt,)V×[( x- vt)i+ yj+zk]}/4π{√[γ²(x-vt)²+y²+z²]}³


In the figure below, an electrostatic field E' is generated at the point o of a positively charged particle at rest relative to us, and when the point o moves in a straight line along the x-axis with velocity V relative to our observer, a magnetic field B can be generated, and the essence of this magnetic field is that the space is rotating on the central axis with the vector velocity V, and the rotation of B and V satisfy the right-hand spiral relationship.


The magnetic field B and the moving electric field E as well as the velocity V of the charge satisfy the following relationship:

B = V×E/c²


According to the order of vector cross product and Stokes' theorem, the y cross multiplied by z forms a vector plane in the x direction, the z cross multiplied by x forms a vector plane in the y direction, and the x cross multiplied by y forms a vector plane in the z direction, and the three components satisfy the following right-hand spiral relationship:

Bx = 0

By = -V×Ez/c²

Bz = V×Ey/c²


where V is the velocity of the charge particle o along the x-axis.


According to the unified field theory, the velocity of the surrounding space points when the object particles are at rest is the vector speed of light C', and when the object particles are moving at a velocity V, the velocity of the surrounding space points is C-V.


When point o is stationary, the surrounding space point p is moving at the vector speed of light C', and when point o is moving in a straight line along the x-axis with velocity V, the vector speed of light at point p is the same as E, and a motion velocity -V is superimposed, which is exactly the opposite of the motion speed V at point o.


When we place the investigation point on point p, we should replace the velocity of point o with the velocity of space point p, and the above component relationship becomes the following left-handed spiral:

Bx = 0

By = V×Ez/c²

Bz = ﹣V×Ey/c²


When we look at the situation of the point p point in space, it is more straightforward and convenient to use this component formula.


In the figure below, when the charge o point starts from point a and moves in a uniform circle to point b, the rotational motion of space enters and exits on the positive and negative sides of this circle, the incoming side is the S pole, and the outgoing side is called the N pole.


From the geometric form of magnetic field, there is no such thing as a magnetic monopole in nature.


XXXIV. Derivation of Maxwell's equations


Maxwell's equations are 4 equations that describe all the laws of electromagnetic phenomena, but they are not the most basic.


Maxwell's four equations can be derived by using the defining equations of electric and magnetic fields, Gauss's theorem and Stokes's theorem in field theory, and Lorentz transform in relativity.


1. The curl of the electrostatic field E'


For the point of the stationary charge o, with the charge q, the electrostatic field E' generated in the surroundings defines the equation with the electric field

E’ = f (dΩ/dt) R/Ω²r³


Directly find the curl degree, and obtain:

×E’ = 0


Note that only R/r³ on the right side of the equation is a variable.


The above equation can be broken down into the following three equations:

∂Ez/∂y ∂Ey/∂z= 0

∂Ex/∂ z ∂Ez/∂x= 0


∂Ey'/∂ x' - ∂Ex'/∂y'= 0


2. The divergence of the electrostatic field E'


Define the equation for the electric field

E= f (dΩ/dt) R/Ω²r³


To find the divergence directly, note that only R/r³ on the right side of the equation is a variable, and we get:


▽· E’ = 0


In the above equation, r is the radius of the Gaussian sphere s s surrounding point O, and in the case where r approaches zero [it can also be said that the investigation point on the Gaussian sphere - the space point p is infinitely close to the point of charge O], and the point o can be regarded as an infinitesimal charged sphere, the equation appears 0/0, using the Dirac δ function, we can get:


▽· E' = ∂Ex'/∂ x'+ ∂Ey'/∂y'+∂Ez'/∂z'=ρ'/ε。


ρ' is the density of the charge in the Gaussian sphere S [S] that surrounds the point of charge O and is infinitely close to the density of the charge at point O, ε. is the vacuum permittivity.


We need to note that if the O point is outside the Gaussian sphere S, S does not surround the O point, and its divergence is always zero.


3. Gauss's theorem for the moving electric field E is derived


Suppose that the charge O point is stationary in the s' system, and the charge q is an invariant, but the charge q moves in a straight line along the positive direction of the x-axis with a uniform velocity V in the s system, and the spatial contraction is caused by the relativistic motion, and its volume should shrink to 1/γ [γ = 1/√ (1 - v²/c²) is the relativistic factor], and the corresponding charge density of q should be increased to γ times.


Therefore, the density ρ of q in the S system is greater than that of the density ρ in the S' system by a relativistic factor γ.

ρ = γρ’


The charge q in the s system moves in a straight line along the positive direction of the x-axis with a uniform velocity V [scalar is v], so there is a current density:

J = i ρv = i γv ρ’


i is a unit vector along the x-axis.


The ∂x'/ ∂x = γ is obtained by the Lorenz positive transformation of x'=γ(x-vt), and then by the relativistic transformation of the electric field Ex = Ex', Ey = γ Ey', Ez = γ Ez', and the divergence of the electrostatic field E':


'•E' = ∂Ex'/∂ x' + ∂Ey'/∂y' + ∂Ez'/∂z' = ρ'/ε。


Gauss's theorem for the electric field E in motion can be derived:

▽•E = ∂Ex/∂ x + ∂Ey/∂y + ∂Ez/∂z

= γ(∂Ex/∂ x + ∂Ey/∂y + ∂Ez/∂z’)


= γρ’/ε。 =ρ/ε。


4. Gauss's theorem for magnetic fields is derived


Using the above differential operator ∂/ ∂y = ∂/ ∂y', ∂/ ∂z = ∂/ ∂z',


The relation satisfied by the magnetic field B and the electric field E at the preceding spatial point p:

Bx = 0

By = v Ez /c²,

Bz = -v Ey/c²,


The first formula of the curl of the electrostatic field E'

∂Ez’/∂y ∂Ey ’/∂z’= 0


Relativistic transformation formula for adding an electric field

γEz= Ez,γEy= Ey


Gauss's theorem for magnetic fields can be derived:

▽•B = ∂Bx/∂ x + ∂By/∂y + ∂Bz/∂z


= 0 + (v Ez /c²)∂/∂y - (v Ey /c²)∂/∂z

= 0 +(γv Ez/c²)∂/∂y’- (γv Ey/c²)∂/∂z


= γ(v/c²)(∂Ez'/∂y'- ∂Ey '/∂z')= 0


5. Derive Faraday's electromagnetic induction theorem


The curl of the electrostatic field E' is the first formula


(∂Ez'/∂y')-(∂Ey' /∂z')= 0


From the relativistic transformations of the electric field Ez'= Ez/γ, Ey'= Ey/γ, ∂y = ∂y', ∂z= ∂z', derived:


(Ez/c)(∂/∂y)-(Ey/c)(∂/∂z)


= (1/γ)((∂Ez/∂y)-(Ey/∂z)=0


So

∂Ez/∂ y ∂Ey/∂z = 0


The second formula is the curl of the electrostatic field E'

∂Ex/∂ z’)-(∂Ez/∂x’)= 0


The partial differentiation obtained by the relativistic transformation of the electric field Ex'= Ex, Ez'= Ez/γ, ∂z = ∂z', and the partial differentiation γ obtained by the Lorenz positive transform x'=∂∂γ(x-vt) is derived:

∂Ex/∂z -(1/γ²)(∂Ez/∂x=0

∂Ex/∂z -(1-v²/c²)(∂Ez/∂x=0


∂Ex/∂z -(∂Ez/∂x)= -(v²/c²)(∂Ez/∂x)


Derive v/∂x= 1/∂t from v=dx/dt


So:

∂Ex/∂z∂Ez/∂x = -(v/c²)∂Ez/∂t


The relationship satisfied by the magnetic field B and the electric field E at the space point p is obtained by = v Ez /c²:

∂Ex/∂z∂Ez/∂x = By /∂t


The curl of the electrostatic field E' is the third formula

∂Ey’/∂ x’- ∂Ex’/∂y= 0


The relativistic transformation of the electric field Ex'= Ex, Ey'= Ey/γ, and then by the differential operator of the Lorenz positive transformation above γ/∂x'=1/∂x, ∂y=∂y',


Get:

1/γ²)∂Ey/∂ x∂Ex/∂y=0

(1 - v²/c²)∂Ey/∂ x∂Ex/∂y=0


∂Ey/∂ x-∂Ex/∂y =(v²/c²)∂Ey/∂ x


is composed of v/∂x = 1/∂t


Get:


∂Ey/∂ x-∂Ex/∂y =(v/c²)∂Ey/∂ t


From the relationship between the electric field E and the magnetic field B at the space point p, where Bz = -v Ey/c² satisfies the relationship, we get:

∂Ey/∂ x∂Ex/∂y =Bz/∂ t


From Tox's theorem:

▽×E = ( ∂Ez/∂y∂Ey/∂z) i+ ( ∂Ex/∂z∂Ez/∂x) j + z ( ∂Ey/∂x∂Ex/∂y) k

= 0 i ∂By/∂tj -(∂Bz/∂tk

=-(∂Bx/∂ti-(∂By/∂tj-(∂Bz/∂tk

= ∂B/∂t


6. Derive the current and change the electric field to produce a magnetic field


The relation satisfied by the electric field E and the magnetic field B at the space point p


Bz = -v ey/c², By = v ez/c², we get:


∂Bz/∂y -∂By/∂z = -(∂/∂y)(v/c²)Ey -(∂/∂z)(v/c²)Ez

= -v/c²(∂Ey/∂y ∂Ez/∂z


= -μ。 ε。 v(ρ/ε。 -∂Ex/∂x)


Attention, μ. ε。 =1/c², ρ is the charge body density of the charge o point in the s system, and here Gauss's theorem is used for the moving electric field E


"_E=∂Ex/∂ x+∂Ey/∂y+∂Ez/∂z=ρ/ε。


So


-μ。 ε。 v(ρ/ε。 -∂Ex/∂x)


= -μ。 v ρ+ μ。 ε。 v ∂Ex/∂x


The above is obtained from the spatial point p, since the velocity v of the charge o point and the velocity of the p point -v are opposite.


μ。 v ρ is the current, and if the above equation represents the current and the changing magnetic field to produce the magnetic field, then the negative sign should be removed. Then v/∂x = 1/∂t, so the vector formula of the above equation can be written as:


μ。 J + μ。 ε。 (∂Ex /∂t)i


i is the unit vector of the electric field E along the x-axis, and J is the current.


由Bx=0,Bz = - v Ey/c²,v/∂x=1/∂t,所以:

∂Bx/∂z∂Bz/∂x = - ∂Bz/∂x

= v/c²)∂Ey/∂x

=(1/c²)∂Ey/∂t


= μ。 ε。 ∂Ey/∂t


By Bx=0, By = v Ez/c², v/∂x=1/∂t, so:

∂By/∂x∂Bx/∂y = ∂By/∂x

= v/c²)∂Ez/∂x

= ( 1/c²)∂Ez/∂t


= μ。 ε。 ∂Ez/∂t


by Stokes' theorem,

▽×B = ( ∂Bz/∂y∂By/∂z) i+ ( ∂Bx/∂z∂Bz/∂x) j + z ( ∂By/∂x∂Bx/∂y) k


=(m。 J+μ。 E. ∂Ex /∂t) i+(m。 E. ∂Ey /∂t )j+ (m。 E. ∂Ez/∂t ) k


= μ。 J +μ。 ε。 (∂E /∂t)


XXXV. The gravitational field that varies with time produces an electric field


In the unified field theory, the gravitational field is the parent field, the electric field, the magnetic field, and the nuclear field are all formed by the change of the gravitational field, and the charge is formed by the change of mass.


In turn, changes in the electric field, magnetic field, and nuclear force field can also form a gravitational field, however, the form of this change is more complex, while the change of gravitational field forms other fields, and the form of change is simpler.


We first find out that when the particle point of the object is at rest with respect to our observer, the changing gravitational field produces an electric field. Next, we find out that when the particles of the object move relative to us, the change in the gravitational field produces an electric field.


Place the gravitational field equation

A = - g m R/r³ = - g k(1/Ω)R/r³


(1/Ω) for time t is the partial derivative and yields:

A/t = g k (1/Ω²)(dΩ/dt)R/r³


The equation is defined by the above electrostatic field geometry


E = - k’k (dΩ/dt)R/Ω²4πε。 r³


You can get:


E = -( k’/g 4πε。 )dA/dt


Since g, k' , 4π, ε. are all constants, and the combined constant is f, then:

E = - f dA/dt


This gives the relation of the three components:

Ex = - f Ax /t

Ey = - f Ay /t

Ez = - f Az /t


When the particle o point of the charged object moves in a straight line along the positive direction of the x-axis with a uniform velocity V [scalar v], the relationship between the electric field and the gravitational field of the moving object can be found by using the relativistic transformation of the electric field and the relativistic transformation of the gravitational field.


In order to distinguish between the electric field and the gravitational field generated at point O at rest, we use the letter with an apostrophe to indicate the electric field and gravitational field generated when point O is moving.


o Relationship between the electric field and the gravitational field when the point is at rest:

Ex = - f Ax /t

Ey = - f Ay /t

Ez = - f Az /t


From the Lorenz transform of the electric field in the theory of relativity, we know: Ex = E'x, Ey = γE'y, Ez = γE'z, where γ = 1/√(1- v²/c²).


From the previous gravitational field relativistic transformation, we can see that Ax = γAx, Ay = γ²Ay, Az = γ²Az.


For the positive Lorentz time transformation t' =γ(t-vx/c²) in the theory of relativity, the time of the motion is extended:

t/t=γ( t/t - v²/c²)

t/t =γ(1 - v²/c²)=γ/γ²=1/γ

/t /t


From the above, we can find the satisfying relationship between the moving electric field E and the moving gravitational field A when the point o is moving:

Ex= - f Ax /t

Ey= - f Ay /t

Ez = - f Az /t


According to the results of the calculation, the relationship between the electric field and the gravitational field is the same when the particles of an object are at rest and moving in a uniform linear line.


XXXVI. Changes in the gravitational field of a uniformly linear moving object produce an electric field


As noted above, when the particle o point of the object is at rest relative to our observer, the divergence of the surrounding gravitational field A is:


∇· A= ∂Ax/∂x' + ∂Ay/∂y + ∂Az/∂z'


Ax, Ay, and Az are the components of A on the three coordinate axes.


When point o moves in a straight line with a constant velocity relative to us with velocity V [scalar v] in the positive direction of the x-axis, the divergence of the gravitational field A is:


∇· A = ∂Ax/ ∂x + ∂Ay/∂y + ∂Az/∂z


Finding the partial differentiation of the Lorenz positive transform x'=γ(x-vt) gives ∂/γ∂x=∂/∂x', plus ∂y=∂y', ∂z= ∂z', and the relativistic transformation of the above gravitational field, we get:


∇· A =(∂Ax/c)/c∂x + ∂Ay/c²∂y + ∂Az/c²∂z


=(1/γ²)∇· A


From the above, we can get:


∇· A=(1- v²/c²)∇· A

= Ax/x + Ay/y + Az/z - (v²/c²)Ax/x - (v²/c²)Ay/y -(v²/c²)Az/z

= Ax/x + Ay/y + Az/z - (v/c²)vAx/x - (v/c²)vAy/y -(v/c²)vAz/z


To change the above equation to the vector form, since here is the divergence, not the curl, the velocity V [along the x direction, the scalar is v] and the three component points of the gravitational field A are multiplied.


∇· A=(1- v²/c²)∇· A


= ∂Ax/∂x + ∂Ay/∂y + ∂Az/∂z - (v/c²)V·∂Ax i /∂x - (v/c²)V·∂Ay j /∂y -(v/c²)V·∂Az k /∂z


In the above equation, i, j, and k are the unit vectors of the three components of the gravitational field A on the x, y, and z axes, ay, and az axes, y, and z, respectively. From the vector point multiplication theorem in mathematics, we get:


∇· A=(1- v²/c²)∇· A


= ∂Ax/∂x + ∂Ay/∂y + ∂Az/∂z - (v/c²)v ∂Ax/∂x


= ∂Ax/∂x + ∂Ay/∂y + ∂Az/∂z -(v/c²)∂Ax /∂t


=∂Ax/∂x + ∂Ay/∂y + ∂Az/∂z +(v/c²)Ex /f


Note that the relationship between the component Ex of the electric field E on the x-axis and the component Ax of the gravitational field A on the x-axis is used in the above equation Ex= - f ∂ Ax /∂t, and v ∂/∂x = ∂/ ∂t.


The above shows that the gravitational field A is generated in the surrounding space when the particle point o is stationary relative to our observer, and when it moves in a straight line along the x-axis with a velocity V [scalar value is v], the gravitational field changes [the changed gravitational field is represented by A] and becomes two parts, one is independent of velocity, one is related to the speed of motion, and the part related to velocity and distributed along the x-axis is actually the electric field.


Using the relationship between the gravitational and electric fields of the particles of a moving object, the relationship between the curl of the magnetic field and the changing gravitational field can also be derived.


Bring the above relationship between the moving electric field E and the moving gravitational field A E = - f ∂A/∂t into Maxwell's equations:


μ。 J + (1/c²)∂E /∂ t = ∇×B


, get:


μ。 J -(1/c²)f ∂²A/∂ t ²= ∇×B,


where J is the density ρ [ρ/ε. = ∇· E] The current formed by the movement of the charge body along the x-axis with velocity V,


μ。 J【μ。 J=μ。 ε。 V ρ/ε。 =(1/c²)V ρ/ε。 In Maxwell's equation it can be written as (V/c²)∇· E【∇· E=ρ /ε。 Therefore, the above formula can be written as:


(V/c²)∇· E -(1/c²)f ∂²A/∂ t ²= ∇×B


So:


(1/c²)f ∂²A/∂ t ²=(V/c²)∇· E - ∇×B


∂²A/∂ t ²=(V/ f )∇· E - ∇×B(c²/f)


The above equation indicates that a changing gravitational field can produce an electric field as well as a magnetic field.


The situation is similar to Maxwell's equations, where the gravitational field can be incorporated into Maxwell's equations as an extension of Maxwell's equations.


XXXVII. The magnetic field of a moving charge creates a gravitational field


1. The magnetic field of a charge moving in a straight line at a uniform velocity generates a gravitational field


The core of the unified field theory is that a changing gravitational field can produce an electric field, and conversely, a changing electromagnetic field can also produce a gravitational field.


The theory of relativity and electromagnetism holds that a moving charge produces not only an electric field, but also a magnetic field.


The unified field theory further argues that the moving charge not only produces a magnetic field, but also a gravitational field, and we find the relationship between the electromagnetic field generated by the moving charge and the gravitational field.


Above we pointed out that the direction of the electric field generated by changing the gravitational field does not change, the direction of the gravitational field and the electric field are the same, and the direction of the electric field and the direction of the magnetic field are always perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field in general.


Let's explore the relationship between the curl of the gravitational field and the magnetic field, because curl describes the change of the field in the vertical direction, while divergence describes the change of the field in the parallel direction.


Suppose a point charge o point, starting from the origin at time 0, moving in a uniform linear direction along the positive direction of the x-axis with velocity V [scalar value v] relative to our observer, the point charge o generates an electric field E, a magnetic field B, and a gravitational field A at the surrounding space point p, as shown in the figure below.


Let's take the spatial point p as the point of investigation to carry out the analysis.


The gravitational field A and the electric field E are in the same direction of orbit and are both left-handed spirals, but near a point on the orbiting line, A and E are perpendicular to each other.


In order to prove that the electric field E, the magnetic field B, and the gravitational field A satisfy the relationship shown in the figure above, let's first find the curl of A:

×A =(Az/y - Ay/z)i+(Ax/z - Az/x)j + (Ay/x-Ax/y) k


The curl of the gravitational field at rest from the object in front is zero, i.e., ∇×A=0, and the component is in the form of:

Az/y- Ay/z = 0

Ax/z - Az/x = 0

Ay/x-Ax/y = 0


From the relativistic transformation of the gravitational field, we get:


∂Az/∂y' - ∂A/∂z' =∂Az/γ∂y - ∂Ay/γ²∂z

= Az/y - Ay/z =0


γ=1/√(1-v²/c²) is a relativistic factor, ∂y=∂y', ∂z=∂z'.


Partial differentiation of the Lorenz positive transform x'=γ(x-vt) of the theory of relativity yields ∂/γ∂x=∂/∂x', and then from the relativistic transformation of the gravitational field, we get:


By ∂Ax/∂z' - ∂Az/∂x' = 0, we get:


∂Ax/c∂z - ∂Az/c³∂x = 0,所以:

Ax/z - Az/γ²x = 0


∂Ax/∂z - (1- v²/c²)∂Az/∂x = 0


∂Ax/∂z - ∂Az/∂x = -(v²/c²)∂Az/∂x


∂Ax/∂z - ∂Az/∂x = -(v/c²)v ∂Az/∂x


is defined by v ∂/∂x = ∂/∂t, so:


∂Ax/∂z - ∂Az/∂x = -(v/c²)∂Az/∂t


From ∂Ay/∂x' - ∂Ax/∂y' = 0 and the gravitational field relativistic transformation, plus the above ∂/γ∂x=∂/∂x', we get:


∂Ay/γ³∂x - ∂Ax/γ∂y = 0,所以:

Ay/γ²x - Ax/y = 0


(1- v²/c²)∂Ay/∂x - ∂Ax/ ∂y = 0


∂Ay/∂x - ∂Ax/∂y =(v/c²)v ∂Ay/∂x


is defined by v ∂/∂x = ∂/∂t, so:


∂Ay/∂x - ∂Ax/∂y = (v/c²)∂Ay/∂t


The relationship between the gravitational and electric fields of the moving object in front of it is equated:

Ex= - f Ax /t

Ey= - f Ay /t

Ez = - f Az/t


You can get:

Az/y - Ay/z =0


∂Ax/∂z - ∂Az/∂x = (v/c²)This /f


∂Ay/∂x - ∂Ax/∂y = -(v/c²)Ey /f


Earlier, we pointed out that when the charge moves in a uniform linear motion along the positive direction of the x-axis with velocity V [scalar is v], we take a space point p around the charge as the investigation point, and the velocity of the point p -V and the three components of the electric field E and the magnetic field B satisfy the following relationship:

Bx = 0

By = (v/c²)Ez

Bz = -(v/c²)Ey


From this, you can get:

Az/y - Ay/z = Bx

Ax/z - Az/x = By /f

Ay/x - Ax/y = Bz/f


Combining the above three equations, we can obtain the relationship satisfied by the curl of the gravitational field A and the magnetic field B:

×A= B /f


This is the basic equation that satisfies the magnetic field and the gravitational field, and this equation tells us that when a charge moves in a straight line at a certain speed, the magnetic field generated can be expressed in the form of curl of the gravitational field.


At a certain moment [due to the homogenization of space-time, or at a certain point in space], the magnetic field, the electric field, and the gravitational field are perpendicular to each other.


This equation may be the final explanation for the AB effect in quantum mechanics.


The integral equation ∇×of the relationship between the magnetic field B and the gravitational field A can be obtained by using Stokes' theorem in field theory by using Stokes' theorem in field theory by multiplying the vector plane element dS [which can be regarded as a small area on a Gaussian sphere s = 4πr² surrounding the point o of the charge particle], and then using Stokes' theorem in field theory:

 A·dL= (1/f)∮ B·dS


2. The magnetic field that varies with time produces an electric field and a gravitational field


Suppose a point charge o point, starting from the origin at time 0, moving in a uniform linear motion along the positive direction of the x-axis with a uniform velocity V [scalar is v] relative to our observer, the point charge o generates a moving electric field E and a uniform magnetic field B at any surrounding space point p:

B= V×E/c²


When point o moves in the positive direction of the x-axis with acceleration -A relative to us, the charge o produces a moving electric field E, a magnetic field dB/dt that varies with time t, and a gravitational field A at any of the surrounding spatial points p.


We take the space point p as the investigation point and find the derivative of the magnetic field definition equation B= V×E/c² for time t, which is:

dB/dt=dV/dt×E/c²+(V×dE/dt)/c²


If we can prove that dB/dt= (V×dE/dt)/c² represents:


The change of the magnetic field produces a changing electric field, that is, the Faraday principle of electromagnetic induction, as a correspond, dB/dt=dV/dt×E/c² should be the change of the magnetic field to produce the gravitational field.


Since dV/dt=A is the acceleration of the point p in space, according to the unified field theory, the acceleration of space itself is equivalent to the gravitational field.


We first show that dB/dt= (V×dE/dt)/c² is Faraday's principle of electromagnetic induction.


Since the investigation point is no longer on point o, but on point p in space, the relationship between the magnetic field B and the electric field E, we use the left-hand spiral:

Bx = 0

By = (v/c²)Ez

Bz = -(v/c²)Ey


The three components of dB/dt= (V×dE/dt)/c² are as follows: [Differential semicolon d is changed to partial differential semicolon ∂]:

Bx/t = 0

By/t = (v Ez/t)/c²

Bz/t = -(v Ey/t)/c²


From the zero curl of the electrostatic field∂Ex'/∂z' - ∂Ez'/∂x'=0, and Ex = Ex', ∂z' = ∂z, γEz' = Ez, ∂/γ∂x=∂/∂x', γ=1/√(1- v²/c²) in the Lorenz transform, we get:

Ex/z (1/γ²)Ez/x = 0

Ex/z 1- v²/c²)Ez/x = 0


∂Ex/∂z – ∂Ez/∂x = -(v²/c²)∂Ez/∂x


From v ∂/∂x = ∂/ ∂t, we get:

Ex/z Ez/x = -(v/c²)Ez/t


Similar to the above operation, you can get:


∂Ey/∂x – ∂Ex/∂y = (v/c²)∂Ey/∂t


Take these two equations and the three components of dB/dt= (V×dE/dt)/c² above as follows:

Bx/t = 0

By/t = (v Ez/t)/c²

Bz/t = -(v Ey/t)/c²


By comparison, we can get:

Ez/y Ey/z = 0

Ex/z Ez/x = - By/t

Ey/x Ex/y = - Bz/t


Combining the above three equations, it is the Faraday electromagnetic induction equation:

×E= - B/t


In the following let's analyze the gravitational field A equation dB/dt=dV/dt×E/c² generated by the change of magnetic field B.


The three components of this equation are as follows:

Bx/t = 0


∂By/∂t = (∂V/∂t) ×Ez/c²=A ×Ez/c²


∂Bz/∂t = -(∂V/∂t) ×Ey/c²= - A×Ey/c²


The above equation can be written as dB/dt=A×E/c², which can be understood as:


When the positive charge o accelerates in the positive direction of the x-axis, at any point p in the surrounding space, an electric field E and a gravitational field A in the opposite direction of acceleration are generated.


A, E, dB/dt satisfy the cross-product relationship, and the value is the largest when the three are perpendicular to each other.


3. The relationship between the electric field, magnetic field, and gravitational field of the accelerating moving charge


Since the gravitational field generated by the variable electromagnetic field is the core of the unified field theory and the key to the application of artificial field technology, another method is used to deduce the gravitational field generated by the accelerated positive charge.


The various relationships between the electric field, the magnetic field, and the gravitational field can be seen as a derivation of the fundamental relationship of the magnetic field definition equation B = V×E/c², and can be deduced from this basic equation.


The formula dB/dt = A×E/c² can only be applied to some microscopic single elementary particles, and the object particles we see macroscopically are the composite of many tiny charged particles, and their positive and negative charges cancel each other, and the magnetic field also cancels each other out much.


It is possible that the formula dB/dt = A×E/c² derived above for the gravitational field generated by the changed magnetic field is only applicable to positive charges, because the space around the positive charge diverges at the speed of light, which can dissipate the distortion effect of space (including the gravitational field formed by the accelerating electric field, the accelerating magnetic field, and the changing electric field) at the speed of light.


However, the space around the negative charge moves inwards at the speed of light, and it is reasonable that the space distortion effect cannot be dissipated. However, according to the Lorenz transform, the space of light speed movement is shortened to zero, and it is no longer the same space as us, which is impossible for us observers to observe, and there is uncertainty. Therefore, whether this formula can be applied to negative charge still needs to be further explored in theory and practice.


In order to further understand the relationship between the electric, magnetic, and gravitational fields of the accelerating charge, let's analyze it with an example.


Suppose a point charge o at rest relative to our observer, with a positive charge of charge q, which generates an electrostatic field E at the surrounding space point p.


At moment zero, when point o suddenly accelerates in the positive direction of the x-axis with a vector acceleration G [quantity g].


According to the unified field theory, the acceleration motion of point o causes the space point p to come out of point o and move outward at the vector speed of light C, while superimposing an acceleration -G.


According to the definition of gravitational field in unified field theory, the gravitational field is the acceleration motion of the space point itself, and the gravitational field A [quantity a] and the acceleration of the space point p-G are equivalent, so the position of the space point p will produce a gravitational field due to the acceleration motion of point o:


A [quantity is a] = –G.


Let's find the relationship between the electrostatic field Er, the distorted electric field Eθ that accelerates change, and the gravitational field A.


Suppose that the positive charge o moves in a straight line in the positive direction of the x-axis with respect to the origin o of our observer, which has been stationary in the Cartesian coordinate system, from the moment t = 0, with the acceleration G [quantity g].


At the moment t = τ, point o stops accelerating when it reaches point d, and the velocity reaches v = g τ, and then it continues to move in a uniform straight line along the x-axis with velocity v until the later point q.


As shown in the figure below:


For the sake of simplicity, we consider that v is much less than the speed of light c and the od distance is much less than oq.


Let's consider the distribution of the electric field around the charge O at any time t (t is much greater than τ).


During the period from time 0 to τ, the electric field lines around the charge O are distorted due to the accelerated motion of the charge, and this distortion state also extends outward at the speed of light c.


The unified field theory clearly states that the electric field lines of a positive charge are the displacement of the spatial points around the charge moving at the speed of light.


The above distorted state moves outward at the speed of light, like a faucet that sprays water at a uniform speed in all directions, once the faucet shakes, causing the water flow to distort, this distorted state must extend outward at the speed of the water flow.


The distorted state of the electric field caused by the accelerating motion charge o extends outward at the speed of light c, and in the figure above it can be seen that the distorted state has a thickness of cτ and is sandwiched between two spheres.


The latter sphere, which has spread a distance of c(t-τ) around at time t, is a sphere centered on the q point and with a diameter of c(t-τ).


The previous sphere, which has propagated CT so far in all directions at time T, is a sphere centered on point O and has a diameter of CT.


Since the charge O moves at a uniform speed from the moment t=τ, the electric field distributed in this sphere with a diameter c(t-τ) should be the electric field of the charge moving in a straight line at a uniform velocity.


According to our previous assumption, the velocity v of the charge o is much smaller than the speed of light c, so the electric field in this sphere is approximately an electrostatic field at any time.


The electric field lines of the electric field at time t are straight lines in the radius direction derived from the position q of point o at this time.


Since t is much greater than τ and c is much greater than v, r=ct is much greater than vτ/2 (i.e., the distance from point o to point d). Thus, the two spheres on the front and back edges of the twisted state are almost concentric circles.


Over time, the radius (CT) of the above distorted state expands, extending outward and spreading at the speed of light.


We know from the equation of the definition of charge and electric field in the unified field theory that the distortion of the electric field lines does not change the number of electric field lines, and is still continuous, so the number of electric field lines on the front and rear sides of the twisted state is equal.


At a time when v is much smaller than c, this distorted electric field line can be viewed as a straight line.


We use the electric field line at an angle to the x-axis for the analysis.


Since the distance od from point o to point d is much smaller than r = ct, we can think of point o and point d as points (i.e., od is close to zero).


And oq = vτ/2 + v (t-τ) ≈ vt


The electric field E in the distortion region can be divided into two components, Er [radial electric field, which exists when the charge is stationary, and its number is er,] and Eθ [transverse electric field, which can be seen as a variation of Er, and its number is eθ].


As can be seen from the picture above


Eθ/ER = VT Sinθ/Cτ= G T Sinθ/C = G R Sinθ/C²


In the unified field theory, the essence of the gravitational field is the acceleration of a point in space, but the gravitational field is in the opposite direction to the position vector R [the number of r] pointed by the gravitational field source to the gravitational field point p.


So, the gravitational field here can be represented by A [quantity a = -g], so there are:

Eθ/er = A×R/c² 


In the above equation, the position r = ct from point o to point p in space is represented by vector R.


The above electric field Eθ is perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic field (in this case, the direction of Er) and exists only in the twisted state. Therefore, it is the transvers