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Preface  序言

Wo biok that will not improve by repeated readings deserves to be
icicícit cill
如果反复读取也无法改善生物体的状况,则应将其视为icicícit cill

  • ThOMAS CARLYLE 托马斯-卡莱尔
This book is about the vital subject of business logistics/supply chain-an area of management that has been observed to absorb as much as 60 to 80 percent of a firm's sales dollar and that can be essential to a firm's competitive strategy and revenue generation. This management area has been described by many names, including physical distribution, materials management, transportation management, logistics, and now supply chain management. The business activities of concern may include all or part of the following: transportation, inventory maintenance, order processing, purchasing, warehousing, materials handling, packaging, customer service standards, and production.
本书讲述的是企业物流/供应链这一重要主题--据观察,这一管理领域吸收了企业销售额的 60% 至 80%,对企业的竞争战略和创收至关重要。这一管理领域有许多名称,包括实物分销、材料管理、运输管理、物流,以及现在的供应链管理。所涉及的业务活动可能包括以下全部或部分:运输、库存维护、订单处理、采购、仓储、材料处理、包装、客户服务标准和生产。
The focus of this book is on the planning, organizing, and controlling of these activities-key elements for successful management in any organization. Special emphasis is given to strategic planning and decision making as perhaps the most important parts of the management process. The mission of this managerial effort is to set the level of the logistics activities su as to make products and services available to customers at the time, place, and in the condition and form desired, in the most profitable or cost-effective way.
Because logistics activities have always been vital to companies and organizations, the field of business logistics/supply chain management represents a synthesis of many concepts, principles, and methods from the more traditional areas of marketing, production, accounting, purchasing, and transportation, as well as from the disciplines of applied mathematics, organizational behavior, and economics. This book attempts to unify these into a logical body of thought that can lead to the effective management of the supply chain.
As with any field of management, there are frequently changing terms to capture the methods and concepts of business logistics/supply chain. An attempt has been made to resist following the popular press and fads, and to present the ideas, principles, and techniques that are fundamental to good business logistics practice, now and in the near future. In this spirit, the fifth edition is organized around two themes. First, the basic activities of management, namely, planning, organizing, and controlling, provide the overarching theme for the book. Second, a triangle of interrelated transportation, inventory, and location strategies are at the heart of good logistics planning and decision making. This triangle is emphasized through the text.
Several trends have been noted that affect the scope and practice of business logistics/supply chain. These have been integrated into the body of the text as application illustrations of the fundamental ideas being presented. First, emphasis is placed on logistics/supply chain in a worldwide setting to reflect the growing internationalization and globalization of business in general. Second, the shifting toward more service-oriented economies by industrialized nations is emphasized by showing how logistics concepts and principles are equally applicable to service-producing firms as they are to product-producing ones. Third, attention is given to the integrated management of supply chain activities, as well as managing these activities among the other functional areas of business as well as across multiple enterprises. Fourth, many practical examples are given to show the applicability of the material. Fifth, computer software is provided to assist in solving logistics/supply chain problems reflecting the growing use of computer technology in managerial decision making.
Over the years, so many people and companies have contributed to the ideas embodied in this fifth edition that a list of acknowledgments would be far too long to print. However, to all those students and professors around the world who were willing to comment on the previous editions, to those businesspeople who were willing to try the ideas embodied in them, and to all others who made comments of praise as well as criticism-my heartfelt thanks. A special note of gratitude goes to my wife, Carolyn, for editorial assistance and encouragement throughout this revision. Considering all of this help, any shortcomings and errors that remain must be mine.
R. H. BalloU R.H. BalloU
Weatherhead School of Management
Cleveland, Ohio 俄亥俄州克利夫兰
第 I 部分:引言和规划

Chapt pter 章次

Business Logistics/Supply Chain-A Vital Subject

Physical distribution is simply another way of saying "the whole process of business" 1
实物分销只是 "整个业务流程 "的另一种说法 1

-PETER DRUCKER, 1969 彼得-德鲁克,1969 年


s far back as history records, the goods that people wanted were not produced where they wanted to consume them, or these goods were not accessible when people wanted to consume them. Food and other commodities were widely dispersed and were only available in abundance at certain times of the year. Early peoples had the choice of consuming goods at their immediate location or moving the goods to a preferred site and storing them for later use. However, because no welldeveloped transportation and storage systems yet existed, the movement of goods was limited to what an individual could personally move, and storage of perishable commodities was possible for only a short time. This limited movement-storage system generally constrained people to live close to the sources of production and to consume a rather narrow range of goods.
Even today, in some areas of the world consumption and production take place only within a very limited geographic region. Striking examples can still be observed in the developing nations of Asia, South America, Australia, and Africa, where some of the population live in small, self-sufficient villages, and most of the goods needed by the residents are produced or acquired in the immediate vicinity. Few goods are imported from other areas. Therefore, production efficiency and the economic standard of living are generally low. In this type of economy, a well-developed and inexpensive logistics system would encourage an exchange of goods with other producing areas of the country, or even the world.

Example 示例

Suppose that consumers in the United States and South Korea buy DVD recorders and computer software. In the coming year, about the same number of consumers will purchase a word processing program and a television set. Because of the differences in local labor costs, tariffs, transportation, and product quality, the effective price to the consumers differs, as shown in Table 1-1. A consumer in South Korea and one in the United States (in this case, the economy of both countries) must pay a total of to fill their needs.
假设美国和韩国的消费者都购买 DVD 录像机和计算机软件。在未来一年中,购买文字处理程序和电视机的消费者数量大致相同。由于当地劳动力成本、关税、运输和产品质量的不同,消费者的实际价格也不同,如表 1-1 所示。一个韩国消费者和一个美国消费者(在这种情况下,两国的经济)必须总共支付 才能满足他们的需求。
Now, if each economy trades with the other those goods with which it has a cost advantage, both consumers and their economies will be better off. South Korea has low labor costs for making DVD recorders, whereas the United States has an advantage in producing low-cost, high-quality software. With the availability of inexpensive and reliable transportation, there is an economic advantage to specializing in the product that can be produced most cheaply and buying the remaining product from the other country. With reasonable transportation costs, South Korea can place DVD recorders in the United States at a price below the locally produced and locally transported product. Conversely, the United States has the design and production cost advantage for software and can incur a reasonable transportation charge to place software in South Korea and at a price below what is available locally. The revised economic picture can be seen in Table 1-2. Both consumers in the countries save . Expensive transportation would preclude the countries from trading with each other and realizing their comparative economic advantages by making the landed price of imported products higher than those available locally.
现在,如果每个经济体都与对方交易自己具有成本优势的商品,那么双方的消费者和经济都会得到更好的发展。韩国生产 DVD 刻录机的劳动力成本较低,而美国则在生产低成本、高质量的软件方面具有优势。有了廉价可靠的运输工具,专门生产最廉价的产品并从其他国家购买剩余产品就有了经济优势。由于运输成本合理,韩国可以以低于本地生产和本地运输产品的价格在美国销售 DVD 刻录机。相反,美国在软件的设计和生产成本方面具有优势,可以通过合理的运输费用将软件以低于当地产品的价格销往韩国。从表 1-2 中可以看出修订后的经济图景。两国的消费者都能节省 。昂贵的运输费用会使进口产品的到岸价格高于当地价格,从而阻碍两国之间的贸易往来,无法实现各自的比较经济优势。
As logistics systems improved, consumption and production began to separate geographically. Regions would specialize in those commodities that could be produced most efficiently. Excess production could be shipped economically to other producing (or consuming) areas, and

Table  表格

Consumer Prices to Buy Only Locally Produced Products
South Korea
United States 美国 400.00 300.00
The economies 经济
Table  表格
The Benefits of Trading Products When Transportation Is Inexpensive
South Korea
United States 美国 300.00
The economies 经济
Imports from the United States
Imports from South Korea
needed goods not produced locally were imported. This exchange process follows the principle of comparative advantage.
This same principle, when applied to world markets, helps to explain the high level of international trade that takes place today. Efficient logistics systems allow world businesses to take advantage of the fact that lands, and the people who occupy them, are not equally productive. Logistics is the very essence of trade. It contributes to a higher economic standard of living for us all.
To the individual firm operating in a high-level economy, good management of logistics activities is vital. Markets are often national or international in scope, whereas production may be concentrated at relatively few points. Logistics activities provide the bridge between production and market locations that are separated by time and distance. Effective management of these activities is the major concern of this book.

Business Logistics Defined

Business logistics is a relatively new field of integrated management study in comparison with the traditional fields of finance, marketing, and production. As previously noted, logistics activities have been carried out by individuals for many years. Businesses also have continually engaged in move-store (transportation-inventory) activities. The newness of the field results from the concept of coordinated management of the related activities, rather than the historical practice of managing them separately, and the concept that logistics adds value to products or services that are essential to customer satisfaction and sales. Although coordinated logistics management has not been generally practiced until recently, the idea of coordinated management can be traced back to at least 1844. In the writings of Jules Dupuit, a French engineer, the idea of trading one cost for another (transportation costs for inventory costs) was evident in the selection between road and water transport:
与传统的金融、营销和生产领域相比,商业物流是一个相对较新的综合管理研究领域。如前所述,物流活动多年来一直由个人开展。企业也一直在从事移动-存储(运输-库存)活动。该领域的新颖性源于对相关活动进行协调管理的理念,而非传统上对这些活动进行单独管理的做法,同时也源于物流为产品或服务增值的理念,而这些产品或服务对客户满意度和销售额至关重要。虽然协调物流管理直到最近才得到普遍实践,但协调管理的理念至少可以追溯到 1844 年。在法国工程师 Jules Dupuit 的著作中,以一种成本换取另一种成本(以运输成本换取库存成本)的理念在公路运输和水路运输的选择中显而易见:
The fact is that carriage by road being quicker, more reliable and less subject to loss or damage, it possesses advantage to which businessmen often attach a considerable value. However, it may well be that the saving of
0 fr. 87 induces the merchant to use the canal; he can buy warehouses and increase his floating capital in order to have a sufficient supply of goods on hand to protect himself against slowness and irregularity of the canal, and if all told the saving of in transport gives him an advantage of a few centimes, he will decide in favor of the new route . . . 2
0 fr.87 促使商人使用运河;他可以购买仓库,增加流动资本,以便有足够的货物供应,抵御运河的缓慢和不规则,如果在运输中节省 ,给他带来几分钱的好处,他就会决定选择新路线.2
The first textbook to suggest the benefits of coordinated logistics management appeared around in part explaining why a generally accepted definition of business logistics is still emerging. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore several definitions for the scope and content of the subject.
第一本提出协调物流管理益处的教科书出现在 左右,这在一定程度上解释了为什么普遍接受的商业物流定义仍在形成之中。因此,对这一主题的范围和内容进行几种定义的探讨是值得的。
A dictionary definition of the term logistics is:
The branch of military science having to do with procuring, maintaining, and transporting materiel, personnel, and facilities.
This definition puts logistics into a military context. To the extent that business objectives and activities differ from those of the military, this definition does not capture the essence of business logistics management. A better representation of the field may be reflected in the definition promulgated by the Council of Logistics Management (CLM), a professional organization of logistics managers, educators, and practitioners formed in 1962 for the purposes of continuing education and fostering the interchange of ideas. Its definition:
这一定义将物流置于军事背景下。由于商业目标和活动与军事目标和活动不同,这一定义并没有抓住商业物流管理的本质。物流管理委员会(CLM)颁布的定义可能更能体现这一领域的特点,该委员会是一个由物流管理人员、教育工作者和从业人员组成的专业组织,成立于 1962 年,其宗旨是继续教育和促进思想交流。其定义如下
Logistics is that part of the supply chain process that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption in order to meet customers requirements.
This is an excellent definition, conveying the idea that product flows are to be managed from the point where they exist as raw materials to the point where they are finally discarded. Logistics is also concerned with the flow of services as well as physical goods, an area of growing opportunity for improvement. It also suggests that logistics is a process, meaning that it includes all the activities that have an impact on making goods and services available to customers when and where they wish to acquire them. However, the definition implies that logistics is part of the supply chain process, not the entire process. So, what is the supply chain process or, more popularly, supply chain management?
Supply chain management (SCM) is a term that has emerged in recent years that captures the essence of integrated logistics and even goes beyond it. Supply chain management emphasize's the logistics interactions that take place among the functions of marketing, logistics, and production within a firm and those interactions that take place between the legally separate firms within the product-flow channel. Opportunities for cost or customer service improvement are achieved through couritination and collaboration among the channel members where some essential supply chain activities may not be under the direct control of the logistician. Although early' definitions such as phs'sical distribution, materials management, industrial logistics, channel management, and even rhocrematics, all terms used to describe logisticy, have promoted this broad scope for logistics, there was little attempt to implement logistics bevond a company's own enterprise boundaries, or even beyond its own internal logistics function. Vow, retail firms are showing success in sharing information with suppliers, which in turn agree to maintain and manage inventories on retailers' shelves. Channel inventories and product stockouts are lower. Manufacturing firms operating under just-in-time production scheduling build relationships with suppliers for the benefit of both companies by reducing inventories. Definitions of the supply chain and supply chain management reflecting this broader scope are:
The supply chain (SC) encompasses all activities associated with the flow and transformation of goods from the raw materials stage (extraction), through to the end user, as well as the associated information flows. Materials and information flow both up and down the supply chain.
Supply chain management (SCM) is the integration of these activities, through improved supply chain relationships, to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. 6
After careful study of the various definitions being offered, Mentzer et al. propose the broad and rather general definition as follows:
Mentzer 等人在仔细研究了目前提出的各种定义后,提出了如下宽泛的定义:
Supply chain management is defined as the sy'stematic, strategic coordination of the traditional business functions and the tactics across these business functions within a particular company and across businesses within the supply chain, for the purposes of improving the long-term performance of the individual companies and the supply chain as a whole.
The supply chain management model in Figure 1-1 viewed as a pipeline show's the scope of this definition. It is important to note that supply chain management is about the coordination of product flows across functions and across companies to achieve competitive advantage and profitability for the individual companies in the supply chain and the supply chain members collectively.
图 1-1 将供应链管理模式视为一条管道,显示了这一定义的范围。值得注意的是,供应链管理的目的是协调跨职能部门和跨公司的产品流,以实现供应链中各公司和供应链成员的竞争优势和盈利能力。

River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1999), p. 2.
River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1999),第 2 页。
John T. Mentzer, William DeWitt, James S. Keebler, Soonhong Min, Nancy W. Nix, Carlo D. Smith, and Zach G. Zacharia, "Defining Supply Chain Management," Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 22, No. 2 (2001), pp. 1-25.
John T. Mentzer、William DeWitt、James S. Keebler、Soonhong Min、Nancy W. Nix、Carlo D. Smith 和 Zach G. Zacharia,《定义供应链管理》,《商业物流杂志》,第 22 卷,第 2 期(2001 年),第 1-25 页。

Figure 1-1 A Model of Supply Chain Management
图 1-1 供应链管理模式
Source: Mentzer et al., "Defining Supply Chain Management," Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 22, No. 2 (2001), p. 19. Reproduced with permission of the Council of Logistics Management.
资料来源:Mentzer et al:Mentzer 等人,"定义供应链管理",《商业物流杂志》,第 22 卷,第 2 期(2001 年),第 19 页。经物流管理委员会许可转载。
It is difficult, in a practical way, to separate business logistics management from supply chain management. In so many respects, they promote the same mission:
To get the right goods or services to the right place, at the right time, and in the desired condition, while making the greatest contribution to the firm.
Some claim that supply chain management is just another name for integrated business logistics management (IBLM) and that the broad scope of supply chain management has been promoted over the years. Conversely, others say that logistics is a subset of SCM, where SCM considers additional issues beyond those of product flow. For example, SCM may be concerned with product pricing and manufacturing quality. Although SCM promotes viewing the supply channel with the broadest scope, the reality is that firms do not practice this ideal. Fawcett and Magan found that companies that do practice supply chain integration limit their scope to one tier upstream and one tier downstream. The focus seems to be concerned with creating seamless processes within their own companies and applying new information technologies to improve the quality of information and speed of its exchange among channel members. The boundary between the logistics and supply chain management terms is fuzzy. For the purposes of this text, integrated business logistics management and SCM will be referred to interchangeably. The focus will be on managing the product and service flows in the most efficient and effective manner, regardless of descriptive title. This includes integrating and coordinating with other channel members and service providers to improve supply chain performance when practical to do so.
有些人认为,供应链管理只是综合商业物流管理(IBLM)的另一个名称,而且多年来一直在推广供应链管理的广泛范围。相反,也有人说,物流是供应链管理的一个子集,供应链管理考虑的是产品流动以外的其他问题。例如,供应链管理可能会关注产品定价和制造质量。虽然供应链管理提倡以最广泛的视角看待供应渠道,但现实情况是,企业并没有践行这一理想。Fawcett 和 Magan 发现,实行供应链整合的公司将其范围限制在上游一级和下游一级。 其重点似乎是在公司内部建立无缝流程,并应用新的信息技术来提高信息质量和渠道成员之间的信息交流速度。物流和供应链管理这两个术语之间的界限是模糊的。在本文中,综合企业物流管理和供应链管理可以互换使用。重点是以最高效、最有效的方式管理产品和服务流,而不论描述性标题如何。这包括在可行的情况下,与其他渠道成员和服务提供商进行整合与协调,以提高供应链绩效。

The Supply Chain 供应链

Logistics/SC is a collection of functional activities (transportation, inventory control, etc.), which are repeated many times throughout the channel through which raw materials are converted into finished products and consumer value is added. Because raw material sources, plants, and selling points are not typically located at the same places and the channel represents a sequence of manufacturing steps, logistics activities recur many times before a product arrives in the marketplace. Even then, logistics activities are repeated once again as used products are recycled upstream in the logistics channel.
A single firm generally is not able to control its entire product flow channel from raw material source to points of the final consumption, although this is an emerging opportunity. For practical purposes, the business logistics for the individual firm has a narrower scope. Usually, the maximal managerial control that can be expected is over the immediate physical supply and physical distribution channels, as shown in Figure 1-2. The physical supply channel refers to the time and space gap between a firm's immediate material sources and its processing points. Similarly, the physical distribution channel refers to the time and space gap between the firm's processing points and its customers. Due to the similarities in the activities between the two channels, physical supply (more commonly referred to as materials management) and physical distribution comprise those activities that are integrated into business logistics. Business logistics management is now popularly referred to as supply chain management. Others have used terms such as value nets, value stream, and lean logistics to describe a similar scope and purpose. The evolution of the management of product flows toward SCM is captured in Figure 1-3.
单个企业一般无法控制从原材料源头到最终消费点的整个产品流通渠道,尽管这是一个新出现的机会。实际上,单个企业的商业物流范围较窄。通常情况下,可以预期的最大管理控制范围是直接的实物供应和实物分销渠道,如图 1-2 所示。实物供应渠道指的是企业的直接材料来源与加工点之间的时间和空间差距。同样,实物分销渠道指的是企业加工点与客户之间的时空差距。由于这两种渠道的活动具有相似性,实物供应(通常称为材料管理)和实物分销就构成了企业物流的组成部分。商业物流管理现在通常被称为供应链管理。 还有人使用价值网、价值流和精益物流等术语来描述类似的范围和目的。图 1-3 展示了产品流管理向供应链管理的演变过程。
Although it is easy to think of logistics as managing the flow of products from the points of raw material acquisition to end customers, for many firms there is a reverse logistics channel that must be managed as well. The life of a product, from a logistics viewpoint, does not end with delivery to the customer. Products become obsolete, damaged, or nonfunctioning and are returned to their source points for repair or disposition. Packaging materials may be returned to the shipper due to
Figure 1-2 The Immediate Supply Chain for an Individual Firm
图 1-2 单个企业的直接供应链
environmental regulations or because it makes good economic sense to reuse them. The reverse logistics channel may utilize all or a portion of the forward logistics channel or it may require a separate design. The supply chain terminates with the final disposition of a product. The reverse channel must be considered to be within the scope of logistics planning and control.

Example 示例

The reverse logistics channel comes into play when a customer buys a toaster from a retailer. The customer takes the toaster home and finds it defective. The customer returns it to the retailer, who gladly refunds the purchase price. The retailer now has a defective toaster in in-store inventory. The retailer sends it to a central return center. Upon receipt, the toaster's Universal Product Code (UPC) is scanned for identification in the return center's database. The database determines that the toaster has a return-to-vendor disposition. The database credits the store inventory for the toaster and creates a charge back to the manufacturer for the cost of the toaster. The toaster is shipped back to the manufacturer. The retailer has made a cost recovery for this

Figure 1-3 Evolution of Logistics Toward Supply Chain
图 1-3 物流向供应链的演变

Source: John Yuva, "Collaborative Logistics: Building a United Network," Inside Supply Management, Vol. 13, No. 5 (May 2002), p. 50 (with modification).
资料来源John Yuva, "Collaborative Logistics:建立一个联合网络",《内部供应管理》,第 13 卷,第 5 期(2002 年 5 月),第 50 页(有修改)。
defective asset. The toaster is received at the manufacturer's return center. The manufacturer scans the toaster into its database and determines that it has a refurbish disposition. The toaster is repaired and sent for resale on the secondary market. The manufacturer has now gained value for this defective asset.


The activities to be managed that make up business logistics (supply chain process) vary from firm to firm, depending on a firm's particular organizational structure, management's honest differences of opinion about what constitutes the supply chain for its business, and the importance of individual activities to its operations. Follow
Figure 1-4 Logistics Activities in a Firm's Immediate Supply Chain
图 1-4 企业直接供应链中的物流活动
along the supply chain as shown in Figure 1-2 and note the important activities that take place. Again, according to the CLM:
如图 1-2 所示,沿着供应链进行分析,并注意所发生的重要活动。同样,根据 CLM:
The components of a typical logistics system are: customer service, demand forecasting, distribution communications, inventory control, material handling, order processing, parts and service support, plant and warehouse site selection (location analysis), purchasing, packaging, return goods handling, salvage and scrap disposal, traffic and transportation, and warehousing and storage..
Figure 1-4 organizes these components, or activities, according to where they are most likely to take place in the supply channel. The list is further divided into key and support activities, along with some of the decisions associated with each activity.
图 1-4 根据这些活动最有可能在供应渠道中发生的位置,对这些组成部分或活动进行了组织。该清单进一步分为关键活动和支持活动,以及与每项活动相关的一些决策。

Key Activities 主要活动

  1. Customer service standards cooperate with marketing to:
a. Determine customer needs and wants for logistics customer service
b. Determine customer response to service
c. Set customer service levels
  1. Transportation 交通运输
a. Mode and transport service selection
b. Freight consolidation
c. Carrier routing d. Vehicle scheduling
c.运输路线 d. 车辆调度
e. Equipment selection e.设备选择
f. Claims processing f.索赔处理
g. Rate auditing g.费率审计
  1. Inventory management 库存管理
a. Raw materials and finished goods stocking policies
b. Short-term sales forecasting
c. Product mix at stocking points
d. Number, size, and location of stocking points
e. Just-in-time, push, and pull strategies
  1. Information flows and order processing
a. Sales order-inventory interface procedures
b. Order information transmittal methods
c. Ordering rules c.排序规则

Support Activities 支持活动

  1. Warehousing 仓储
a. Space determination a.确定空间
b. Stock layout and dock design
c. Warehouse configuration
d. Stock placement d.股票配售
  1. Materials handling 材料处理
a. Equipment selection a.设备选择
b. Equipment replacement policies
c. Order-picking procedures
d. Stock storage and retrieval
  1. Purchasing 采购
a. Supply source selection
b. Purchase timing b.购买时间
c. Purchase quantities c.采购数量
  1. Protective packaging designed for:
a. Handling a.处理
b. Storage b.存储
c. Protection from loss and damage
  1. Cooperate with production/operations to:
a. Specify aggregate quantities
b. Sequence and time production output
c. Schedule supplies for production/operations
  1. Information maintenance 信息维护
a. Information collection, storage, and manipulation
b. Data analysis b.数据分析
c. Control procedures c.控制程序
The Critical Customer Service Loop
Kev and support activities are separated because certain activities will generally: take place in every logistics channel, whereas others will take place, depending on the circumstances, within a particular firm. The key activities are on the "critical" loop within a firm's immediate physical distribution channel, as shown in Figure 1-5. They contribute most to the total cost of logistics or they are essential to the effective coordination and completion of the logistics task.
之所以将关键活动和支持活动分开,是因为某些活动通常会在每条物流渠道中进行,而另一些活动则会根据具体情况在特定公司内部进行。如图 1-5 所示,关键活动是企业直接实体配送渠道中的 "关键 "环节。它们对物流总成本的影响最大,或者说对有效协调和完成物流任务至关重要。
Customer service standards set the level of output and degree of readiness to which the logistics system must respond. Logistics costs increase in proportion to the level of customer service provided, such that setting the standards for service also affects the logistics costs to support that level of service. Setting very high service requirements can force logistics costs to exceedingly high levels.
Transportation and inventorys maintenance are the primary cost-absorbing logistics activities. Experience has shown that each will represent one-half to twothirds of total logistics costs. Transportation adds place value to products and services, whereas inventorys maintenance adds time value.
Transportation is essential because no modern firm can operate without providing for the movement of its raw materials or its finished products. This importance is underscored by the financial strains placed on many firms by such disasters as a national railroad strike or independent truckers' refusal to more goods because of rate disputes. In these circumstances, markets cannot be served, and products back up in the logistics pipeline to deteriorate or become obsolete.
Inventories are also essential to logistics management because it is usually not possible or practical to provide instant production or ensure delivery times to customers. They serve as buffers between supply and demand so that needed product arailability may be maintained for customers while providing flexibility for production and logistics in seeking efficient methods for manufacture and distribution of the product.
Order processing is the final key activity: Its costs usually are minor compared to transportation or inrentory maintenance costs. Nevertheless, order processing is an important element in the total time that it takes for a customer to receive goods or services. It is the activity triggering product morement and service deliverv:
Although support activities may be as critical as the key activities in any particular circumstance, they are considered here as contributing to the logistics mission. In

fics |hewererer, thery alor) affert the ereverall lespestices weffert, arid speer ific cally the.y affert the efforemey ef transportation and irneritery rrafaseserriernt. Firially, iriformiations mamternature suppererts all enthere bregistics artivities irn that it feresvidses the rireseded information for planning and control.

ther firm's irmmedinte suppliers our custorser's. 'Thery may be supeptiers the the imernedi-

serurere points or end rustromers are reacheed. It is imperetant tre plare and contrel the: purevirnssl: rertered ar fivities and information flowes if thery affect there legisties custrumer servire theat ean be presvided and the cost's enf suppelying this servire. Mariagernerit of the erternded supply thain has the porteritial rof impereroing Jogisturs perfformantere beyorid thet ef just managing the artientjes within the immediate supply chain.
如果我们要达到的目标或最终目标是什么?如果影响到法律规定的客户服务以及提供这种服务所需的成本,那么就必须对纯粹的服务和信息流进行规划和控制。对整个供应链的管理,其首要作用是使 Jogisturs 的工作效率超越对直接供应链内的艺术品的管理。


Iogistirs is abrout reating ralue-value fror rustromers and suppliers of the firm, and value fror the firm's stakeholders. Value in lesgistirs is primarily eyporessed in terms of time and plare. P'redurets and servires have nre value unless they are in the pressessiren of the customers when (time)) and where: (plare) they wish to cronsume them. For eyample, enncessirens at a sports event have ner value tr) (ronsumeres if they, are not available at the time and plare that the event is ocrurring, rer if inadequate: inseentrsries don't meet the demands of the sporrts fans. Crond Jogisties managerment viev's each activity in the supply rhain as contributing tr) the process of adding value. If little value can be added, it is questisnable whether the activity shrould exist. However, value is added when customers are willing tro pay more for a product or service than the crost to place it in their hands. Tro many firms throughrout the wrorld, Jogistics has becrome an increasingly important value-adding process for a number of reasrons.
企业价值是指企业的价值,即企业对客户和供应商的价值,以及企业对利益相关者的价值。企业价值主要体现在时间和规模上。除非产品和服务在客户需要的时间和地点出现,否则它们就没有价值:(他们希望在什么时间(地点)和什么时间(地点)享用这些产品和服务,否则它们就没有价值。例如,在体育赛事中,如果不能在赛事举行的时间和地点提供服务,那么这些服务就没有价值;如果不能满足体育迷的需求,那么这些服务就没有价值。Crond Jogisties 管理层将供应链中的每项活动都视为增值过程中的贡献。如果能增加的价值很少,那么这项活动是否应该存在就值得怀疑。然而,当客户愿意为产品或服务支付的价格高于将产品或服务交到他们手中所需的成本时,价值就增加了。在全球许多公司中,物流已成为一个越来越重要的增值过程,原因有很多。

Costs Are Significant 成本巨大

Over the years, several studies have been conducted to determine the crosts of logistics for the whole ecronomy and for the indisidual firm. There are widely varying estimates of the cost levels. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF),
Table 1-3 表 1-3
Recent Average Physical Distribution Costs in Percent of Sales and cwt.
近期平均实物分销成本占销售额的百分比和 cwt.
Warehousing 2.02 18.06
Customer service/order entry
0.43 4.58
Administration 0.41 2.79
Inventory carrying cost @ 18%/year.
存货账面成本为 18%/年。
1.72 22.25
Total distribution cost
a The statistics are for all firm types; however, they most closely represent
a 统计数据涉及所有类型的公司,但最能代表
manufacturing firms since they dominate the database.
The authors of this survey claim the totals do not match the sum of the indi-
vidual statistics due to a different number of data entries in each category.
Source: Herbert W. Davis and William H. Drumm, "Logistics Costs and
资料来源资料来源:Herbert W. Davis 和 William H. Drumm,"物流成本与成本效益"。
Service Database-2002," Annual Conference Proceedings (San Francisco,
CA: Council of Logistics Management, 2002) at www.clm1.org.
logistics costs average about 12 percent of the world's gross domestic product. Robert Delaney, who has tracked logistics costs for more than two decades, estimates that logistics costs for the U.S. economy are 9.9 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product (GOP), or billion. For the firm, logistics costs have ranged from 4 percent to over 30 percent of sales. The results from a cost survey of individual firms are shown in Table 1-3. Although the results show physical distribution costs at about 8 percent of sales, this survey does not include physical supply costs. Probably another one-third may be added to this total to represent average logistics costs for the firm at about 11 percent of sales. Over the last decade, physical distribution costs have ranged between 7 percent and 9 percent of sales. There may be a trend of increasing costs for individual firms, although Wilson and Delaney show over the same period that logistics costs as a percent of U.S. GDP have declined by about 10 percent. Logistics costs, substantial for most firms, rank second only to the cost of goods sold (purchase costs) that are about 50 percent to 60 percent of sales for the average manufacturing firm. Value is added by minimizing these costs and by passing the benefits on to customers and to the firm's shareholders.
物流成本平均约占全球国内生产总值的 12%。罗伯特-德莱尼(Robert Delaney)对物流成本进行了二十多年的跟踪研究,他估计美国经济的物流成本占美国国内生产总值(GOP)的 9.9%,即 0 亿美元。 就公司而言,物流成本占销售额的比例从 4% 到 30% 以上不等。 表 1-3 列出了对单个企业进行成本调查的结果。虽然结果显示实物分销成本约占销售额的 8%,但这项调查并不包括实物供应成本。如果再加上三分之一,企业的平均物流成本约为销售额的 11%。过去十年间,实物分销成本占销售额的 7% 到 9%。虽然威尔逊和德莱尼的研究表明,在同一时期,物流成本占美国国内生产总值的比例下降了约 10%,但个别企业的物流成本可能呈上升趋势。 对于大多数企业来说,物流成本是一笔不小的开支,仅次于销售成本(采购成本),而对于一般制造企业来说,物流成本约占销售额的 50% 至 60%。将这些成本降到最低,并将收益转给客户和公司股东,可以增加价值。

Logistics Customer Service Expectations Are Increasing

The Internet, just-in-time operating procedures, and continuous replenishment of inventories have all contributed to customers expecting rapid processing of their
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
Total order cycle 总订单周期
Time, days 8 7
Product availability 产品供应情况 percent orders 订单百分比 84 84 86 87 87 87 85 85 86 87 88
percent line items 百分比项目 92 92 92 92 94 94 93 90 92 93 95
Source: Herbert W. Davis and William H. Drumm, "Logistics Costs and Service Database-2002," Annual Conference Proceedings (San Francisco, CA: Council of Logistics Management, 2002) at www.clml.org.
资料来源Herbert W. Davis 和 William H. Drumm,"Logistics Costs and Service Database-2002", Annual Conference Proceedings (San Francisco, CA: Council of Logistics Management, 2002) at www.clml.org。
Table 1-4 Average Customer Service Performance Measures for All Firms, Survey Years
表 1-4 调查年份所有企业的平均客户服务绩效指标
requests, quick delivery, and a high degree of product availability. According to the Davis survey of hundreds of companies over the last decade, world-class competitors have average order cycle times (the time between when an order is placed and when it is received) of seven to eight days and line item fill rates of 90 percent to 94 percent. LogFac summarizes world-class logistics performance for domestic companies as:
根据戴维斯公司在过去十年中对数百家公司的调查,世界一流公司的平均订货周期(从下订单到收到订单的时间)为七至八天,产品种类齐全率为 90 至 90%。根据戴维斯在过去十年中对数百家公司的调查,世界级竞争对手的平均订货周期(从下订单到收到订单的时间)为七至八天,生产线项目满足率为 90% 至 94%。 LogFac 将国内公司的世界级物流绩效概括为:
  • Error rates of less than one per 1,000 orders shipped
    出错率低于每 1 000 份已发货订单中的 1 份
  • Logistics costs of well under 5 percent of sales
    物流成本远低于销售额的 5
  • Finished goods inventory turnover of 20 or more times per year
    成品库存每年周转 20 次或 20 次以上
  • Total order cycle time of five working days
  • Transportation cost of one percent of sales revenue or less, if products sold are over per pound
    如果销售的产品每磅超过 ,运输成本不超过销售收入的百分之一
As might be expected, the average company performs below these cost and customer service benchmarks, when compared with the statistics in Tables 1-3 and 1-4.
与表 1-3 和表 1-4 中的统计数据相比,一般公司在成本和客户服务方面的表现都低于这些基准。

Supply and Distribution Lines Are Lengthening with Greater Complexity

The trend is toward an integrated world economy. Firms are seeking, or have developed, global strategies by designing their products for a world market and producing them wherever the low-cost raw materials, components, and labor can be found (e.g., Ford's Focus automobile), or they simply produce locally and sell internationally. In either case, supply and distribution lines are stretched, as compared with the producer who wishes to manufacture and sell only locally. Not only has the trend occurred naturally by firms seeking to cut costs or expand markets, but it is also being encouraged by political arrangements that promote trade. Examples of the latter are the European Union, the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Figure 1-6 Economic Benefit of Sourcing from LowCost Offshore Locations Rather Than from HigherCost Local Suppliers
图 1-6 从成本较低的海外地点而不是成本较高的本地供应商采购的经济效益
Source: "International Logistics: Battleground of the '90s" (Chicago: A. T. Kearney, 1988).
资料来源"国际物流:90 年代的战场"(芝加哥:A. T. Kearney,1988 年)。
between Canada, the United States, and Mexico, and the economic trade agreement among several countries of South America (MERCOSUR).
Globalization and internationalization of industries everywhere will depend heavily on logistics performance and costs, as companies take more of a worldview of their operations. As this happens, logistics takes on increased importance within the firm since its costs, especially transportation, become a larger part of the total cost structure. For example, if a firm seeks foreign suppliers for the raw materials that make up its final product or foreign locations to build its product, the motivation is to increase profit. Material and labor costs may be reduced, but logistics costs are likely to increase due to increased transportation and inventory costs. The tradeoff, as shown in Figure 1-6, may lead to higher profit by reducing materials, labor, and overhead costs at the expense of logistics costs and tariffs. Outsourcing adds value, but it requires careful management of logistics costs and product-flow times in the supply channel.
随着企业在运营中更多地采用全球视角,各行各业的全球化和国际化将在很大程度上取决于物流绩效和成本。在这种情况下,物流在企业内部的重要性日益增加,因为物流成本,尤其是运输成本,在总成本结构中的比重越来越大。例如,如果一家公司寻求国外供应商提供构成其最终产品的原材料,或在国外生产其产品,其动机就是为了增加利润。材料和劳动力成本可能会降低,但由于运输和库存成本增加,物流成本可能会上升。如图 1-6 所示,通过降低材料、人工和间接成本,牺牲物流成本和关税,可能会带来更高的利润。外包可以增加价值,但需要谨慎管理供应渠道中的物流成本和产品流动时间。

Example 示例

Toyota has 35 manufacturing plants in 25 countries (excluding Japan) at which it produces nearly 900,000 vehicles annually. While exports were down by 9 percent in 1993, overseas production was up by 16 percent. In the case of Georgetown, Kentucky, where Camrys are built, Toyota uses the just-in-time concept to supply
丰田公司在 25 个国家(不包括日本)拥有 35 家生产厂,年产汽车近 90 万辆。虽然 1993 年的出口下降了 9%,但海外生产却增长了 16%。以生产凯美瑞的肯塔基州乔治敦为例,丰田公司采用准时生产的概念来供应汽车。

parts from across the Pacific. The parts are loaded into ocean containers in Japan, shipped across the Pacific, and transferred to trains on the West Coast of the United States for relay to Georgetown, where they feed an assembly line that turns out 1,000 Camrys a day. Deliveries are scheduled to the minute in order to keep inventories low. Due to the long supply lines and the associated uncertainties, supply channels must be more carefully managed than if all production were local.
从太平洋彼岸运来的零部件。这些零部件在日本装入海运集装箱,运过太平洋,然后转运到美国西海岸的火车上,再转运到乔治敦,为每天生产 1,000 辆凯美瑞的装配线提供原料。为了保持低库存,交货时间被安排到分钟。由于供应线过长以及相关的不确定性,供应渠道的管理必须比全部在本地生产更加谨慎。

Logistics/SC Is Important to Strategy

Firms spend a great deal of time finding ways to differentiate their product offerings from those of their competitors. When management recognizes that logistics/SC affects a significant portion of a firm's costs and that the result of decisions made about the supply chain processes yields different levels of customer service, it is in a position to use this effectively to penetrate new markets, to increase market share, and to increase profits. That is, good supply chain management can generate sales, not just reduce costs. Consider how Wal-Mart used logistics as the core of its competitive strategy to become the world's number one merchandise retailer.

Example 示例

Wal-Mart Wins with Logistics Kmart and Wal-Mart are two retail merchandise chains that, a few years back, looked alike, sold the same products, sought the same customers, and even had similar names. When the race began, people were quite familiar with the "big red K," whose stores dotted metropolitan areas, but few had heard of Wal-Mart, whose stores were in rural settings. Considering the similarity of the stores and their mission, analysts attribute the fates of the two chains primarily to differing management philosophies.
沃尔玛赢在物流 凯马特和沃尔玛是两家零售连锁店,几年前,它们看起来很像,销售同样的产品,寻找同样的顾客,甚至连名字都很相似。比赛开始时,人们对 "大红 K "非常熟悉,因为它的商店遍布大都市,但很少有人听说过沃尔玛,因为它的商店都在农村地区。考虑到这两家连锁店的相似性及其使命,分析家们将两家连锁店的命运主要归咎于不同的管理理念。
In 1987, Kmart was far ahead, with twice as many stores and sales of billion, compared to billion for Wal-Mart. With its urban presence and a focus on advertising, Kmart had more visibility. In contrast, Wal-Mart began in stand-alone stores outside small towns, luring customers away from the mom-and-pop stores in aging downtowns. But so rapidly did Wal-Mart multiply over the rural landscape that an invasion of urban America-and a confrontation with Kmart-was inevitable.
1987 年,凯马特遥遥领先,商店数量是沃尔玛的两倍,销售额达 亿美元,而沃尔玛的销售额为 亿美元。凯马特凭借其在城市的影响力和对广告的重视,获得了更高的知名度。相比之下,沃尔玛开始在小城镇外开设独立门店,吸引顾客离开老城区的母婴店。但是,沃尔玛在农村地区的扩张速度如此之快,以至于它对美国城市的入侵--与凯马特的对抗--不可避免。
Kmart executives focused on marketing and merchandising, even using Hollywood star Jaclyn Smith to promote her clothing line. By contrast, Sam Walton, Wal-Mart's founder, was obsessed with operations. He invested millions of dollars in a company-wide computer system linking cash registers to headquarters, enabling him to quickly restock goods. He also invested heavily in trucks and modern distribution centers. Besides enhancing his control of the supply chain, these moves sharply reduced costs. While Kmart tried to improve its image and cultivate store loyalty,
凯马特的高管们专注于市场营销和商品推销,甚至利用好莱坞明星贾克琳-史密斯(Jaclyn Smith)来推广自己的服装系列。相比之下,沃尔玛的创始人山姆-沃尔顿则专注于运营。他投资数百万美元建立了全公司的计算机系统,将收银机与总部连接起来,使他能够快速补货。他还在卡车和现代化配送中心上投入巨资。除了加强对供应链的控制,这些举措还大大降低了成本。凯马特努力改善形象,培养顾客对商店的忠诚度、
Walton kept lowering costs, betting that price would prove more important than any other factor in attracting customers. Wal-Mart's incredibly sophisticated distribution, inventory, and scanner systems meant that customers almost never encountered depleted shelves or price-check delays.
Meanwhile, Kmart's woes mounted, as distribution horror stories abounded. Employees lacked the training and skill to plan and control inventory properly, and Kmart's cash registers often did not have up-to-date information and would scan items and enter incorrect prices. This led to a lawsuit in California, and Kmart settled for for overcharging its customers.
与此同时,凯马特的麻烦也越来越多,因为配送方面的恐怖故事层出不穷。员工缺乏正确计划和控制库存的培训和技能,凯马特的收银机经常没有最新信息,扫描商品时会输入错误的价格。这导致了加州的一场诉讼,凯马特因向顾客多收费而以 和解。
Over the years, it has been Wal-Mart's focus on logistical matters that enables it to keep its prices low and its customers happy and returning often. Today, Wal-Mart is nearly six times the size of Kmart!
Kmart continued its focus on ad circulars and promotional pricing into the twenty-first century, whereas Wal-Mart continued to focus more on supply chain efficiencies and less on advertising, with the results that selling, administrative, and overhead costs were 17.3 percent for Wal-Mart and Kmart's were 22.7 percent. Wal-Mart was able to achieve prices that average 3.8 percent below Kmart's and even 3.2 percent below Target's. In 2002, Kmart went into bankruptcy and reorganization.
进入 21 世纪后,凯马特继续把重点放在广告通告和促销价格上,而沃尔玛则继续把更多的精力放在供应链效率上,减少了广告宣传,结果沃尔玛的销售、管理和间接成本为 17.3%,而凯马特为 22.7%。沃尔玛的价格比凯马特平均低 3.8%,甚至比塔吉特低 3.2%。2002 年,凯马特破产重组。

Logistics/SC Adds Significant Customer Value

A product, or service, is of little value if it is not available to customers at the time and place that they wish to consume it. When a firm incurs the cost of moving the product toward the customer or making an inventory available in a timely manner, for the customer value has been created that was not there previously. It is value as surely as that created through the production of a quality product or through a low price.
It is generally recognized that business creates four types of value in products or services. These are: form, time, place, and possession. Logistics creates two out of these four values. Manufacturing creates form value as inputs are converted to outputs, that is raw materials are transformed into finished goods. Logistics controls the time and place values in products, mainly through transportation, information flows, and inventories. Possession value is often considered the responsibility of marketing, engineering, and finance, where the value is created by helping customers acquire the product through such mechanisms as advertising (information), technical support, and terms of sale (pricing and credit availability). To the extent that SCM includes production, three out of the four values may be the responsibility of the logistics/supply chain manager.

Example 示例

When discount houses selling computer software through Web sites, catalogs, and magazine advertisements wished to compete with local retailers, they had a price advantage due to the economies of scale that they could achieve. Operations were centralized at one location where lower-cost warehouse space rather than highercost retail space could be used. Their staff was predominately telephone order takers and warehouse order-fillers and packagers. Inventories were minimized relative to sales through centralization, but these discount operations also offered substantial variety and high levels of product availability. Conversely, retailers had the advantage of immediate availability for the anxious customer that would offset any price disadvantage of the local retailer. To counter this possible delivery advantage of retailers in their local markets, the discount houses made sure that customer orders could be placed using toll-free telephone numbers or through a Web site, that these orders were filled the same day, and that they were shipped overnight using priority air delivery. Many customers find this nearly as fast and, in many cases, a lot more convenient than traditional shopping! Value has been created for the busy customer through logistics.

Customers Increasingly Want Quick, Customized Response

Fast food retailers, automatic teller machines, overnight package delivery, and electronic mail on the Internet have led us as consumers to expect that products and services can be made available in increasingly shorter times. In addition, improved information systems and flexible manufacturing processes have led the marketplace toward mass customization. Rather than consumers having to accept the "one size fits all" philosophy in their purchases, suppliers are increasingly offering products that meet individual customer needs.
快餐零售商、自动取款机、隔夜包裹递送以及互联网上的电子邮件,使我们这些消费者期望能在越来越短的时间内获得产品和服务。此外,改进的信息系统和灵活的生产流程也使市场朝着大规模定制的方向发展。消费者在购买产品时不必接受 "一刀切 "的理念,供应商越来越多地提供满足客户个性化需求的产品。

Observations 意见

  • Dell, a desktop computer company, will configure a PC to a customer's exact hardware requirements, and even install requested software.
  • L. L. Bean sells clothes and other items through its catalog and Web site. In addition, some of the clothes may be altered to a customer's exact measurements. Moreover, L. L. Bean will ensure fast delivery by shipping via Federal Express at no additional charge (if the customer charges the order to an L. L. Bean Visa charge card).
    L.L. L. Bean 通过目录和网站销售服装和其他商品。此外,部分服装可根据客户的具体尺寸进行修改。此外,L. L. Bean 将通过联邦快递发货,确保快速送货,不收取额外费用(如果客户将订单记入 L. L. Bean Visa 充值卡)。
  • National Bicycle Industrial Co., a subsidiary of the Japanese electronics giant Matsushita, builds bicycles using flexible manufacturing techniques, those that allow switching from the production of one product to another with minimal setup cost. Rather than mass-producing in standard sizes and building inventories for retail sales, National Bicycle builds the bicycles to precise customer
    日本电子巨头松下公司的子公司 National Bicycle Industrial Co.National Bicycle 并不大规模生产标准尺寸的自行车,也不建立库存用于零售,而是根据客户的精确要求制造自行车。

    specifications in over 11 million variations on 18 models of road, racing, and mountain bikes. Although it takes three hours to produce a bicycle using flexible manufacturing as compared to 90 minutes for mass production, the company is able to charge more than twice the price by pleasing customers with unique bikes built to their individual specifications.
    在 18 种型号的公路车、赛车车和山地车中,有超过 1100 万种规格。虽然采用柔性生产方式生产一辆自行车需要 3 个小时,而批量生产只需 90 分钟,但该公司却能以高于批量生产两倍的价格为客户提供独一无二的自行车,满足他们的个性化需求。
Companies too have been applying the concept of quick response to their internal operations in order to meet the service requirements of their own marketing efforts. The quick response philosophy has been used to create a marketing advantage. Saks Fifth Avenue applied it, even though big profits are made through big margins and not on cost reductions that might be achieved from good logistics management. Supply chain costs may even rise, although the advantage is to more than cover these costs through increased profits.
企业也一直在内部运作中应用快速反应理念,以满足自身营销工作的服务要求。快速反应理念被用来创造营销优势。萨克斯第五大道百货公司(Saks Fifth Avenue)就运用了这一理念,尽管其高额利润是通过高利润率获得的,而不是通过良好的物流管理来降低成本。供应链成本甚至可能上升,尽管其优势是通过增加利润来弥补这些成本。

Application 应用

Retailers go out of business at an alarming rate. To Saks Fifth Avenue, this fear alone may have been adequate motivation for management to integrate merchandising and logistics. The benefits are obvious when merchandising relies on manufacturers that might cut cloth in Bangladesh and finish garments in Italy before shipping them to a ritzy selling floor in the United States. The difference between profit and loss on hot-selling items may be as little as seven to ten days, so good logistics performance requires that such items be on the selling floor precisely when needed most. How does Saks do it?
The company's 69 stores are served by just two distribution centers. One is in Yonkers, New York, close by Saks' flagship store on New York City's 5th Avenue. The second is in Ontario, California, well situated to serve the trendy southern California market. Rapid movement through the supply channel is key to profitability. Items are processed by the centers in a 24 -hour turnaround. About 80 percent of Saks' imported items arrive by airfreight-those from Europe are handled by Yonkers and those from the Far East by Ontario. Items are exchanged between the centers by airfreight, with a dedicated flight between New York and Los Angeles every business day. Distribution centers then serve their local stores with a combination of airfreight and trucking.
该公司的 69 家门店仅由两个配送中心提供服务。一个位于纽约扬克斯,靠近萨克斯位于纽约第五大道的旗舰店。第二个配送中心位于加利福尼亚州安大略,地理位置优越,可为加利福尼亚州南部的时尚市场提供服务。供应渠道的快速流动是盈利的关键。各中心在 24 小时内完成商品处理。约 80% 的萨克斯进口商品通过空运抵达--来自欧洲的商品由扬克斯处理,来自远东的商品由安大略处理。商品通过空运在各中心之间交换,纽约和洛杉矶之间每个工作日都有专机往返。然后,配送中心通过空运和卡车运输相结合的方式为当地商店提供服务。

Logistics/SC in Nonmanufacturing Areas

It is perhaps easiest to think of logistics/SC in terms of moving and storing a physical product in a manufacturing setting. This is too narrow a view and can lead to many missed business opportunities. The logistics/SC principles and concepts learned over the years can be applied to such areas as service industries, the military, and even environment management.

Service Industry 服务行业

The service sector of industrialized countries is large and growing. In the United States, over 70 percent of all jobs are in what the federal government classifies as the service sector. The size of this sector alone forces us to ask if logistics concepts are not equally applicable here as they are to the manufacturing sector. If they are, there is a tremendous untapped opportunity yet to be fulfilled.
工业化国家的服务业规模庞大且不断增长。在美国,超过 70% 的工作岗位属于联邦政府划分的服务业。仅这一部门的规模就迫使我们提出这样一个问题:物流概念是否与制造业一样适用于服务业?如果是的话,那么还有巨大的机会有待挖掘。
Many companies designated as service firms in fact produce a product. Examples include: McDonald's Corporation (fast foods); Dow Jones & Co., Inc. (newspaper publishing); and Sears, Roebuck and Co. (merchandise retailing). These companies carry out all the typical supply chain activities of any manufacturing firm. However, for service companies such as Bank One (retail banking), Marriott Corporation (lodging), and Consolidated Edison (electric power), supply chain activities, especially those associated with physical distribution, are not as obvious.
许多被指定为服务公司的公司实际上生产一种产品。这方面的例子包括麦当劳公司(快餐)、道琼斯公司(报纸出版)和西尔斯、罗巴克公司(商品零售)。这些公司开展了所有制造企业典型的供应链活动。然而,对于诸如 Bank One(零售银行)、Marriott Corporation(住宿)和 Consolidated Edison(电力)等服务公司来说,供应链活动,尤其是与实物分销相关的供应链活动,并不那么明显。
Even though many service-oriented companies may be distributing an intangible, nonphysical product, they do engage in many physical distribution activities and decisions. A hospital may want to extend emergency medical care throughout the community and must make decisions as to the locations of the centers. United Parcel Service and Federal Express must locate terminals and route pickup and delivery trucks. The East Ohio Gas Company inventories natural gas in underground wells during the off-season in the region where demand will occur. Bank One must locate and have cash inventory on hand for its ATMs. The Federal Reserve Bank must select the methods of transportation to move canceled checks among member banks. The Catholic Church must decide the number, location, and size of the churches needed to meet shifts in size and location of congregations, as well as to plan the inventory of its pastoral staff. Xerox's repair service for copying equipment is also a good example of the logistics decisions encountered in a service operation.

Examples 实例

  • Promise Keepers is a Christian men's ministry that conducts 23 major events around the United States-with attendance ranging from 50 to 80,000 . Promise Keepers must rely on good logistics management to assure that their crusades can be conducted on time. The operation is large enough to involve a major motor carrier that handles the event logistics. Using the concept of time definite delivery, the carrier coordinates the receipt of supplies such as Bibles from Chicago, hats from Kansas City, in addition to trailer loads of stage equipment. The materials must be assembled and delivered to an event site and delivered precisely on time. Since events are held at stadiums, speedways, and the like, there are other events (ball games, races, etc.) also scheduled on the same weekend. There may be as many as 30 truckloads that must be coordinated to arrive precisely on time and leave just as precisely to avoid congestion with the
    承诺守护者 "是一个基督教男性事工组织,在美国各地举办了 23 场大型活动,参加人数从 50 到 80,000 不等。守约者 "必须依靠良好的物流管理来确保他们的十字军东征能够按时进行。由于活动规模庞大,因此需要一家大型汽车运输公司负责活动物流。承运商利用定时交货的概念,协调从芝加哥接收圣经、从堪萨斯城接收帽子等物资,以及拖车装载舞台设备。这些物资必须按时组装并运送到活动现场。由于活动是在体育场、赛车场等地举行,因此同一周末还安排了其他活动(球赛、赛车等)。可能会有多达 30 辆卡车必须协调好,准时到达,同样准时离开,以避免与其他活动发生拥堵。

    logistics of the other events. Computer technology is used to track trailer movements and ensure that the extremely close coordination can be achieved.
  • During the time span of one week, there were three major stories that drew the largest TV audience in history: England's Princess Diana was killed in an automobile crash in Paris, India's Mother Teresa died of heart failure in Calcutta, and there was a major bombing incident in Jerusalem. Suddenly, the media had major logistical problems with covering three major news stories in three corners of the world. For example, diverted a reporter from Paris to the Middle East, while other networks sent their Hong Kong correspondents to Calcutta. Then, there were the logistical problems of allocating airtime to the three stories. 22
    在一周的时间里,有三件大事吸引了历史上最多的电视观众:英国戴安娜王妃在巴黎死于车祸,印度特蕾莎修女在加尔各答死于心脏衰竭,耶路撒冷发生重大爆炸事件。突然之间,媒体在报道世界三个角落的三个重大新闻时遇到了重大的后勤问题。例如, ,将一名记者从巴黎调往中东,而其他网络则将香港记者派往加尔各答。此外,还有为三条新闻分配广播时间的后勤问题。22
The techniques, concepts, and methods discussed throughout this text should be as applicable to the service sector as they are to the manufacturing sector. The key, according to Theodore Levitt, may be in transforming an intangible service into a tangible product. Problems will remain in carefully identifying the costs associated with the distribution of an intangible product. Perhaps because of this, few service firms or organizations have a physical distribution manager on their staff, although they frequently do have a materials manager to handle supply matters. However, managing logistics in service industries does represent a new direction for the future development of logistics practice.
本文所讨论的技术、概念和方法应与制造业一样适用于服务业。西奥多-莱维特认为,关键可能在于将无形服务转化为有形产品。 在仔细确定与无形产品分销相关的成本方面仍然存在问题。也许正因为如此,很少有服务公司或组织在其员工中配备实物分销经理,尽管它们经常配备一名材料经理来处理供应事宜。不过,服务业的物流管理确实是未来物流实践发展的一个新方向。

Military 军事

Before businesses showed much interest in coordinating supply chain processes, the military was well organized to carry out logistics activities. More than a decade before business logistics' developmental period, the military carried out what was called the most complex, best-planned logistics operation of that time-the invasion of Europe during World War II.
Although the problems of the military, with its extremely high customer service requirements, were not identical with those of business, the similarities were great enough to provide a valuable experience base during the developmental years of logistics. For example, the military alone maintained inventories valued at about one-third of those held by all U.S. manufacturers. In addition to the management experience that such large-scale operations provide, the military sponsored, and continues to sponsor, research in the logistics area through such organizations as the RAND Corporation and the Office of Naval Research. With this background, the field of business logistics began to grow. Even the term logistics seems to have had its origins in the military.
尽管对客户服务要求极高的军方所面临的问题与商界并不完全相同,但两者之间的相似之处足以在物流发展时期提供宝贵的经验基础。例如,仅军方的库存价值就相当于美国所有制造商库存价值的三分之一。除了这种大规模运作提供的管理经验外,军方还通过兰德公司(RAND Corporation)和海军研究办公室(Office of Naval Research)等机构,赞助并继续赞助物流领域的研究。在此背景下,商业物流领域开始发展壮大。甚至连 "物流 "一词似乎也起源于军队。
The most recent example of military logistics on a large scale was the conflict between the United States and Iraq over Iraq's invasion of the small country of Kuwait. This invasion has been described as the largest military logistics operation in history. The logistics support in that war is yet another illustration of what worldclass companies have alway's known: Good logistics can be a source of competitive advantage. Lieutenant General William Pagonis, who was in charge of logistics support for Desert Storm, observed:
大规模军事后勤的最近一个例子是美国和伊拉克之间因伊拉克入侵小国科威特而发生的冲突。这次入侵被称为历史上最大规模的军事后勤行动。 这场战争中的后勤支持再次证明了世界级公司的一贯作风:良好的后勤保障可以成为竞争优势的源泉。负责 "沙漠风暴 "后勤保障的威廉-帕格尼斯中将指出:"好的后勤保障是竞争优势的源泉:
When the Middle East started heating up, it seemed like a good time to pull out some history books on desert warfare in this region. . . . But there was nothing on logistics. Logistics is not a best seller. In a couple of his diaries, Rommel talked about logistics. He thought the Germans lost the battle not because they didn't have great soldiers or equipment-in fact, the German tanks outfought ours almost throughout World War II-but because the British had better logistics. 25
当中东局势开始升温时,似乎是时候拿出一些有关该地区沙漠战争的历史书籍了。. . .但没有任何关于后勤的内容。后勤并不畅销。隆美尔在他的几本日记中谈到了后勤问题。他认为德国人输掉这场战役并不是因为他们没有优秀的士兵或装备--事实上,德国坦克几乎在整个二战期间都胜过我们的坦克--而是因为英国人有更好的后勤保障。25
Good logistics performance was obvious. The first wave of 200,000 troops and their equipment was deployed in a month and a half, whereas troop deployment took nine months in the Vietnam conflict. In addition, the application of many good logistics concepts was evident. Take customer service, for example:
良好的后勤表现显而易见。第一波 20 万部队及其装备在一个半月内就完成了部署,而在越南冲突中,部队部署需要九个月。此外,许多良好的后勤理念的应用也是显而易见的。以客户服务为例:
We believed that if we took care of our troops, the objectives would be accomplished no matter whatever else happened. The soldiers are our customers. It is no different than a determined, single focus on customers that many successful businesses have. Now, you take care of your soldiers not only by providing them cold sodas, and burgers, and good food: you make sure they have the ammunition on the front line, so that when they go fight the war they know they have what they need.
This meant that when guns rather than guns were desired on tanks, they were changed. When brown vehicles were preferred over the traditional camouflage green, they were repainted at the rate of 7,000 per month.
这意味着,当需要在坦克上安装 火炮而不是 <