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Edited by Werner Platzer 编辑:维尔纳-普雷策尔Translated by Harry Monsen
翻译:哈里-蒙森

Volume I  第一卷

Head and Neck 头颈部
Urban & Schwarzenherg Urban & Schwarzenherg

Volumel:Headand Neek Edited by Wemer Platzer Tanslated by Hlamy Monsert UTban&Selwavenberg
卷首语:Headand Neek 编辑:Wemer Platzer 翻译:Hlamy Monsert UTban&Selwavenberg

Pernkopf Anatomy  Pernkopf 解剖学

Atlas of Topographic and Applied Human Anatomy
地形图和应用人体解剖图谱

Edited by 编辑Werner PlatZer, M.D. 维尔纳-普拉特泽医学博士University of Innsbruck 因斯布鲁克大学Translated by 翻译Harry Monsen, Ph. D. 哈里-蒙森博士University of Illinois 伊利诺伊大学Chicago 芝加哥Volume I 第一卷Head and Neck 头颈部

Third Edition 第三版
298 full color and 118 black and white illustrations
298 幅全彩插图和 118 幅黑白插图
Pernkopf Anatomy Pernkopf 解剖学
Volume I: Head and Neck
第一卷:头颈部
Urban & Schwarzenberg, Inc.
Urban & Schwarzenberg, Inc.
7 East Redwood Street Baltimore, Maryland 21202 USA
美国马里兰州巴尔的摩市东红木街 7 号 21202

Urban & Schwarzenberg Urban & Schwarzenberg
Landwehrstraße 61
D-8000 München 2 D-8000 慕尼黑 2 号
Germany 德国
(c) Urban & Schwarzenberg 1964, 1980, 1989
(c) Urban & Schwarzenberg 1964, 1980, 1989
All rights to reproduction in any form including that of translations are rescrved by the author and publisher. Photomechanical reproduction (photocopy, microcopy) of this book or parts thereof or the use of electronic or mechanical systems for the purpose of storage, retrieval or transmission is prohibited without written permission from the publisher (with the exception of special cases identified under Paragraphs 53, 54 URG).
作者和出版商保留以任何形式复制(包括翻译)的所有权利。未经出版商书面许可,禁止对本书或其部分内容进行照相机械复制(影印、缩微复制),或使用电子或机械系统进行存储、检索或传输(《出版法》第 53 和 54 款规定的特殊情况除外)。
This Atlas consists of 2 separate volumes:
该地图集由 2 册独立的地图组成:
Volume I: Head and Neck
第一卷:头颈部
Volume II: Thorax, Abdomen and Extremitics
第二卷:胸腔、腹腔和胸外器官
Original edition: Pernkopf, Anatomic: Atlas der topographischen und angewandten Anatomie des Menschen. Herausgegeben von Prof. Werner Platzer. 3. Auflage, 1. Band: Kopf und Hals. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München-Wien-Baltimore 1987
原版:Pernkopf, Anatomic: Atlas der topographischen und angewandten Anatomie des Menschen.由 Werner Platzer 教授编辑。第 3 版第 1 卷:头颈部。Urban & Schwarzenberg,慕尼黑-维也纳-巴尔的摩,1987 年

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
美国国会图书馆出版数据编目

Pernkopf, Eduard, 1888 - 1955
爱德华-佩恩科普夫,1888 - 1955
IAtlas der topographischen und angewandten Anatomie des Menschen. English
人体地形和应用解剖图集英文版
Pernkopf anatomy : atlas of topographic and applied human anatomy / edited by Werner Platzer : translated from German by Harry Monsen. -3 rd ed.
Pernkopf anatomy : atlas of topographic and applied human anatomy / Werner Platzer 编著 : Harry Monsen 译自德文。-3 rd ed.
p. cm.
Translation of: Atlas der topographischen und angewandten Anatomie des Menschen. 1987.
翻译:地形和应用人体解剖图集》。1987.
Includes index 包括索引
Contents: v. 1. Head and neck
目录: v. 1.头颈部
ISBN 0-8067-1553-7 (v. 1) : $175.00
ISBN 0-8067-1553-7(第 1 版):175.00 美元
  1. Anatomy, Surgical and topographical--Atlases. 2. Anatomy. Human--Atlases. I. Platzer, Werner. II. Title.
    解剖学、外科和地形学--图集。2.解剖学。人类--图集。I. Platzer, Werner.I. Platzer, Werner.标题.
[DNLM: 1. Anatomy--atlases. QS 17 P452a
[DNLM:1.解剖--酶。QS 17 P452a
QM531.P4813 1989
DNLM/DLC
for Library of Congress 89-5805
美国国会图书馆 89-5805
CIP

Preface 序言

The goal of Anatomy is to make available for the future physician the clearest and most accurate illustrations of the different regions of the body since thorough knowledge of morphology provides for an earlier understanding of functional relationships. The practicing physician may also avail himself of an atlas for the recall of anatomical details.
解剖学的目标是为未来的医生提供最清晰、最准确的人体不同区域的图解,因为形态学的透彻知识有助于更早地理解功能关系。执业医师还可以利用地图册来回忆解剖细节。
The work of Eduard Pernkopf is classical among atlases of anatomy. The detailed information on topographic-anatomical relationships and the high quality of the illustrations determine the worth of this volume since the publication of the first edition over 40 years ago. I was honored and exceedingly pleased to be afforded the opportunity of preparing the third edition of this great work; pleased, because I prepared most of the specimens of the head and neck regions which served as bases for the original illustrations. I collaborated with Pernkopf in the years between 1949 and 1955 and, after his sudden death in 1955, supervised the creation of the illustrations of both volumes on the head until 1959.
Eduard Pernkopf 的作品是解剖学图谱中的经典之作。自 40 多年前第一版出版以来,有关地形解剖关系的详细信息和高质量的插图决定了这本书的价值。能有机会编写这部巨著的第三版,我感到非常荣幸和欣慰;欣慰是因为我制作了大部分头颈部标本,这些标本是原始插图的基础。从 1949 年到 1955 年,我一直与 Pernkopf 合作,1955 年他突然去世后,我一直负责监督两卷头部插图的创作,直到 1959 年。
I felt that the illustrations from the masters hands, those of Batke, Dietz, Endtresser, Lepier, Schrott, and von Siber should all appear in the new edition, if at all possible. Of course, it was also necessary to include new plates, some of which were drawn by the unforgettable academic painter Franz Batke, as well as a series of illustrations prepared with the perceptive insights and efforts of Mrs. Ulrike Brugger of Munich and Mrs. Kirsten Siedel of Bernried. My heartfelt thanks to both ladies for their willing cooperation and understanding in this time-consuming task. Most illustrations are drawn from dissections, of which I prepared some. For the bulk of the material, however, I am forever grateful to my assistant professor, Dr. Herbert Maurer and the demonstrators of the Institute of Anatomy. I also wish to thank Dr. Otto Dapunt Jr. for some outstanding preparations. Finally, I thank my earlier assistant, Dr. Cornelia Fischer, for some very difficult and carefully developed specimens.
我认为,如果可能的话,出自巴特克、迪茨、恩德特雷瑟、勒皮耶、施罗特和冯-西伯之手的插图都应该出现在新版中。当然,还有必要加入新的图版,其中一些图版是由令人难忘的学院派画家弗朗茨-巴特克绘制的,还有一系列插图是由慕尼黑的乌尔里克-布鲁格夫人和伯尔尼德的克尔斯滕-西德尔夫人以敏锐的洞察力和努力绘制的。我衷心感谢两位女士在这项耗时的工作中给予的合作和理解。大部分插图来自解剖图,其中一些是我准备的。然而,对于大部分素材,我永远感谢我的助教赫伯特-毛雷尔博士和解剖研究所的演示者。我还要感谢小奥托-达彭特博士的一些出色准备工作。最后,我还要感谢我早先的助手科妮莉亚-菲舍尔博士,她为我制作了一些非常困难和精心制作的标本。
All rays have been excluded from this edition. This was not done because of the availability today of a large number of outstanding radiological anatomy textbooks, but their retention would by necessity mean the inclusion of new imaging methods and a consequent expansion of this volume to unmanageable proportions.
本版不包括所有 射线。这样做并不是因为现在有大量优秀的放射学解剖学教科书,而是保留这些教科书必然意味着要纳入新的成像方法,从而使这本书的篇幅扩大到难以驾驭的程度。
The nomenclature has, as much as possible, been adjusted to contemporary usage. Details which are not listed in the Nomina Anatomica are named in a meaningful manner. All leaders have been redrawn and reduced in number in order to improve the overall appearance of the illustrations.
命名法已尽可能根据现代用法进行了调整。解剖学名称》中未列出的细节均以有意义的方式命名。为了改善插图的整体外观,所有领导者都已重新绘制并减少了数量。
The tiresome task of proof-reading was undertaken by my assistant Professor Sepp Poisel, Mrs. Cornelia Fischer, and my wife, Dr. Liselotte Platzer. The completely new legends were authored by Mrs. Anna Mayerhofer. My heartfelt thanks to all of them.
我的助手 Sepp Poisel 教授、Cornelia Fischer 女士和我的妻子 Liselotte Platzer 博士承担了繁重的校对工作。全新的传说则由安娜-迈尔霍夫女士撰写。我衷心感谢他们所有人。
I am also grateful to Mr. Michael Urban who, on behalf of the publisher, provided the necessary facilities. His coworkers, Dr. Silke Dabelstein, Mr. Peter Mazzetti, and Mrs. Renate Hausdorf supported me actively in such a pleasant manner that the work was guaranteed a smooth completion. My thanks to them also.
我还要感谢迈克尔-乌尔班先生,他代表出版社为我提供了必要的便利。他的同事 Silke Dabelstein 博士、Peter Mazzetti 先生和 Renate Hausdorf 夫人以令人愉快的方式积极支持我,保证了工作的顺利完成。我也要向他们表示感谢。
This edition is dedicated to the memory of Professor Eduard Pernkopf and his collaborating artists, Franz Batke, Wilhelm Dietz, Karl Endtresser, Erich Lepier, Ludwig Schrott, and E. von Siber.
此版本献给爱德华-佩恩科普夫教授及其合作艺术家弗朗茨-巴特克、威廉-迪茨、卡尔-恩德特雷瑟、埃里希-莱皮耶、路德维希-施罗特和E-冯-西伯。
Innsbruck, June 1989 因斯布鲁克,1989 年 6 月
Werner Platzer 维尔纳-普雷策尔

Table of Contents 目录

The Head 头部

External Form of the Head
头部的外部形态

Cleavage lincs, regions, points and
裂解线、区域、点和

lincs for orientation .....
LINKS for orientation .....

The Superficial Layers of the Head and the
头部的表层和颅骨

Musculo-skeletal Walls of its Visceral
其内脏的肌肉骨骼壁

Compartments 隔间
Muscles of facial expression. .....
面部表情肌肉。.....

Parotideo-masseteric region and
副睾丸-睾丸区和

retromandibular fossa .....
颌后窝 .....

Front view of orbital region .....
轨道区正视图 .....

The intratemporal fossa .....
颞内窝 .....

Superficial structures in
表层结构

occipital region ..... 22
枕叶区 .....22

The skull .....
头骨 .....

Muscles and fasciae of face region .....
脸部肌肉和筋膜 .....

Vessels and nerves of the head .....
头部血管和神经 .....

Sections of the head .....
头部 .....

Visceral Compartments 内脏隔室
Structures of the oral cavity .....
口腔结构 .....

Structures of the nasal cavity .....
鼻腔结构 .....

Structures of the orbit .....
轨道结构 .....

The Base of the Skull and the Ear
颅底和耳朵

Figs 无花果
The interior of the skull base. .....
颅底内部。.....

The vestibulo-cochlear organ
前庭-耳蜗器官

superior view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148-149
高级景观148-149

posterior view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150-152
后视图150-152

lateral view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153-157
侧视图153-157

medial view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158-161
内侧视图158-161

detailed anatomy .....
详细解剖 .....

The Brain 大脑
The Brain in situ
原位大脑

superior view .....
优景 .....

anterior view .....
前视图 .....

lateral view .....
侧视图 .....

posterior view .....
后视图 .....

inferior view .....
下视图 .....

Overviews of parts of the brain .....
大脑各部分概述 .....

The ventricular system and the
心室系统和

subarachnoid space .....
蛛网膜下腔 .....

Craniocerebral topography .....
颅脑地形图 .....

Vessels of the brain .....
脑血管 .....

Fiber preparations of the brain .....
脑纤维制剂 .....

Sections of the brain .....
大脑切片 .....

Nuclei of telencephalon and
端脑和

mesencephalon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272-279
间脑. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272-279

The Neck 颈部

Figs. 
External Form of the Neck
颈部外部形态

Regions, dermatomes, points
区域、皮层、点

for orientation .....
用于定向 .....

Figs. 
The Visceral Neck Compartment
内脏颈部隔间

The Pharynx 咽部
dorsal view .....
背视图 .....

lateral view .....
侧视图 .....

The Superficial Layers of the
表层

medial vicw .....
内侧 vicw .....

Neck and the Musculo-skeletal
颈部和肌肉骨骼

Cross sections of the
的横截面

visceral compartment .....
内脏腔 .....

Walls of the Visceral and
内脏壁和

Visceral vessels and nerves
内脏血管和神经

of the neck. .....
.....

Neural Compartments 神经区
Superficial layers 表层
Ventro-lateral superficial layers .....
通风道外侧表层 .....

Retromandibular fossa ..... 287-288
颌后窝 .....287-288

Submandibular triangle .....
颌下三角区 .....

Carotid triangle .....
颈动脉三角 .....

Median cervical region ..... 295-298
颈中线区域 ..... 295-298

Lateral cervical region . ..... 299-301
颈侧区域 . .....299-301

Sternocleidomastoid region .....
胸锁乳突区 .....

Suboccipital region .....
枕下区 .....

Structures of the neck
颈部结构

Anterior and lateral views of
前视图和侧视图

neck skelcton .....
颈部 Skelcton .....

Neck musculature .....
颈部肌肉 .....

Sections of the neck .....
颈部切面 .....

Fasciae of the neck .....
颈部筋膜 .....

The superficial vessels and
表层血管和

nerves of the neck .....
颈部神经 .....

Dorsal view of neck skeleton ..... 332
颈部骨骼背视图 .....332

Intrinsic back muscles ..... 333
背部内在肌肉 .....333

Vessels and nerves of the
血管和神经

suboccipital region ..... 334
枕下区 .....334

Pharyngeal structures .....
咽部结构 .....

The larynx - thyroid gland -
喉--甲状腺

cupola of plcura 穹顶
Larynx .....  喉 .....
Laryngeal structures .....
喉部结构 .....

Thyroid gland .....
甲状腺 .....

Cupola of pleura .....
胸膜冲天炉 .....

The Cervical Neural Compartment
颈椎神经室

Structures .....
结构 .....

The Axial Skeleton of the Neck
颈部轴向骨骼

The cervical vertebral column .....
颈椎 .....

The atlanto-occipital and
寰枕部和

atlantoaxial joints .....
寰枢关节 .....

Anthropometric Points ..... 403
人体测量点 .....403

The Head 头部

External Form of the Head
头部的外部形态

Figs. 1a and  图 1a 和
Skin cleavage lines (of LaNGER), a) from front, b) from behind. The best cosmetic results are achieved when surgical incisions are made along the
皮肤乳沟线(LaNGER),a)从前面看,b)从后面看。如果手术切口沿着
Regions 地区
R.b. = Buccal region
R.b. = 颊区
R.fr. Frontal region
R.fr. 额叶
R.i.o. Infraorbital region
R.i.o. 眶下区
R.m. = Mental region
R.m. = 心理区域
R.n. = Nasal region
R.n. = 鼻区
R.o. = Oral region
R.o. = 口腔区
R.orb. = Orbital region
R.orb. = 轨道区域
R.p. = Parietal region
R.p. = 顶叶区
R.p.m. = Parotideomasseteric region
R.p.m. = Parotideomasseteric 区域

Skin measuring points 皮肤测量点
Alare  阿拉蕾 st Stomion st Stomion
Cheilion Tragion  特拉吉翁
Endocanthion Trichion
Exocanthion Vertex  顶点
Labiale inferius
Labiale superius
上唇
Nasion
Pronasalc
Superaurale  超级
Subaurale
Subnasalc
Fig. 2 Male head from front. Regions and skin measuring points.
图 2 男性头部正面图。区域和皮肤测量点。
Apex of nose, cutaneous part of sup. lip
鼻尖、上唇皮肤部分
Boundary line between Pressure points for 1 st, cutaneous innervation by trigeminal nerve and 2nd, and 3rd branches of trigeminal nerve cervical nerves ("vertex-
三叉神经和三叉神经颈神经第 2 和第 3 支的第 1、第 2 和第 3 皮神经支配的压痛点之间的分界线("椎-椎 "分界线)。
Area of ophthalmic nerve ear-chin line").
眼神经耳颏线区域")。
Area of maxillary nerve
上颌神经区域
Area of mandibular nerve
下颌神经区域
Fig. 3 图 3
Female head from front. Fields of innervation and pressure points are indicated on the left half of the face.
女性头部正面。左半边脸部标有神经支配区域和压力点。
Undefined control sequence \(

Condylion mediale
内侧髁
Coronion  科罗尼翁 Metopion Nasion Nasospinale Orbitale  轨道on Ophryon 关于 Ophryon Prosthion Zygion Zygomaxillare

Fig. 4 图 4
Front view of the male head with superimposed skeleton and craniometric points. Craniometric points are useful in anthropology, and in medicine for establishing planes when applying certain radiologic techniques and computed tomography.
男性头部正视图,叠加骨骼和颅骨测量点。颅骨测量点在人类学和医学中都很有用,在应用某些放射技术和计算机断层扫描时可用于确定平面。
Solid lines Limits between sensory fields of the three trigeminal nerve divisions
实线 三叉神经三个分支感觉区域之间的界限
Dashed lines Limits between sensory fields of cervical plexus branches
虚线 颈丛分支感觉区域之间的界限
Dashed & dotted line Boundary between sensory ficlds of ventral and dorsal branches of the cervical nerves Dark dotted lines Boundary between 2nd and 3rd cervical dermatomes
虚线和点划线 颈神经腹侧支和背侧支感觉器官之间的分界线 暗点划线 第 2 和第 3 颈神经节之间的分界线
Light dotted lines Boundaries between the anterior, middle, and posterior segments innervated by the trigeminal nerve
浅色虚线 三叉神经支配的前段、中段和后段之间的界限
nd and cervical dermatomes
第 nd 和 颈椎皮节
G.I. = Boundary between trigeminal n. distribution and 2nd cervical dermatome ("vertex-ear-chin line")
G.I. = 三叉神经节分布与第 2 颈椎皮节之间的分界线("顶点-耳颏线")。
S.v. Anterior segment of trigeminal n.
S.v. 三叉神经节的前段。
related to the cranial part of the spinal nucleus of
的脊髓核的颅骨部分有关。

S.m. = Middle segment of trigeminal n., related to the middle part of the spinal nucleus of
S.m. = 三叉神经中段,与三叉神经脊髓核的中段有关。
S.h. = Postcrior segment of trigeminal n., related to the caudal part of the spinal nucleus of Areas of innervation of the three branches of the trigeminal . Pressure point for medial br. of supraorbital .
S.h. = 三叉神经节后段,与 的脊髓核尾部有关 三叉神经三个分支的支配区域 眶上缘内侧的压痛点
Pressure point for infraorbital .
眶下压痛点 。
Pressure point for mental .
精神压痛点 。
Pressure point for greater occipital n.
大枕骨 n 的压痛点。
Au.m. = Grcat auricular n. field O.mi. Lesser occipital n. field O.mj. = Greater occipital n. field O.t. rd occipital . ficld T.c. = Transverse cervical n. field.
Au.m. = Grcat auricular n. field O.mi. O.mj. = Greater occipital n. field O.t. rd occipital . ficld T.c. = Transverse cervical n. field.
Fig. 5 图 5
Male head from the side with fields of inncrvation and nerve pressure points.
从侧面看男性头部,有穴位和神经压痛点。
AOE, D.H.
AOE, D.H.
Undefined control sequence \(
Fig. 6 图 6
Male head seen from the side with the most important craniometric points on the superimposed skeleton. The boundary between neurocranium and visceral cranium is marked by a broken line.
从侧面看男性头部,最重要的颅骨测量点在叠加骨骼上。神经颅和内脏颅的分界线用一条折线标出。
Fig. 7 图 7
Male head seen from behind . Left: Regions.
从后面看男性头部 .左:区域
Right: Boundary lines between dermatomes.
右图皮膜之间的边界线。
The dotted line indicates the boundary between ventral and dorsal rami of the cervical nerves.
虚线表示颈神经腹侧缘和背侧缘的分界线。
Graniometric points 花岗岩测量点
ast Asterion ast Asterion
eu Euryon eu Euryon
Inion
Lambda
Ophistion
Obelion
Vcrtex
Fig. 8 图 8
Posterior view of male head with superimposed skeleton and craniometric points.
男性头部后视图,叠加骨骼和头颅测量点。
The superficial layers of the head and the musculoskeletal walls of its visceral compartments
头部表层及其内脏器官的肌肉骨骼壁
Fig. 9 The mimic musculature and subcutaneous vessels and nerves of the head from front.
图 9 从正面观察头部的模拟肌肉组织和皮下血管及神经。
Epicranius ., frontal belly of occipitofrontal .
Epicranius .,枕额腹部 .
Epicranius ., temporoparietal m.
Epicranius ., temporoparietal m.
Epicranius m., occipital belly of occipitofrontal .