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MAN6038 The Global Manager
MAN6038 全球經理

Introduction to the course aims and structure
課程目標與結構介紹

Introduction to the course - Main Aim
課程簡介 - 主要目標

  • Through active reflection and self-audit, development planning and application of theory, the module assists in developing skills whilst encouraging students to better appreciate key strategic, cultural, and organisational issues and opportunities in the global market.
    透過積極反思和自我檢查、發展規劃和理論應用,該模組有助於培養學生的技能,同時鼓勵學生更好地理解全球市場中關鍵的策略、文化和組織問題與機會。

Learning Outcomes 學習成果

(as taken from the Modules specification)
(摘自模組規範)
評估(用於人)
  1. Evaluate the key traits of a global manager and analyse the relevance of adapting management styles in today's rapidly changing global environments.
    評估全球管理者的主要特徵,分析在當今瞬息萬變的全球環境中調整管理風格的意義。
  2. Appraise an understanding of practical applications of intercultural competency.
    評估對跨文化能力實際應用的理解。
  3. Analyse the complexities of global organisations and cultural, ethical and value-based considerations for managers wishing to pursue global strategies.
    分析全球組織的複雜性,以及希望實施全球策略的管理人員在文化、道德和價值方面的考量。
  4. Undertake a self-audit on to identify skills and competencies and based on audit findings, prepare a development plan.
    進行自我審計,以確定技能和能力,並根據審計結果制定發展計劃。

Assignment Brief 作業簡介

Assignment method: 分配方法:

An approximate -word portfolio weighting of the final mark
約為 字的作品集,佔期末總分的
  • Deadline: 截止日期
Class A: Saturday July 2024
A 級:2024 年 7 月 星期六
Class B: Saturday July 2024
B 級:2024 年 7 月 星期六

Required task: 必要的任務

Using academic theories and a case study, evaluate and analyse key traits of a global manager from a global mindset perspective, include elements of cultural, ethical and value-based considerations, following which carry out a self-audit of your global mindset skills and a personal development plan.
利用學術理論和案例研究,從全球思維的角度評估和分析全球經理人的關鍵特質,包括文化、道德和基於價值的考慮因素,然後對自己的全球思維技能和個人發展計劃進行自我評估。

Assignment Brief 作業簡介

Assignment indicative structure:
作業指示性結構:

  • Introduction. Clearly outline the structure of the work (approx. 100 words)
    引言。明確概述作品的結構(約 100 字)
  • Part 1. A literature review about key traits of a global manager and the importance of a global mindset in today's rapidly changing global environments (approx. 700 words) 2 pages
    第 1 部分。關於全球經理人關鍵特質的文獻綜述,以及在當今瞬息萬變的全球環境中全球思維的重要性(約 700 字) 2 頁
Part 2. A literature review about cultural, ethical and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words)
第 2 部分。關於文化、倫理和價值考量的文獻綜述(約 700 字)

2pages 2 頁

  • Part 3. A case study about a business of your choice highlighting how the business has or has not benefited from elements related to cultural, ethical, and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words)
    第 3 部分。關於自選企業的案例研究,重點說明該企業如何從與文化、道德和價值相關的因素中獲益或未獲益(約 700 字)
  • Part 4. A self-audit, in which you score yourself on a scale of 1-10 about global mindset skills and competences, followed by a detailed personal development plan about how and by when you intend to develop these traits (approx. 700 words)
    第四部分。自我評估,按照 1-10 分的標準對自己的全球思維技能和能力進行打分,然後就如何以及何時發展這些特質制定詳細的個人發展計劃(約 700 字)
  • Conclusion. Clearly summarise your work (approx. 100 words)
    結論。明確總結您的工作(約 100 字)
  • List of references (not included in the word count). In-text citations and the list of references should follow BCU Harvard Referencing style. A minimum of 10-15 academic references are required.
    參考文獻列表(不計入字數)。文中引用和參考文獻清單應遵循 BCU 哈佛參考文獻風格。至少需要 10-15 篇學術參考文獻。

Reading List 閱讀清單

  • Main textbook: 主要教科書:
Lane & Maznevski (2014)
Henry W. Lane and Martha L. Mazneuski
Henry W. Lane 與 Martha L. Mazneuski
  • Wider Reading List 更廣泛的閱讀清單

International Management Behavior
國際管理行為

  • Articles on Moodle page
    Moodle 網頁上的文章

Module/Lectures Theme Overview
單元/講座 主題概述

  • Today's complex and highly dynamic global business environment
    當今複雜多變的全球商業環境
  • Managers expected to possess and utilise requisite skills to meet goals
    希望管理人員掌握並利用必要的技能來實現目標
  • Understanding of global issues affecting managers today
    了解當今影響管理人員的全球性議題
  • Key Management and Leadership principles in the global context
    全球背景下的主要管理和領導原則
  • Intercultural competencies withing global business culture
    全球商業文化中的跨文化能力
  • Ethical and value-based considerations in a global context
    全球背景下的倫理與價值考量
  • Transferable employability skills - practitioner based approach
    可遷移的就業技能--基於實踐的方法
  • Preparing you to be global managers of the future
    培養你們成為未來的全球管理者

Additional Tutorials Theme Overview
其他教學 主題概述

(these will be integrated into the weekly lecture sessions)
(這些內容將納入每週的講座課程中)
  • How to write a literature review
    如何撰寫文獻綜述
  • How to avoid plagiarism
    如何避免抄襲
  • How to reference correctly
    如何正確引用
  • How to do the self-assessment of a global mindset
    如何進行全球思維方式的自我評估
  • How to structure the assignment
    如何安排作業

Introduction to the course - Referencing
課程介紹 - 引用

  • The tutorials include guidance about
    教程包括以下方面的指導
  • Finding and citing academic evidence
    尋找並引用學術證據
  • How to develop a critical literature review
    如何撰寫批判性文獻綜述
  • Harvard referencing format requirements
    哈佛參考文獻格式要求
  • Plagiarism avoidance 避免抄襲

Session Plan indicative: changes in sequence possible
指示性會議計劃:順序可能有變動

 課程時段
Course
Session
Study Topics 學習主題 Preparatory Work/ Revision
準備工作/修訂
1 An Introduction to the Course and to the Context
課程和背景介紹

閱讀書籍章節和相關資料
Read book chapter and related
sources
2 Understanding culture Through the Looking Glass
透過望遠鏡了解文化

閱讀書籍章節和其他資料
Read book chapter and other
sources
3 Cross-cultural Skill Development Tools for Global Managers
全球管理者的跨文化技能發展工具

閱讀書籍章節和其他資料
Read book chapter and other
sources
4

管理全球團隊與人脈 培養全球思維方式
Managing global teams and networks
Development of a global mindset

閱讀書籍章節和其他資料,必須閱讀所提供的文章(Bowen 2013 )
Read book chapter and other
sources, must read the provided
article (Bowen 2013 )
5 Implementing Strategy Structure and Systems / Value-based Considerations
實施策略 結構和系統/基於價值的考慮因素
Read the book chapter and other
閱讀本書章節及其他
6 Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Effectiveness and Culture Shock and expats
跨文化適應、效率和文化衝擊與外籍人士
Read the book chapter and other
閱讀本書章節及其他
7 Leading Innovation and Change / further Value-based Considerations
引領創新與變革 / 進一步考慮價值因素
Read the book chapter and other
閱讀本書章節及其他
8 Competing with Integrity: Personal Integrity / Ethical Considerations
誠信競爭:個人誠信/道德考量
Read the book chapter and other
閱讀本書章節及其他
9

誠信競爭 企業永續發展/更多道德考量
Competing with Integrity Corporate Sustainability / More Ethical
Considerations
Read the book chapter and other
閱讀本書章節及其他

BIRMINGHAM CITY
J3 University
MAN6038
The Global Manager
Session 1
An Introduction to the Context of Global Business Management
伯明罕城市 J3 大學 MAN6038 全球管理者 第 1 課 全球商業管理背景簡介

Developing a Global Mindset this module's core concept/ "red thread"
培養全球心態 本單元的核心概念/"紅線"

What is GLOBAL BUSINESS?
什麼是全球商務?

Global business, also called international business, is the production and sale of goods and services between countries. The term can also encompass the nulances, politics, and dynamics of doing business in a
全球商務,又稱國際商務,是指國家之間的商品和服務生產與銷售。該術語還包括在一個國家或地區開展業務的各種因素、政治和動態。
Global business leads to high-level competition among businesses. When any company enters the foreign markets, they have to compete with the local business in that country. Therefore, the foreign businesses must produce high-quality products.
全球業務導致企業間的激烈競爭。任何公司在進入外國市場時,都必須與該國的本地企業競爭。因此,外國企業必須生產高品質的產品。

What is GLOBALISATION? 什麼是全球化?

  • Globalisation is the word used to describe the growing interdependence of the world's economies, cultures, and populations, brought about by cross-border trade in goods and services, technology, and flows of investment, people, and information.
    全球化是用來描述世界經濟、文化和人口日益相互依存的一個詞,它是由跨境商品和服務貿易、技術以及投資、人員和資訊流動所帶來的。
  • McDonald's is the most prominent representation and symbol of globalization. Of all the fast-food chains in the fast-food industry, Mcdonald's is the largest one and is on the top of all global markets.
    麥當勞是全球化最突出的代表和象徵。在所有快餐業的快餐連鎖店中,麥當勞是最大的一家,在全球所有市場上都名列前茅。

Globalisation 全球化

  • Globalisation of markets
    市場全球化
  • trade liberalisation, denationalisation, pressures to grow
    貿易自由化、非國有化、成長壓力
  • Globalisation of customers
    客戶全球化
  • Globalisation of production & supply chains
    生產與供應鏈全球化
  • made possible by telecommunications, Internet and cheap transportation
    電信、網路和廉價交通使之成為可能
  • Global competitors 全球競爭者
  • Consolidation 合併
  • global joint ventures (i.e.Tesco in South Korea), global alliances, mergers & acquisitions
    全球合資企業(如韓國的樂購)、全球聯盟、併購與收購

Globalisation 全球化

  • Cross border M&As, joint ventures and alliances fail about onehalf the time
    跨國併購、合資和聯盟約有一半以失敗告終
  • of bank mergers in the US failed to create significant value
    美國的銀行併購未能創造重大價值
  • Cultural differences (35%)
    文化差異(35)
  • Poor planning & execution (20%)
    規劃和執行不力(20)
  • Unrealistic targets (13%)
    不切實際的目標(13)
  • Inadequate due diligence (11%) Information research
    盡職調查不充分 (11%) 資訊研究
  • De-motivating employees (10%) 被收理公司員工
    不激勵員工 (10%) 被收理公司員工
  • Defection (8%) Business detection
    叛逃 (8%) 業務偵查
  • Other  其他

Is Company X a global company?
X 公司是全球性公司嗎?

In addition to and regional offices shown above - R&D and manufacturing facilities and distribution and education centers in The Netherlands, India, Germany, France, Ireland, Hong Kong, Mexico, UK, Australia, Italy, Argentina and Spain
除上述 和地區辦事處外,在荷蘭、印度、德國、法國、愛爾蘭、香港、墨西哥、英國、澳洲、義大利、阿根廷和西班牙也設有研發和生產設施以及分銷和教育中心。

Global companies 全球公司

Only by operating in multiple locations is not globalisation
只有在多個地點運作才不是全球化
  • Executing global strategy is done by people (on the ground)
    全球策略的執行是由人(在實地)完成的
  • You don't globalise companies unless you "globalise" people
    人不 "全球化",公司就不會全球化

What are some famous global companies that you know?
您知道哪些全球知名企業?

  • Are they in almost every country in the world?
    它們幾乎遍布世界每個國家嗎?
  • In a specific region only?
    僅在特定地區?
  • In very few countries?
    在極少數國家?
  • Have you heard if they do well or had any business troubles globally or regional or only at home?
    你聽過他們在全球、地區還是只在國內經營得好嗎?
  • Are global companies always large?
    全球性公司總是大公司嗎?
  • Which country/ies is/are headquarters to most of the global companies?
    哪個國家是大多數全球性公司的總部所在地?

Analysing « Globalization » at a micro level
從微觀層面分析 "全球化

The Transnationality Index (TNI) is a means of ranking multinational corporations that is employed by economists and politicians. It is calculated as the arithmetic mean of the following three ratios (where "foreign" means outside of the corporation's home country).
跨國指數(TNI)是經濟學家和政治家對跨國公司進行排名的一種手段。其計算方法是以下三個比率的算術平均值(其中 "外國 "指公司母國以外)。
  • the ratio of foreign assets to total assets
    外國資產與總資產的比率
  • the ratio of foreign sales to total sales
    國外銷售額佔總銷售額的比率
  • the ratio of foreign employment to total employment
    外國就業人數與總就業人數的比率
The Transnationality Index was developed by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
跨國性指數由聯合國貿易和發展會議制定。

BIRMINGHAM CITY
University
伯明罕城市大學

Ranking by: 排名: Corporation 公司 Home economy 國內經濟 Industry   Assets 資產 Sales 銷售 Employment 就業
 TNI (百分比)
TNI
(Per cent)
 外國資產
Foreign
assets
Foreign 外國 Total 總計 Foreign 外國 Total 總計 Foreign  外國 Total 總計
1 19 Hutchison Whampoa Limited
和記黃埔有限公司
Hong Kong, China 中國香港 Diversified 多元化 85721 103715 24222 31339 206986 250000 80,9
2 93 CITIC Group 中信 中信集團 China 中國 Diversified 多元化 78602 565884 9561 55487 25285 17,1
3 16 Hon Hai Precision Industries
鴻海精密工業
Taiwan Province of China
中國台灣省
Electrical & electronic equipment
電氣和電子設備
65471 70448 128650 132429 810993 1290000 84,3
4 70 Petronas - Petroliam Nasional Bhd
馬來西亞國家石油公司 - Petroliam Nasional Bhd
Malaysia 馬來西亞 Petroleum expl./ref./distr. 49072 163275 71939 94543 46145 39,2
5 63 Vale SA Brazil 巴西 Mining & quarrying 採礦和採石 45721 131478 38326 47694 15680 85305 44,5
6 59 China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company
中國遠洋運輸(集團)總公司
China 中國 Transport and storage 運輸和儲存 43452 56126 19139 29101 4400 130000 48,9
7 91 China National Offshore Oil Corp
中國海洋石油總公司
China 中國 Petroleum expl./ref./distr. 34276 129834 21887 83537 3387 102562 18,6
8 58 América Móvil SAB de CV Mexico 墨西哥 Telecommunications 電信 32008 75697 37395 58950 67525 158719 49,4
9 67 Lukoil OAO 盧克石油公司 Russian Federation 俄羅斯聯邦 Petroleum and natural gas
石油和天然氣
31174 98961 113801 139171 18144 120300 42,8
10 20 Cemex S.A.B. de C.V. Mexico 墨西哥 Non-metalic mineral products
非金屬礦物產品
30730 36808 11717 14986 35387 45087 80,1
11 92 Petróleos de Venezuela SA
委內瑞拉石油公司
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
委內瑞拉玻利瓦爾共和國
Petroleum expl./ref./distr. 27462 218424 46899 123223 4877 126945 18,2
12 80 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
三星電子有限公司
Korea, Republic of 大韓民國 Electrical & electronic equipment
電氣和電子設備
26077 169702 19294 179060 123563 227000 26,9
13 39 Singapore Telecommunications Ltd
新加坡電信有限公司
Singapore 新加坡 Telecommunications 電信 25768 32242 9541 14633 10496 23176 63,5
14 83 Hyundai Motor Company 現代汽車公司 Korea, Republic of 大韓民國 Motor vehicles 汽車 25443 113906 11754 75211 38318 98348 25,6
15 44 Jardine Matheson Holdings Ltd
怡和控股有限公司
Hong Kong, China 中國香港 Diversified 多元化 24284 63460 29732 39593 217556 360000 57,9
16 54 Sabic - Saudi Basic Industries Corp.
沙烏地基礎工業公司(Sabic
Saudi Arabia 沙烏地阿拉伯 Petroleum expl./ref./distr. 23540 90089 33377 50422 25391 40000 51,9
17 85 Gazprom JSC 俄羅斯天然氣工業股份公司 Russian Federation 俄羅斯聯邦 Petroleum and natural gas
石油和天然氣
23425 396454 92016 153863 27400 431200 24,0
18 24 Wilmar International Limited
威爾瑪國際有限公司
Singapore 新加坡 Food, beverages and tobacco
食品、飲料和菸草
23088 41920 33622 45463 90575 93000 75,5
19 2 China Resources Power Holdings Company Ltd
華潤電力控股有限公司
Hong Kong, China 中國香港 Energy 能源 22938 22938 8049 8049 38018 38118 99,9
20 42 Tata Motors Ltd 塔塔汽車有限公司 India 印度 Automobile 汽車 21575 31281 26519 34765 20379 62716 59,2
21 17 Ooredoo QSC Qatar 卡達 Telecommunications 電信 20304 26104 7601 9303 15289 17130 82,9
22 88 Formosa Plastics Group 台塑集團 Taiwan Province of China
中國台灣省
Chemicals 化學品 19994 101998 14405 78130 24287 102763 20,6
23 62 New World Development Ltd
新世界發展有限公司
Hong Kong, China 中國香港 Diversified 多元化 19857 36918 2411 4582 14751 47000 45,9
24 100 China National Petroleum Corporation
中國石油天然氣集團公司
China 中國 Petroleum expl./ref./distr. 19284 541083 11296 425720 31442 1656465 2,7
25 29 CapitaLand Ltd 凱德置地有限公司 Singapore 新加坡 Construction and real estate
建築和房地產
18926 30885 1706 2642 10500 12000 71,1
Web table 28. The world's top 100 non-financial TNCs, ranked by foreign assets, (Millions of dollars and number of employees)
網路表 28.國外資產排名的世界 100 強非金融跨國公司, (百萬美元和員工人數)
Ranking by: 排名: Corporation 公司 Home economy 國內經濟 Industry   Assets 資產 Sales 銷售 Employment 就業
 外國資產
Foreign
assets
Foreign 外國 Total 總計 Foreign 外國 Total 總計 Foreign  外國 Total 總計
1 79 General Electric Co 通用電氣公司 United States 美國 Electrical & electronic equipment
電氣和電子設備
338157 685328 75640 144796 171000 305000 52,5
2 32 Royal Dutch Shell plc
荷蘭皇家殼牌有限公司
United Kingdom 英國 Petroleum expl./ref./distr. 307938 360325 282930 467153 73000 87000 76,6
3 22 plc United Kingdom 英國 Petroleum expl./ref./distr. 270247 300193 300216 375580 69853 85700 83,8
4 77 Toyota Motor Corporation
豐田汽車公司
Japan 日本 Motor vehicles 汽車 233193 376841 170486 265770 126536 333498 54,7
5 28 Total SA SA 共計 France 法國 Petroleum expl./ref./distr. 214507 227107 180440 234287 62123 97126 78,5
6 45 Exxon Mobil Corporation 埃克森美孚公司 United States 美國 Petroleum expl./ref./distr. 214349 333795 301840 420714 46361 76900 65,4
7 8 Vodafone Group Plc 沃達豐集團 United Kingdom 英國 Telecommunications 電信 199003 217031 62065 70224 78599 86373 e 90,4
8 62 GDF Suez 法國瓦斯蘇伊士集團 France 法國 Utilities (Electricity, gas and water)
公用設施(電、瓦斯和水)
175057 271607 78555 124711 110308 219330 59,2
9 61 Chevron Corporation 雪佛龍公司 United States 美國 Petroleum expl./ref./distr. 158865 232982 132743 222580 31508 62000 59,5
10 64 Volkswagen Group 大眾汽車集團 Germany 德國 Motor vehicles 汽車 158046 409257 199129 247624 296000 533469 58,2
11 51 Eni SpA 埃尼公司 Italy 義大利 Petroleum expl./ref./distr. 133445 185493 85867 163566 51034 77838 63,3
12 1 Nestlé SA 雀巢公司 Switzerland 瑞士 Food, beverages and tobacco
食品、飲料和菸草
132686 138212 96849 98468 328816 339000 97,1
13 71 Enel SpA Italy 義大利 Electricity, gas and water
電、瓦斯和水
132231 226878 65966 109098 37588 73702 56,6
14 48 E.ON AG Germany 德國 Utilities (Electricity, gas and water)
公用設施(電、瓦斯和水)
128310 185601 117973 169764 40535 72083 65,0
15 4 Anheuser-Busch InBev NV 安海斯-布希 InBev NV Belgium 比利時 Food, beverages and tobacco
食品、飲料和菸草
115913 122621 36013 39758 109566 117632 92,8
16 6 ArcelorMittal 安賽樂米塔爾 Luxembourg 盧森堡 Metal and metal products
金屬和金屬產品
112239 114573 83996 84213 185319 244890 91,1
17 29 Siemens AG 西門子公司 Germany 德國 Electrical & electronic equipment
電氣和電子設備
111570 139252 87236 101604 250000 369000 77,9
18 36 Honda Motor Co Ltd
本田汽車有限公司
Japan 日本 Motor vehicles 汽車 110142 144811 95792 118983 118923 187094 73,4
19 92 Mitsubishi Corporation 三菱商事株式會社 Japan 日本 Wholesale trade 批發貿易 109657 153044 49052 243401 18915 40,6
20 98 EDF SA France 法國 Utilities (Electricity, gas and water)
公用設施(電、瓦斯和水)
103015 330582 38840 93470 30412 154730 30,8

BIRMINGHAM CITY
University
伯明罕城市大學

1

Global MNEs 全球多國企業
of total sales  佔總銷售額的百分比

BIRMINGHAM CITY
University
伯明罕城市大學

Home-region based 以本地區為基礎
of total sales  佔總銷售額的百分比

To conclude 最後

A GLOBAL industry: when competition takes place at the global level with high pressures on standardization(opposed to Multidomestic industry) 多國内市場行業
A GLOBAL industry: when competition takes place at global level with high pressure on standardization (opposed to Multidomestic industry) 多國市場內行業
全球影響力
A GLOBAL company: with a global presence, i.e. in Triad / regional and emerging markets (opposed to local company)
全球公司:業務遍佈全球,即在三合會/地區和新興市場(相對於本地公司而言)
A GLOBAL strategy: with a global reach (opposed to local strategy)
全球策略:覆蓋全球(與地方策略相對)

A company can be « global, » working in a « multidomestic » industry, developing « local » strategies!
一家公司可以是 "全球性 "的,在 "多國 "行業工作,制定 "本地 "戰略!

Again: What is Globalization?
再來一次什麼是全球化?

  • Globalization of markets
    市場全球化
  • trade liberalization, deregulation
    貿易自由化、放鬆管制
  • pressures to grow 成長壓力
  • Globalization of customers
    客戶全球化
  • Globalization of production & supply chains
    生產與供應鏈全球化
  • made possible by telecommunications, Internet and cheap transportation (e.g. HP)
    電信、網路和廉價運輸(如惠普)使其成為可能
  • Global competitors 全球競爭者
  • Consolidation 合併
  • global joint ventures, global alliances & M & A's
    全球合資、全球聯盟和併購

Then: What is deglobalization?
那什麼是去全球化?

  • Deglobalization or deglobalisation is the process of diminishing interdependence and integration between certain units around the world, typically nation-states. It is widely used to describe the periods of history when economic trade and investment between countries decline.
    去全球化或去全球化是指世界上某些單位(通常是民族國家)之間相互依存和一體化程度降低的過程。它被廣泛用於描述國家間經濟貿易和投資下降的歷史時期。
  • Have we entered such period of deglobalization?
    我們是否已經進入了這樣一個 "去全球化 "時期?

What indicates a deglobalization trend?
什麼現象顯示出現了去全球化趨勢?

  • Trade Wars 貿易戰
  • Increase of sanctions/ embargoes/ import tariffs
    增加製裁/禁運/進口關稅
  • Supply chain problems 供應鏈問題
  • International mobility problems
    國際流動問題
  • Increased protection of local labor (restrictions on work visas)
    加強對當地勞動力的保護(限制工作簽證)
  • Political (i.e.: “de-coupling")
    政治(即:「脫鉤)
  • Other 其他

Globalisation is really about complexity
全球化其實就是複雜性

- Complexity - 複雜性

  • Multiplicity (M) 多傆性
  • Interdependence (I) 互相恠頪
    相互依存 (I) 互恠頪
  • Ambiguity (A) 不明维镖情 模稜兩可 (A) 不明維鏢情
  • And continuous, rapid change
    持續、快速的變革

Implications of globalization
全球化的影響

  • Globalization is easy to talk about but difficult to accomplish
    全球化說來容易做來難
  • Some people in the parent company are going to have to work with people from other cultures
    母公司的一些人必須與來自其他文化背景的人合作
  • Someone in the company may have to travel to or live in another country
    公司有人可能需要前往或居住在另一個國家
  • Decisions have to be made about how to operate - our way, their way, a new way?
    必須決定如何運作--我們的方式、他們的方式、新的方式?
  • "We" may have to change as well as "them"
    "我們 "和 "他們 "可​​能都要改變

Global Mindset 全球思維

"The ability to develop and interpret criteria for personal and business decisions that are not dependent on the assumptions of a single country, culture or context; and to implement those decisions appropriately in different countries, cultures, and contexts"
"制定和解釋不依賴單一國家、文化或背景假設的個人和企業決策標準的能力;以及在不同國家、文化和背景下適當執行這些決策的能力"。

Four Types of Understanding Required to Develop a Global Mindset
培養全球思維所需的四種理解力

What do managers do in general?
管理人員一般都做些什麼?

Mintzberg published his Ten Management Roles in his book, "Mintzberg on Management: Inside our Strange World of Organizations," in 1990
1990 年,明茨伯格在《明茨伯格論管理》一書中發表了他的十大管理角色:1990 年,明茨伯格在他的《明茨伯格論管理:走進我們奇特的組織世界》一書中發表了他的十大管理角色理論。
Managerial roles 管理角色 Differences across cultures
不同文化之間的差異
Interpersonal roles 人際角色
Figurehead 人物頭像

在某些文化中,人物頭像具有相當大的象徵意義;而在其他文化中,被稱為人物頭像並不被視為一種讚美。
Figureheads have considerable symbolic value in some cultures; in
others, being described as a figurehead is not seen as a compliment.
Leader 領導者

個人主義文化偏好高度可見的 "負責型 "領導;集體主義文化則偏好協商型領導。
Individualistic cultures prefer highly visible "take charge" leaders;
collectivistic cultures prefer more consultative leaders.
Liaison 聯絡

有些文化喜歡基於長期個人關係的非正式接觸;有些文化則喜歡使用官方代表。
Some cultures prefer informal contacts based on long-standing
personal relationships; others prefer to use official representatives.
Informational roles 資訊角色
Monitor 監控器

文化往往既影響資訊監測的程度,也影響哪些特定資訊來源最受關注。
Culture often influences both the extent of information monitoring and
which specific information sources receive greatest attention.
Disseminator 傳播者

在某些文化中,資訊的背景比資訊本身更重要;而在其他文化中,情況則相反。
In some cultures, the context surrounding a message is more important
than the message itself; in others, the reverse is true.
Spokesperson 發言人

文化往往會影響誰會受到尊重,誰會被視為一個組織的合法發言人。
Culture often influences who is respected and seen as a legitimate
spokesperson for an organization.
Decisional roles 決策角色
Entrepreneur 企業家

有些文化非常支持創新和變革;有些文化則偏好現狀,抵制變革。
Some cultures are highly supportive of innovation and change; others
prefer the status quo and resist change.
Disturbance handler 幹擾處理程序

有些文化悄無聲息地解決衝突,有些文化則接受並有時鼓勵採取更公開的方式。
Some cultures resolve conflict quietly; others accept and at times
encourage a more public approach.
Resource allocator 資源分配器

等級文化支持差異化的資源分配;平等文化則傾向於更大程度的平等或公平分配。
Hierarchical cultures support differential resource allocations;
egalitarian cultures prefer greater equality or equity in distributions.
Negotiator 談判員

有些文化同時談判擬議合約中的所有項目,有些文化則依序談判每個項目。
Some cultures negotiate all items in a proposed contract
simultaneously; others negotiate each item sequentially.

What is a GLOBAL MANAGER?
什麼是全球經理人?

  • A global manager is defined by the work he or she is doing, frequently within a company with global presence or operations.
    全球經理人是由其所從事的工作來定義的,通常是在一家擁有全球業務或經營的公司內。
  • A global manager is responsible for managing teams of employees or business operations across diverse cultures and time zones, calls for new skill sets and capabilities.
    全球經理負責管理跨越不同文化和時區的員工團隊或業務運營, ,需要新的技能組合和能力。
  • Having a degree in global business management can help you develop problem-solving skills and make you able to think on a global scale. Pursuing courses in Global business management provides opportunities to establish your career in finance, international management, trade or in different multinational companies.
    擁有全球商務管理學位可以幫助你培養解決問題的技能,使你能夠從全球的角度思考問題。攻讀全球商務管理課程可為您提供在金融、國際管理、貿易或不同跨國公司發展事業的機會。

How do you learn to conduct international business effectively?
如何學會有效經營國際業務?

You need to acquire a set of skills that help you work across regional, national and subnational boundaries to propel your business forward. Those skills include the following:
您需要掌握一套技能,幫助您跨越地區、國家和次國家邊界開展工作,並推動業務向前發展。這些技能包括以下內容:
  • Overseas experience 海外經驗
  • Deep self-awareness 深刻的自我意識
  • Sensitivity to cultural diversity 8
    對文化多樣性的敏感度 8
  • Humility 謙遜
  • Lifelong curiosity 終生好奇
  • Cautious honesty 謹慎誠實
  • Global strategic thinking
    全球戰略思維
  • Patiently impatient 耐心不耐煩
  • Well-spoken 能說會道
  • Good negotiator 6 談判高手 6
  • Presence 存在

The Global Mindset 全球思維模式

"The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new
landscapes, but in having new eyes"
"真正的發現之旅不在於尋找新的風景,而在於擁有一雙新的眼睛"。

Marcel Proust (French novelist, 1871-1922)
馬塞爾-普魯斯特(法國小說家,1871-1922)

Developing a Global Mindset
培養全球化思維

Skill-Development for Global Managers (1)
全球管理人員的技能發展 (1)

- OVERSEAS EXPERIENCE - 海外經歷

  • Many global executives understand what doing business in a flat world is like because they've lived overseas, sometimes for decades at a time. If you want to become a successful international business leader, transcending your own cultural perspective and learning how business is done in different contexts is essential.
    許多全球主管都了解在一個扁平的世界裡做生意是什麼樣子,因為他們曾在海外生活過,有時一住就是幾十年。如果你想成為一名成功的國際企業領導者,那麼超越自己的文化視角,學習在不同環境下如何開展業務是至關重要的。

- DEEP SELF-AWARENESS - 深刻的自我意識

  • Understanding your beliefs and knowing where they might differ from others' is critical to global executive success. Without this key characteristic, you will not be able to adapt to and tolerate the deepseated beliefs of others - and business opportunities will evaporate. Beware of the "I'm right; you're wrong" assumption.
    了解自己的信念,並知道它們與他人的不同之處,對於全球高階主管的成功至關重要。如果你不具備這個關鍵特徵,你就無法適應和容忍他人根深蒂固的信念--商機也就煙消雲散了。小心 "我是對的,你是錯的 "這種假設。

Skill-Development for Global Managers (2)
全球管理人員的技能發展 (2)

- SENSITIVITY TO CULTURAL DIVERSITY
- 對文化多樣性的敏感性

  • Are you willing to eat raw fish? Snake? Raw monkey brains? Can you adjust your eating and sleeping habits to match the local executives' routines and patterns? In other countries, seemingly minor things can be off-putting, such as sticking your chopsticks in your rice or touching someone with your left hand.
    你願意吃生魚嗎?蛇?生猴腦?你能否調整自己的飲食和睡眠習慣,以適應當地管理人員的生活習慣和模式?在其他國家,看似不起眼的小事也會讓人反感,例如把筷子插進飯裡或用左手觸摸別人。
  • Much of this insight comes from experience. You must have an intense interest in the lives and cultures of others, recognizing that your culture and background are not inherently superior, to master the global business arena.
    這種洞察力大多來自經驗。你必須對他人的生活和文化有濃厚的興趣,並且認識自己的文化和背景並非天生優越,才能駕馭全球商業舞台。

- HUMILITY - 謙遜

  • Being interested in other cultures and how people in those cultures do things, especially with regard to business, implies a certain humility. Humility here means a belief that other lands and cultures have figured out very interesting answers to life's problems. As a good international business person, you must be open to and fascinated by those answers. This trait requires a willingness and ability to listen well and with real intention.
    對其他文化和這些文化中的人如何做事感興趣,尤其是在商業方面,意味著某種謙遜。這裡的謙遜是指相信其他國家和文化已經找到了解決生活問題的有趣答案。身為一個優秀的國際商務人士,你必須對這些答案持開放態度,並為之著迷。要做到這一點,就必須願意並且能夠用心傾聽。

Skill-Development for Global Managers (3)
全球管理人員的技能發展(3)

  • LIFELONG CURIOSITY 終生好奇
  • The world is constantly evolving. Without an intense curiosity and a desire to learn, you will be left behind and increasingly unable to converse, much less keep up, with your peers. Staying abreast of new learning opportunities requires a humble awareness that what you know is not enough and that you always have more to learn.
    世界在不斷發展。如果沒有強烈的好奇心和求知欲,你就會被拋在後面,越來越無法與同齡人交流,更不用說跟上他們的步伐了。要跟上新的學習機會,就必須謙虛地體認到,你所知道的還遠遠不夠,你需要學習的東西還很多。

- CAUTIOUS HONESTY - 慎獨

  • Surprisingly, the definitions of "honesty" and "truth" vary widely in the business arena. People sometimes omit information or only tell the truth they think other people need to know. However you design your ethics and morality in your personal life, in global business settings, executives need to know they can count on you. If you don't deliver on your business promises, your reputation will suffer. Effective global leaders can balance the need to be cautious in different contexts while demonstrating they can follow through.
    令人驚訝的是,在商業領域,"誠實 "和 "真實 "的定義差異很大。人們有時會遺漏訊息,或只說出他們認為其他人需要知道的真相。無論你在個人生活中如何設計自己的倫理道德,在全球商業環境中,高階主管需要知道他們可以信賴你。如果你不能兌現商業承諾,你的聲譽就會受損。高效的全球領導者能夠在不同的環境中平衡謹慎的需要,同時表明他們能夠貫徹始終。

Skill-Development for Global Managers (4)
全球管理人員的技能發展(4)

- GLOBAL STRATEGIC THINKING
- 全球策略思考

  • When you have a global perspective, you think strategically about managing business using the best people from around the planet. Much of your ability to do this comes from a lifetime of networking at the highest levels in global boardrooms and your aptitude for seeing how various pieces of global industries play out internationally. To make strategic decisions for your company, you need to understand how the business world works on a global scale.
    當您擁有全球視野時,您就會從策略角度考慮如何利用全球最優秀的人才來管理業務。您之所以能夠做到這一點,很大程度上得益於您一生在全球董事會最高層建立的人際關係網絡,以及您洞察全球各行各業在國際上如何運作的能力。要為公司做出策略決策,您需要了解商業世界如何在全球範圍內運作。
  • PATIENTLY IMPATIENT 耐著性子
  • How do you become patiently impatient? You must be in a hurry and yet be patient enough to allow the local and regional processes to unfold as they are meant to. Time and pace are not the same in every country. Balancing the demands of hot competitive and technological trends with the pace of local cultures can be frustrating to the uninitiated.
    如何才能變得耐心而不急躁?你必須急於求成,但又要有足夠的耐心,讓當地和地區的進程按其應有的方式展開。每個國家的時間和節奏都不一樣。在熱門競爭和技術趨勢的要求與當地文化的節奏之間取得平衡,可能會讓不了解情況的人感到沮喪。
  • WELL-SPOKEN 說得好
  • Given the challenges of working via interpreters or fumbling through conversations in more than one language, the ability to say clearly what you mean is a key global business skill. If you converse with others in their native language, you usually earn brownie points - however, if what you have to say is obscure or unintelligible, you'll quickly be in a deficit balance. Clear communication is a powerful leadership trait to have on the global stage.
    鑑於透過口譯員工作或用一種以上的語言在對話中摸索的挑戰,能夠清楚地表達自己的意思是一項關鍵的全球商務技能。如果你用他人的母語與之交談,通常會為你贏得加分--但是,如果你要說的話晦澀難懂,你很快就會處於失衡狀態。在全球舞台上,清晰的溝通是一種強大的領導特質。

Skill-Development for Global Managers (5)
全球管理人員的技能發展(5)

- GOOD NEGOTIATOR - 好談判家

  • Doing business across ethnic, national and regional boundaries requires strong negotiating skills. If you can add these skills to an innate enjoyment of the gamesmanship involved in negotiating, you will become a highly effective negotiator.
    跨種族、國家和地區做生意需要很強的談判技巧。如果您能將這些技能與對談判中的博弈技巧的天生喜好結合起來,您就會成為一名高效的談判者。
  • PRESENCE 存在
  • A certain chatists as surrounds you if you are an influential global leader. Part of it - but only part - is position or title. The bigger portion is dress, self-confidence, energy level, interest in other people and comfort with the challenges at hand. You may not want to believe these things matter, but they do.
    如果你是一位有影響力的全球領導者,你的周圍就會瀰漫著一種閒聊的氣氛。其中一部分--但只是一部分--是職位或頭銜。更重要的是穿著、自信、精力充沛程度、對他人的興趣以及面對挑戰時的從容不迫。你可能不願意相信這些東西,但它們確實很重要。
  • As a global business leader, you must respect the identities and affiliations of others. Some people can do that; many or most cannot. Do you have what it takes to become a global business leader?
    身為全球商業領袖,您必須尊重他人的身分和隸屬關係。有些人可以做到這一點,但很多人或大多數人做不到。你具備成為全球商業領袖的條件嗎?

Skill-Development for Global Managers
全球管理人員的技能發展

  • Further suggestions about global management skill development can be found in the internet!
    有關全球管理技能發展的更多建議,可以從互聯網上找到!
  • For example here, but not limited to this only:
    例如這裡,但不僅限於此:

Understanding of business management in a global context
了解全球背景下的企業管理

  • What works in one country might not work in the other
    在一個國家行得通的方法在另一個國家可能行不通
  • What a message means in one country might not have the same meaning in another.
    一則訊息在一個國家的意義在另一個國家可能並不相同。
  • Context matters. 背景很重要。
  • Knowing and understanding the context is pre-requisite when managing across borders.
    在進行跨國界管理時,了解和理解背景是先決條件。

Traditional 'logic' of organization and management
傳統的組織與管理 "邏輯

Different cultures have different expectations from their supervisors? Taken-for-granted!
不同文化背景的人對上司有不同的期望?理所當然!

Example: Jepsen Company: Expatriates face Differences
範例:傑普遜公司:外派人員面臨的差異

Rethinking management models
反思管理模式

Country 國家 Percentage of managers who agree with each statement
同意每項陳述的管理人員百分比

"管理者必須掌握部屬提出的大多數問題的答案"
"Managers must have
the answers to most
questions asked by
subordinates"

"建立指揮系統的主要原因是讓人知道誰有權力"
"The main reason for a
chain of command is so
people know who has
authority"

"繞過指揮系統有效率地完成任務是可以的"
"It is OK to bypass
chain of command to
get something done
efficiently"
China 中國 74 70 59
France 法國 53 43 43
Germany 德國 46 26 45
Indonesia 印尼 73 83 51
Italy 義大利 66 - 56
Japan 日本 78 50
Netherlands 荷蘭 17 31 44
Spain 西班牙 - 34 74
Sweden 瑞典 10 30 26
United Kingdom 英國 27 34 35
United States 美國 18 17 32
Country 國家

管理人員的幹勁和主動性(管理階層同意的百分比)
Manager's sense of drive
and initiative (percentage
of agreement by managers)
Country 國家

管理人員下放權力的意願(管理階層同意的百分比)
Manager's willingness to
delegate authority (percentage
of agreement by managers)
United States 美國 74 Sweden 瑞典 76
Sweden 瑞典 72 Japan 日本 69
Japan 日本 72 Norway 挪威 69
Finland 芬蘭 70 USA 66
South Korea 韓國 68 Singapore 新加坡 65
Netherlands 荷蘭 67 Denmark 丹麥 65
Singapore 新加坡 66 Canada 加拿大 64
Switzerland 瑞士 66 Finland 芬蘭 63
Belgium 比利時 65 Switzerland 瑞士 62
Ireland 愛爾蘭 65 Netherlands 荷蘭 61
France 法國 65 Australia 澳洲 61
Austria 奧地利 63 Germany 德國 61
Denmark 丹麥 63 New Zealand 紐西蘭 61
Italy 義大利 62 Ireland 愛爾蘭 60
Australia 澳洲 62 UK 59
Canada 加拿大 62 Belgium 比利時 55
Spain 西班牙 62 Austria 奧地利 54
New Zealand 紐西蘭 59 France 法國 54
Greece 希臘 59 Italy 義大利 47
UK 58 Spain 西班牙 44
Norway 挪威 55 Portugal 葡萄牙 43
Portugal 葡萄牙 49 Greece 希臘 38

Expatriates  僑民

Frequent flyers 飛行常客
Virtual managers 虛擬經理
Face-toface 面對面

Virtual 虛擬

Types of global managers
全球經理人的類型


特點和管理挑戰
Characteristics
and management
challenges
Expatriates 僑民

Types of global managers (cont'd)
全球經理人類型(續)


特點和管理挑戰
Characteristics
and management
challenges
Expatriates 僑民

Obviously, global management is not that easy!
顯然,全球管理並非易事!

  • Cross border M & A's, joint ventures and alliances fail about one-half the time.
    跨國併購、合資企業和聯盟的失敗率約為二分之一。
  • of bank mergers in the US failed to create significant value
    美國的銀行併購未能創造重大價值
  • Cultural differences (35%)
    文化差異(35)
  • Poor planning & execution (20%)
    規劃和執行不力(20)
  • Unrealistic targets (13%)
    不切實際的目標(13)
  • Inadequate due diligence (11%)
    盡職調查不充分 (11%)
  • De-motivating employees (10%)
    挫傷員工積極性(10)
  • Defection (8%) 叛逃(8)
  • Other (3%) 其他 (3%)
\section*{The reasons why M&A's and joint ventures "fail"
\小節*{併購與合資 "失敗 "的原因

- May start at the top...
- 可能從頭開始...

- "M & A's are illusions"
- "M&A是幻覺"
  • Paying attention to only half the challenge:
    關注只是挑戰的一半:
strategy formulation (ideal, big picture) without execution (reality, details)
制定策略(理想、大局)而不執行(現實、細節)
What levels of global managers are involved?
涉及哪些層級的全球管理者?

The reasons why M&A's and joint ventures "fail"(continued)
併購與合資 "失敗 "的原因(續)

  • Tendency to focus on "visible" inputs vs. "invisible" relationships
    傾向於關注 "看得見的 "投入,而不是 "看不見的 "關係
  • legal, financial, market data vs. trust, commitment
    法律、財務、市場數據與信任、承諾的對比
  • Ignoring culture (national and organizational)
    忽視文化(國家和組織)
  • The "visible" issues are necessary but not sufficient for success
    可見 "問題是成功的必要條件,但不是充分條件

Example: How Culture ended the DaimlerBenz Chrysler Merger
例:文化如何終結戴姆勒-賓士-克萊斯勒合併案

The Daimler-Benz merger with Chrysler in 1998 is probably the most famous of all international mergers then ended in failure.
1998 年戴姆勒-賓士與克萊斯勒的合併可能是所有國際合併中最著名的一次,但最終以失敗告終。
Cultural differences and organisational culture are both acknowledged to have played their part.
文化差異和組織文化都被認為發揮了作用。
It was this failed partnership that first rang the alarm bells that cultural factors just cannot be ignored on a global level, especially not within mergers and acquisitions.
正是這次失敗的合作首次敲響了警鐘:在全球範圍內,文化因素不容忽視,尤其是在併購過程中。
Source: https://www.commisceo-global.com/blog/cultural-differences-in-international-merger-andacquisitions?tmpl=component&print=1&format=print#C1
資料來源:https://www.commisceo-global.com/blog/cultural-differences-in-international-merger-andacquisitions?tmpl=component&print=1&format=print#C1

Why the Daimer-Chrysler M&A failed
戴默-克萊斯勒併購案為何失敗

  • Analysts agree that the cultural gap in corporate cultures was one of the main reasons for the Daimler-Chrysler failure. Daimler was a German company which could be described as "conservative, efficient and safe", while Chrysler was known as "daring, diverse and creating" (Appelbaum, Roberts and Shapiro, 2009:44)
    分析師一致認為,企業文化的差距是戴姆勒-克萊斯勒失敗的主要原因之一。戴姆勒是一家德國公司,可以用 "保守、高效和安全 "來形容,而克萊斯勒則以 "大膽、多樣和創新 "著稱(Appelbaum、Roberts 和 Shapiro,2009:44)。
  • Daimler was a very hierarchical company with a clear chain of command and respect for authority.
    戴姆勒是一家等級森嚴的公司,指揮系統明確,尊重權威。
  • Chrysler, on the other cultural hand, favoured a more team-oriented and egalitarian approach.
    而克萊斯勒公司在文化上則更傾向團隊精神和平等主義。
  • The other cultural difference lay in what the companies valued in terms of their clients. Daimler valued reliability and achieving the highest levels of quality, while Chrysler was placing its bets on catchy designs and offering their cars for competitive prices. These two factors resulted in conflicting orders and goals in different departments. American and German managers had different values which drove and directed their work. Different departments were heading in opposing directions.
    另一個文化差異在於兩家公司對客戶的重視程度。戴姆勒看重的是可靠性和最高水準的質量,而克萊斯勒則把賭注押在了吸引人的設計和有競爭力的價格上。這兩個因素導致不同部門的命令和目標相互衝突。美國和德國的經理人有著不同的價值觀,這些價值觀驅動並指導他們的工作。不同的部門朝著相反的方向前進。
  • Employees on both sides felt reluctant to work with each other. During the initial stages of organisational integration, huge bulks of Chrysler's key executives either resigned or were replaced by Germans counterparts.
    雙方員工都不願與對方共事。在組織整合的最初階段,克萊斯勒的大批重要管理階層要麼辭職,要麼被德國同行取代。
  • Moreover, Daimler was much more imposing and tried to dictate the terms on which the new company should work (Appelbaum, Roberts and Shapiro, 2009:44). Such a situation didn't inspire trust in Chrysler's employees and raised some serious communication challenges.
    此外,戴姆勒更加強勢,試圖對新公司的工作條件發號施令(Appelbaum、Roberts 和 Shapiro,2009:44)。這種情況並沒有激起克萊斯勒員工的信任,並引發了一些嚴重的溝通挑戰。
  • So to summarise the cultural factors in play here:
    因此,總結這裡的文化因素:
    1. differences in corporate cultures and values
      企業文化和價值觀的差異
  1. lack of coordination and severe lack of trust among the employees
    缺乏協調,員工之間嚴重缺乏信任
  • All three resulted in communication failures which in turn caused a sharp reduction in productivity.
    這三個問題都導致了溝通失敗,進而導致生產力急劇下降。
Source: https://www.commisceo-global.com/blog/cultural-differences-in-international-merger-andacquisitions?tmpl=component&print=1&format=print#C1
資料來源:https://www.commisceo-global.com/blog/cultural-differences-in-international-merger-andacquisitions?tmpl=component&print=1&format=print#C1

Example: Cultural Differences in the Daimler alliance with Mitsubishi
例:戴姆勒與三菱聯盟中的文化差異

  • One of the lesser known international cooperation blunders is that of the DaimlerChrysler-Mitsubishi alliance in 2000.
    2000 年戴姆勒-克萊斯勒-三菱聯盟是鮮為人知的國際合作失誤之一。
  • Right after acquiring Chrysler, the newly merged DaimlerChrysler decided to gain a foothold in Asia as well.
    在收購克萊斯勒之後,新合併的戴姆勒-克萊斯勒公司也決定在亞洲站穩腳步。
  • They saw Mitsubishi Motors as the golden ticket.
    在他們看來,三菱汽車是一張金燦燦的入場券。
  • The outcome, however, wasn't that successful.
    然而,結果並不那麼成功。
Source: https://www.commisceo-global.com/blog/cultural-differences-in-international-merger-andacquisitions?tmpl=component&print=1&format=print#C1
資料來源:https://www.commisceo-global.com/blog/cultural-differences-in-international-merger-andacquisitions?tmpl=component&print=1&format=print#C1

Why the Daimer-Mitsubishi Alliance failed
戴默-三菱聯盟失敗的原因

  • In this case Daimler failed to acknowledge any local practices and principles of Japan business culture.
    在這個案例中,戴姆勒並沒有承認日本商業文化中的任何當地慣例和原則。
  • In Japanese culture, trust and attention to others' feelings are essential. This means that Japanese business people value personal relationships more than dry facts. What is important is how you value your client and how you treat him. This differs greatly with a strictly fact-based and pragmatic approach of the German counterpart.
    在日本文化中,信任和關注他人的感受至關重要。這意味著日本商人更重視人際關係,而不是枯燥的事實。重要的是你如何重視客戶,如何對待客戶。這與德國人嚴格基於事實的務實態度大相逕庭。
  • Not paying any attention to the concept of "localization", Daimler appointed German managers who immediately started giving orders as if they were in Germany. As a result, Japanese subordinates felt extremely reluctant to take orders from them (Froese and Goeritz, 2007: 98), which in turn had a negative impact on overall efficiency. Moreover, most Germans were seen as guests which exacerbated the situation since guests usually don't have authority in Japan and on top of that it's hard to be "rude" to a guest.
    戴姆勒沒有重視 "本地化 "的概念,任命了德國經理,他們立即開始像在德國一樣發號施令。結果,日本下屬極不情願接受他們的命令(Froese and Goeritz, 2007: 98),這反過來又對整體效率產生了負面影響。此外,大多數德國人都被視為客人,這使得情況更加糟糕,因為客人在日本通常沒有權力,而且很難對客人 "無禮"。
  • Cross-department communication was very weak as well. Apart from the R&D department, communication mechanisms weren't installed properly and a chain of command was not clearly defined (Froese and Goeritz, 2007: 101).
    跨部門溝通也非常薄弱。除了研發部門外,其他部門的溝通機制也沒有建立起來,指揮系統也沒有明確規定(Froese and Goeritz, 2007: 101)。
  • The last cultural difference which will be mentioned here is the conflict between cultures that value long-term orientation over short-term orientation and vice-versa. One of the founders of the intercultural theoretical framework, Professor Hofstede, used this difference as one of the key dimensions of culture. Generally speaking, countries in the West tend to be more short-term goal oriented while the countries of the East strive for more long term goal orientation
    這裡要提到的最後一種文化差異是重視長期取向而非短期取向的文化之間的衝突,反之亦然。跨文化理論架構的創始人之一霍夫斯泰德(Hofstede)教授將這種差異作為文化的主要維度之一。一般來說,西方國家較傾向短期目標導向,而東方國家則較追求長期目標導向。
  • DaimlerChrysler after some time started feeling reluctant to make any further investments into Mitsubishi. They didn't see any short-time profits which eventually led to "pulling the plug" on their Japanese partner. Mitsubishi on the other hand, wasn't really concerned with the losses. They were more long-term oriented. They perceived the difficulties to be an obstacle to overcome, but not as a reason to dismantle the alliance. That is why, when DaimlerChrysler announced, that it refused to make any further investments, that the little shreds of trust dissapeared.
    一段時間後,戴姆勒-克萊斯勒公司開始不願意再向三菱公司投資。他們沒有看到任何短期利潤,這最終導致了他們對日本合作夥伴的 "撤資"。另一方面,三菱並不真正關心損失。他們更注重長遠發展。他們認為,困難是需要克服的障礙,但不是解散聯盟的理由。正因為如此,當戴姆勒-克萊斯勒公司宣布拒絕再進行任何投資時,那一點點信任也隨之消失了。
  • The joint venture didn't work as intended because of the lack of consideration given to cultural factors. The inability to establish proper communication, build trust and recognise the goals of one's counterpart played a significant role in the outcome of the cooperation.
    由於缺乏對文化因素的考慮,合資企業並未達到預期效果。無法建立適當的溝通、信任和認識對方的目標,對合作的結果扮演了重要角色。
  • Moreover, just as in the DaimlerChrysler merger, a German company was imposing its own terms on their partners. Once again this "bargaining in" and "do-it-our-way" attitude proved incapable of delivering results.
    此外,正如戴姆勒-克萊斯勒合併案一樣,一家德國公司將自己的條件強加給了合作夥伴。事實再次證明,這種 "討價還價 "和 "我行我素 "的態度無法取得成果。
Source: https://www.commisceo-global.com/blog/cultural-differences-in-international-merger-andacquisitions?tmpl=component&print=1&format=print#C1
資料來源:https://www.commisceo-global.com/blog/cultural-differences-in-international-merger-andacquisitions?tmpl=component&print=1&format=print#C1

Example: Success-Story of Tata's M&A of Jaguar Land Rover
例:塔塔併購捷豹路虎的成功案例

  • TATA Jaguar Land Rover In 2008, TATA finalised the deal and acquired Jaguar Land Rover (JLR). However, the outcome was quite different from the previous case studies which ended in failure. This one is a success story.
    TATA 捷豹路虎 2008 年,TATA 最終完成交易,收購了捷豹路虎(JLR)。然而,其結果與先前以失敗告終的案例研究截然不同。這次是一個成功的故事。
One can attribute the difference in the outcomes to the difference in approaches to the merger, acquisition and integration process. TATA employed directly opposite methods to Daimler. The essence of this method lay in respecting the existing culture rather than imposing a foreign culture.
我們可以將結果的差異歸因於併購和整合過程中方法的差異。塔塔公司採用了與戴姆勒公司截然相反的方法。這種方法的精髓在於尊重現有文化,而不是強加外在文化。
  • At the start of the process the Managing Director openly stated that "change of ownership has little to do with the changing of culture". This had several consequences on TATA's management style.
    在這一過程開始時,總經理公開表示,"所有權的改變與文化的改變關係不大"。這對塔塔公司的管理風格產生了一些影響。
  • Firstly, TATA, in contrast with Daimler, decided to leave the existing management structure intact and leave the national British managers. There wasn't any attempt to impose Indian managers on JLR. All the key personnel retained their positions.
    首先,與戴姆勒相比,塔塔公司決定不改變現有的管理結構,並留下英國本土的管理階層。塔塔並未試圖將印度經理強加給 JLR。所有關鍵人員都保留了自己的職位。
  • Secondly, TATA didn't just leave the current managers on their own. TATA managed to motivate them through constantly challenging them and working with them. In other words, help was offered only when it was needed and existing practices remained in place, but at the same time managers couldn't afford to be idle because they had goals to reach and plans to implement.
    其次,TATA 並沒有讓現任經理自生自滅。 TATA 透過不斷向他們提出挑戰並與他們合作,設法調動他們的積極性。換句話說,只有在需要的時候才會提供幫助,現有的做法仍然保留,但同時管理人員也不能無所事事,因為他們有目標要實現,有計劃要實施。
  • Thirdly, unlike in the DaimlerChrysler and Mitsubishi alliance, TATA managed to inspire trust in JLR. First of all, the fact that most of JLR's personnel were left on their positions showed that TATA trusts JLR, and believed that it is capable of solving their problems. Moreover, more than once in interviews the Managing Director stated that "it is TATA's responsibility" to take care of JLR and that "TATA won't shy away from investments, if it is required". Such clear statements of loyalty contributed positively on the cooperation between the companies.
    第三,與戴姆勒-克萊斯勒和三菱聯盟不同,TATA 成功地激發了人們對 JLR 的信任。首先,JLR 的大部分人員都被留任,這表明 TATA 信任 JLR,並相信 JLR 有能力解決他們的問題。此外,董事總經理不只一次在訪談中表示,照顧 JLR 是 "TATA 的責任","如果需要,TATA 不會放棄投資"。這種明確的忠誠表態對兩家公司之間的合作起到了積極的促進作用。
  • Finally, TATA kept an open-mind and never hesitated to listen to feedback from subordinates. TATA's top level officials often make trips to their factories and dealerships outside India and collect feedback from local employees. These opinions are being used in the developing company's strategy.
    最後,TATA 保持開放的心態,從不吝惜聽取下屬的回饋意見。 TATA 的高層官員經常前往印度以外的工廠和經銷商,收集當地員工的意見。這些意見被用來制定公司策略。

Successful Global Managers must develop Cross-cultural effectiveness
成功的全球管理者必須培養跨文化效能

  • Cross-cultural effectiveness = ability to live and work effectively in the cultural setting of your assignment
    跨文化效能 = 在你的任務文化環境中有效生活和工作的能力
  • Effectiveness (professional expertise + adaptation + intercultural interaction + situational readiness)
    成效 (專業知識 + 適應 + 跨文化互動 + 情境準備)
  • PAIS)
  • To be effective we need to have an understanding of culture OURS and THEIRS.
    要取得成效,我們必須了解我們的文化和他們的文化。

This course concentrates on the following global management issues:
本課程集中討論以下全球管理問題:

  • Impact of cultural differences and how to develop a global mindset
    文化差異的影響以及如何培養全球化思維
  • Ethical issues / How to be an ethical player / What ethical dilemmas do global managers face and how do they/should they handle those?
    道德問題/如何成為一個有道德的人/全球經理人面臨哪些道德困境,他們如何/應該如何處理這些問題?
  • Value creation through globalization of markets, supply chain, labor force, financial markets to sell more, to safe cost, to increase profits, to enhance quality, to enhance innovation, etc.
    透過市場、供應鏈、勞動、金融市場的全球化創造價值 ,以增加銷售量、降低成本、增加利潤、提高品質、強化創新等。
  • FINALLY: Self-evaluate your own global mindset. How would you further develop it?
    最後:自我評估自己的全球心態。你將如何進一步發展它?

MAN6038 The Global Manager Session 1 SUMMARY
MAN6038 全球經理人 第 1 講 摘要

Course Structure Overview
課程結構概述
What is Global Business
什麼是全球商務
What are typical Reasons for Failures of Global Alliances
全球聯盟失敗的典型原因是什麼?
What are Differences between Global Managers and solely Local Managers
全球經理人與純粹的本地經理人有何不同
Why is a Global Mindset so important for the Success of Global Managers
為什麼全球思維模式對全球經理人的成功如此重要?

MAN6038 The Global Manager
MAN6038 全球經理

Session 2 第二節
Understanding culture through the looking glass
透過望遠鏡了解文化

Revision 修訂

-What are the key take aways from the previous session?
-上屆會議的主要收穫是什麼?
  • How does the content of the previous session relate to the assignment and global mindset development?
    上一環節的內容與任務和全球思維發展有何關聯?
  • Any relevant examples to share?
    有沒有相關的例子可以分享?
  • Any clarifying questions?
    有任何澄清問題嗎?

Once again: The Assignment Brief
再來一次:任務簡介

Assignment indicative structure:
作業指示性結構:

  • Introduction. Clearly outline the structure of the work (approx. 100 words)
    引言。明確概述作品的結構(約 100 字)
  • Part 1. A literature review about key traits of a global manager and the importance of a global mindset in today's rapidly changing global environments (approx. 700 words)
    第 1 部分。關於全球經理人關鍵特質的文獻綜述,以及全球思維模式在當今瞬息萬變的全球環境中的重要性(約 700 字)
  • Part 2. A literature review about cultural, ethical and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words)
    第 2 部分。關於文化、倫理和價值考量的文獻綜述(約 700 字)
  • Part 3. A case study about a business of your choice highlighting how the business has or has not benefited from elements related to cultural, ethical, and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words)
    第 3 部分。關於自選企業的案例研究,重點說明該企業如何從與文化、道德和價值相關的因素中獲益或未獲益(約 700 字)
  • Part 4. A self-audit, in which you score yourself on a scale of 1-10 about global mindset skills and competences, followed by a detailed personal development plan about how and by when you intend to develop these traits (approx. 700 words)
    第四部分。自我評估,按照 1-10 分的標準對自己的全球思維技能和能力進行打分,然後就如何以及何時發展這些特質制定詳細的個人發展計劃(約 700 字)
  • Conclusion. Clearly summarise your work (approx. 100 words)
    結論。明確總結您的工作(約 100 字)
  • List of references (not included in the word count). In-text citations and the list of references should follow BCU Harvard Referencing style. A minimum of academic references are required.
    參考文獻列表(不計入字數)。文中引用和參考文獻清單應遵循 BCU 哈佛參考文獻風格。至少需要 學術參考文獻。
"Part 2. A literature review about cultural, ethical and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words)
"第 2 部分。關於文化、倫理和價值考量的文獻綜述(約 700 字)
Part 3. A case study about a business of your choice highlighting how the business has or has not benefited from elements related to cultural, ethical, and value-based considerations (approx. 700 words) Part 4. A self-audit, in which you score yourself on a scale of 1-10 about global mindset skills and competences, followed by a detailed personal development plan about how and by when you intend to develop these traits (approx. 700 words)"
第 3 部分。自選一家企業的案例研究,重點說明該企業如何從與文化、道德和價值相關的因素中獲益或未獲益(約700 字) 第4 部分:自我評估,根據1-10 級的標準對自己的全球思維技能和能力進行評分,然後制定詳細的個人發展計劃,說明您打算如何以及何時發展這些特質(約700 字)。自我評估,根據 1-10 分的標準對自己的全球思維技能和能力進行評分,然後就如何以及何時發展這些特質制定詳細的個人發展計劃(約 700 字)"。

The following sections are all full of valuable in-sights and concepts that you can use for your assignment and when choosing a relevant case.
以下各節都包含大量有價值的觀點和概念,您可以在作業和選擇相關案例時加以利用。

A definition of culture
文化的定義

  • Culture is a commonly-held body of beliefs and values which define the shoulds and the oüghts of life for those who hold them.
    文化是一種普遍持有的信念和價值觀,它為持有這些信念和價值觀的人定義了生活中的應然和實然。
  • Researcher Geert Hofstede called it the
    研究者 Geert Hofstede 稱之為
  • "Software of the mind" that distinguishes members of one group from those of another.
    將一個群體的成員與另一個群體的成員區分開來的 "心靈軟體"。

Culture is... 文化是...

Behaviors 行為
and artifacts. 和人工製品。
Visible, tangible. 看得見,摸得著。
  • like an iceberg: is below the surface
    就像冰山: 表面之下
Usually not visible and rarely (if
通常不可見,很少(如果

ever) questioned until a conflict.
曾經)受到質疑,直到發生衝突。

Culture 文化

  • Learned: acquired from our social environment so early that we are usually unaware of its influence
    習得:很早就從社會環境中習得,以至於我們通常意識不到它的影響
  • Shared: a collective phenomenon
    共享:一種集體現象
  • Not random: patterns exist
    非隨機:存在模式
  • NOTE: CULTURE DOES NOT NECESSARILY MEAN COUNTRY
    註:文化不一定指國家

Personality and culture 個性與文化

  • Be aware of Stereoretyping. Be careful not to:
    注意立體類型。注意不要
  • Project from groups to individuals, or
    項目從團體到個人,或
  • Project from individuals to groups
    從個人到團體的項目
  • Variations exist within cultures - not everyone is the same Free from stereotyping
    文化內部存在差異--並非每個人都是一樣的 擺脫陳規定型觀念
  • Personality is an individual characteristic
    個性是個人特質
  • Culture is a group characteristic
    文化是一種群體特徵
Like fingerprints, you can still be unique and display characteristics of a larger cultural group
就像指紋一樣,你仍然可以獨一無二,並顯示出更大文化群體的特徵

Multicultural competence and managerial success
多元文化能力與管理成功

Global leaders understand culture more deeply than the superficial differences
全球領導者對文化的理解比表面差異更深刻
  • It is important to recognizing and respect differences in greeting rituals, titles, business cards, meals, but it is not enough.
    承認並尊重問候禮儀、頭銜、名片、用餐方面的差異很重要,但這還不夠。
  • Global leaders must understand deeper levels of culture, that influence how people approach work and collaborate with each other
    全球領導者必須了解更深層的文化,它影響人們如何對待工作和相互協作

Global leaders need high Cultural Intelligence (CQ)
全球領導者需要高文化智商 (CQ)

  • Cultural Intelligence (CQ)
    文化智能(CQ)
  • The capacity to act effectively in multiple cultural environments
    在多種文化環境中有效行動的能力
  • System of interacting knowledge and skills linked by mindfulness
    以正念為紐帶的互動知識與技能係統
  • Ability to adapt and work effectively and respectfully with people of other cultures while
    能夠適應並有效地與其他文化背景的人一起工作,同時尊重他們
正念 maintaining one's own identity
正念 保持自己的身份
  • Is related to Emotional Intelligence (EQ) and adds the condition of working across boundaries
    與情緒智商 (EQ) 有關,增加了跨邊界工作的條件
  • CQ is a critical part of the global mindset
    CQ 是全球思維的重要組成部分
  • Gives the cultural context of self- and other- awareness
    提供自我意識和他人意識的文化背景
  • Has a knowledge and a skills component
    包括知識和技能兩部分
  • CQ requires two different types of cultural knowledge
    CQ 需要兩種不同類型的文化知識
  • General cultural knowledge (examined in the first part):
    文化常識(在第一部分中考察):
how culture works and how to observe and gain insights about the effect of culture in different settings
文化如何發揮作用,以及如何觀察和深入了解文化在不同環境中的影響
  • Specific cultural knowledge (examined in the second part):
    特定文化知識(在第二部分中考察):
a set of facts and information about a specific culture (e.g., China, India, Nigeria)
有關特定文化(如中國、印度、奈及利亞)的一系列事實和訊息

Understanding cultures Part 1: How cultures work.
了解文化第 1 部分:文化如何運作。

Understanding culture: Through the Looking Glass
了解文化:透過望遠鏡

Culture is a shared set of assumptions, beliefs and values.
文化是一套共同的假設、信念和價值觀。

  • Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck
    Kluckhohn 與 Strodtbeck
  • a shared, commonly held body of beliefs and values that define the "shoulds" and "oughts" of life
    共同持有的信仰和價值觀,這些信仰和價值觀定義了生活中的 "應該 "和 "不應該"。
  • "the culture of a country - or other category of people -
    "一個國家或其他民族的文化
  • is not a combination of the properties of the 'average citizen'
    不是'普通公民'屬性的組合
  • is not a 'modal personality'
    不是 "模態人格
  • is a set of likely reactions of citizens with a common mental programming"
    是具有共同心理程序的公民可能做出的一系列反應"。
  • Hofstede 霍夫斯泰德
  • "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes one group or category from another"
    "將一個群體或類別與另一個群體或類別區分開來的心靈集體程序"。
  • Culture 文化
  • can be seen in norms and practices: language, clothing, behavior
    從規範和慣例可以看出:語言、服飾、行為
  • meaning and important influence much deeper
    意義和重要影響更為深遠
  • shapes assumptions, perceptions, behavior
    塑造假設、觀念和行為
  • is passed on through generations formally (school) and informally (stories and social reinforcement)
    透過正式方式(學校)和非正式方式(故事和社會強化)世代相傳

All Groups Have Cultures
所有群體都有自己的文化

  • For any group, culture
    對於任何群體而言,文化
  • Makes action more simple and efficient
    讓行動更簡單、更有效率
  • Provides an important source of identity for its members
    為其成員提供重要的身分來源
  • Culture and individuals interact
    文化與個人相互作用
  • Group culture defined by what group members share
    群體文化由群體成員的共同點決定
  • Individual members differ and subscribe to culture's assumptions and values to a greater or lesser extent
    個體成員之間存在差異,或多或少認同文化的假設和價值觀
  • Every individual belongs to different groups with their distinct cultures: national, regional, professional, organizational, age, gender, religion, hobby, etc.
    每個人都屬於不同的群體,有著各自不同的文化:民族文化、地區文化、職業文化、組織文化、年齡文化、性別文化、宗教文化、愛好文化等。
  • Culture provides an important context for people's behavior in a group
    文化為人們在群體中的行為提供了重要背景
  • Hall: culture is to people like water is to fish
    霍爾:文化之於人,如水之於魚
  • Fish out of water can't function normally... Fish does not now this till out of water
    離開水的魚無法正常活動...魚離開水後才會這樣

Culture affects individuals within groups in many ways
文化以多種方式影響群體中的個人

  • Individuals are usually unaware of their own culture
    個人通常不了解自己的文化
  • In fact: Learned, shared assumptions and values provide context for interactions and influences
    事實上:學習到的、共同的假設和價值觀為互動和影響提供了環境
  • What is considered to be successful and what not
    什麼是成功,什麼是失敗
  • What are the priorities of the group
    小組的優先事項是什麼
  • How people should behave
    人們該如何行為
  • Simplifies action 簡化行動
  • Provides source of social identity
    提供社會認同的來源
  • At the surface: Language, clothing, behavior
    表面上:語言、服飾、行為
  • An individual becomes much more aware of own culture when visiting other culture(s)
    在訪問其他文化時,個人對自身文化的認知會更加深刻
  • Critical to leading in an international context
    國際領導力的關鍵
  • Necessary to over come the "fish out of water" syndrome
    克服 "漏網之魚 "綜合症的必要條件
  • Is a group characteristic, but individuals are all different
    是一個群體的特徵,但個體都是不同的
  • Individuals are rarely "typical" all the time
    個人很少一直是 "典型 "的

Understanding culture is fundamental to being an effective global leader.
了解文化是成為一個有效的全球領導者的基礎。

  • Two fundamental characteristics distinguish "international management" from "normal" domestic management
    國際管理 "有別於 "普通 "國內管理,有兩個基本特徵
  • working across varying cultures
    跨文化工作
  • strategic complexity 戰略複雜性
  • To lead effectively in the complexity of globalization
    在複雜的全球化環境中有效發揮領導作用
  • empower people to make decisions
    賦予人們決策權
  • implement these in ways consistent with the company's priorities
    以符合公司優先事項的方式實施這些措施
  • understand the relationship between
    了解
  • people and organizations
    人員和組織
  • organizations and their context
    組織及其背景
  • All of this complexity involves working across cultures effectively
    所有這些複雜性都涉及跨文化的有效合作

Are cultures converging?
文化是否趨同?

  • If cultures are converging, then it will become less important to understand cultural differences
    如果文化趨同,那麼了解文化差異就變得不那麼重要了
  • Is business the same everywhere? Are people basically the same all over the world?
    世界各地的商業都一樣嗎?世界各地的人基本上都一樣嗎?
  • In some ways, yes:
    在某些方面,是的:
  • Jeans, Nike, PlayStation, Pokemon, Harry Potter, vuvuzelas, popular music
    牛仔褲、Nike、PlayStation、寵物小精靈、哈利波特、vuvuzelas、流行音樂
  • Globally and instantly traded currencies, global norms and infrastructures for conducting business
    全球即時交易貨幣、全球商業規範和基礎設施
  • In some ways, no:
    從某些方面來說,不是:
  • Number of countries increasing
    國家數量增加
  • Genres of music, movies, culture fragmenting
    音樂、電影和文化流派的碎片化
  • The answer is "they are both converging and diverging"
    答案是 "既趨同又背離"。
  • Convergence allows us to do business together
    融合使我們能夠共同開展業務
  • Divergence manifests itself when people have to interact day-to-day
    當人們必須進行日常互動時,分歧就會顯現出來
  • "To say that we're (Chinese) becoming Westernized because McDonald's does well in Shanghai, is like saying that the U.S. is becoming Easternized because there are a lot of Chinese restaurants there."
    "說我們(中國人)正在西化,是因為麥當勞在上海經營得很好,這就好比說美國正在東化,是因為那裡有很多中餐館"。

Why Focus on Country Cultures?
為什麼關注國家文化?

  • In International Management we often focus on the role of country cultures
    在國際管理中,我們經常關注國家文化的作用
  • institutions that carry culture are powerful and consistent with "country"
    承載文化的機構是強大的,並與 "國家 "保持一致
  • one "official" language is taught in state schools, is the language of government, is used by most official and unofficial media
    國立學校教授一種 "官方 "語言,它是政府的語言,被大多數官方和非官方媒體使用
  • one legal system 一個法律體系
  • system of government consistent across regions
    各地政體一致
  • single relationship between church and state
    政教合一
  • Beliefs and values associated with these institutions are taught to people early and unobtrusively
    與這些機構相關的信念和價值觀很早就被潛移默化地傳授給了人們
  • through family norms and institutional practices
    透過家庭規範和製度慣例
  • most people are unaware of their influence
    大多數人不知道自己的影響力
  • It is important to remember that there are many other types of culture: regional, religious, local, professional, organizational, etc.
    重要的是要記住,還有許多其他類型的文化:區域文化、宗教文化、地方文化、專業文化、組織文化等。

Culture Influences How We See The World
文化影響我們看世界的方式

  • Assumptions and Perceptions influence our thoughts
    假設和觀念影響我們的思想
  • Some assumptions are deeply ingrained and it is difficult to ever surface them
    有些假設根深蒂固,永遠難以浮出水面
  • taken-for-granted beliefs about the world and how it works
    對世界及其運作方式的既定信念
  • create our world view
    創建我們的世界觀
  • define the cognitive environment in which we work
    確定我們工作的認知環境
  • some are deeply 有的深陷
  • Other assumptions are learned at various stages of our lives
    其他假設是在我們人生的不同階段學到的
  • once learned they are taken for granted
    一學就會

Dynamics of Differing World Views
不同世界觀的動力

  • Our Assumptions influence our Perceptions (understanding)
    我們的假設影響我們的認知(理解)
  • "We see what we want to see and hear what we want to hear"
    "我們看到我們想看到的,聽到我們想聽到的"
  • Or, "I'll see it when I believe it" rather than “'Ill believe it when I see it"
    或者,"當我相信的時候,我會看到它",而不是 "當我看到它的時候,我會相信它"。
  • For example 例如
  • The financial accountant focuses on financial ratios, earnings growth, dividends; may not focus on programs with long lead time that may enhance the company's reputation for social responsibility
    財務會計的重點是財務比率、獲利成長、股利;可能不會關注可能會提高公司社會責任聲譽的籌備時間較長的項目
  • The advertising account manager will likely focus on product features that fit into assumptions about the target audience's motivation, may miss other features
    廣告客戶經理可能會把注意力集中在符合目標受眾動機假設的產品功能上,可能會忽略其他功能
  • Assumptions are necessary
    假設是必要的
  • They eliminate a constant need to inquire about the meaning of events and the motives of others
    它們消除了不斷探討事件意義和他人動機的需要
  • The more we share assumptions with others, the more easily we interact and communicate effectively
    我們與他人分享的假設越多,就越容易進行有效的互動和溝通

Clearer Vision With D-I-E Describe, Interpret, Evaluate
透過 D-I-E 使視野更清晰 描述、解釋、評估

  • Our actions are influenced by a cognitive process, filtered by our assumptions
    我們的行動受認知過程的影響,並經過我們的假設過濾
  • D: We notice something and describe / observe its characteristics
    D: 我們注意到某一事物,並描述/觀察其特徵
  • I: We interpret, or give meaning to what we observed
    I: 我們將觀察到的事物解釋,或賦予其意義
  • E: We evaluate the facts, characteristics, dimensions of what we observed and then we take action
    E: 我們評估所觀察到的事實、特徵和層面,然後採取行動
  • We perceive the world based on our assumptions through the D-I-E sequence
    我們根據自己的假設,透過 D-I-E 序列來感知世界
  • When we cross cultural barriers we need to be aware that our D-I-E is based on assumptions that may not apply to the local conditions
    當我們跨越文化障礙時,我們需要意識到我們的 D-I-E 所基於的假設可能並不適用於當地的情況
  • Spend more time on description, treat interpretations as hypotheses, defer evaluation until we have explored multiple possible interpretations
    花更多時間描述,將解釋視為假設,推遲評估,直到我們探索了多種可能的解釋為止

Culture and Individual Behavior (fig. 2.1)
文化與個人行為(圖 2.1)

When Cultures Meet:
Question the Other or Question Ourselves?
當文化相遇:質疑他人還是質疑自己?

When people from two or more cultures meet or work together they start from a different set of assumptions based on their value systems (cultures) that may direct them to
當來自兩種或兩種以上文化的人相遇或共事時,他們會基於各自的價值體系(文化)從不同的假設出發,而這些假設可能會引導他們: 1.
  • notice the same characteristics of a situation or different ones
    注意到相同或不同的情況特徵
  • describe the situation they notice differently
    描述他們注意到的不同情況
  • interpret what they notice differently
    對所注意到的事物有不同的理解
  • evaluate what they interpreted differentlv
    評價他們的不同解釋lv
  • take different actions 採取不同行動

When Cultures Meet Question the Other or Question Ourselves?
當不同文化相遇 質疑他人還是質疑自己?

  • How to regain consistency?
    如何恢復一致性?
  • Question the other 詢問對方
  • change our perception of the evidence to match the assumptions
    改變我們對證據的看法,使之與假設相符
  • Question ourselves 我們的問題
  • Change our assumptions to match the evidence
    根據證據改變我們的假設
  • It is generally easier to question the other
    一般來說,質疑對方比較容易
  • less energy 能耗更低
  • reinforced by others with the same assumptions (boss at headquarters)
    被具有相同假設的其他人(總部的老闆)強化
  • is less confusing 不那麼令人困惑
  • we distort what we've perceived to make it fit our assumptions
    我們會扭曲我們所感知的事物,使其符合我們的假設
  • To question ourselves is less common and more difficult
    質疑自己並不常見,也更困難
  • need to stand back and identify the holes in our own assumptions
    需要退後一步,找出我們自己假設中的漏洞
  • energy needed to change our assumptions and those of others too
    改變我們和他人的假設所需的能量
  • overcome a tendency to base one's own identity to one's culturally induced assumptions
    克服將自己的身分認同建立在文化假設上的傾向
  • Key to effective communication: Fit between assumptions and perceptions
    有效溝通的關鍵:假設與認知之間的契合
  • no fit: 不合適:
  • cognitive inconsistency -> negative feeling, i.e., discomfort
    認知不一致 -> 負面感覺,即不適感
  • then, -> distortion of perceptions to achieve consistency with assumptions and false comfort
    然後,-> 扭曲感知,以達到與假設和虛假舒適的一致性
  • i.e., we seek pleasure to avoid pain
    即我們追求快樂以避免痛苦
  • good fit: cognitive consistency -> justified "harmony, comfort"
    良好契合:認知一致性 -> 合理的 "和諧、舒適"
  • cross-cultural situations: assumptions are likely to have no fit with perceptions -> misunderstanding
    跨文化情境:假設可能與認知不符 -> 誤解
What's more important, rules or relationships?
規則和關係哪個比較重要?
Global and local? 全球和地方?

Understanding Cultures Part 2: Acquiring & Organizing CultureSpecific Knowledge
了解文化第 2 部分:獲取並整理特定文化知識

Understanding culture: Through the Looking Glass
了解文化:透過望遠鏡

Cultural frameworks compare different
文化框架比較不同的

aspects of culture 文化方面
Hall & Hall 霍爾與霍爾
V
Hofstede 霍夫斯泰德

Cultural Orientations Framework Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck
文化取向框架 Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck

  • Is one tool for "mapping" differing patterns of beliefs held by different cultures
    是 "繪製 "不同文化所持有的不同信仰模式的工具之一
  • Highlights deep assumptions important for international management
    強調對國際管理至關重要的深層假設
  • Can promote deeper cultural awareness
    可以促進更深層的文化意識
  • BUT, must be used prudently
    但必須謹慎使用
  • Presupposes understanding of:
    前提是了解
  • concepts underlying culture
    文化的基本概念
  • assumptions underlying the framework itself (see next slide)
    框架本身所依據的假設(見下一張投影片)

The Cultural Orientations Framework is based on well-tested assumptions about culture.
文化取向架構是基於久經考驗的文化假設。

  • There are universal themes in the challenges that different societies face over time
    不同社會長期面臨的挑戰具有普遍性
  • Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck identified six universal challenges faced by all societies, and a limited number of basic ways of responding to each of the challenges
    Kluckhohn 和 Strodtbeck 確定了所有社會都面臨的六項普遍挑戰,以及應對每項挑戰的數量有限的基本方法
  • Different societies developed different shared preferences for coping with each of these issues
    不同的社會在應對這些問題時形成了不同的共同偏好
  • The rank ordering of the society's preferences is what creates differences among cultures
    社會偏好的排序造成了不同文化之間的差異
  • All variations of a particular value orientation exist in a given culture
    特定文化中存在著某種價值取向的所有變體
  • All variations provide good solutions and good ways forward for different situations; there is no such thing as a "better" cultural configuration
    所有的變體都為不同的情況提供了好的解決方案和好的前進方向;沒有所謂的 "更好的 "文化配置。
  • People believe there are different ways to deal with a given situation; the society agrees there a preferred way to start
    人們相信有不同的方法來處理特定情況;社會同意有一種首選的方法來啟動
  • The variation among individuals within a culture provides resources for cultural change and adaptation over time
    文化中個體之間的差異為文化的長期變革和適應提供了資源
The Six Cultural Orientations: Questions every culture must answer, and categories of responses
六種文化取向:每種文化都必須回答的問題以及回答的類別
  • Environment: What is our basic relationship with the world around us?
    環境我們與周遭世界的基本關係是什麼?
  • Harmony, Mastery, Subjugation
    和諧、掌握、征服
  • Relationships: To whom and for whom do we naturally have responsibility?
    關係:我們對誰負有責任?
  • Collective, Hierarchical, Individual
    集體、等級、個人
  • Activity: What is our basic or natural approach to activity?
    活動:我們的基本或自然活動方式是什麼?
  • Being, Doing, Thinking 存在、行動、思考
  • Time: How do we think about time?
    時間:我們如何看待時間?
  • Monochronic, Polychronic (from Hall & Hall)
    單聲道,多聲道(選自霍爾與霍爾)
  • Human Nature: What is the basic nature of humans?
    人性:人類的基本本性是什麼?
  • Good, Evil, Mixed or Neutral
    善、惡、混合或中立
The first four have the most impact on business interactions, and we focus our discussion on these.
前四項對業務互動的影響最大,我們將重點討論這四項。
  • Space: How do we think about and use space?
    空間:我們如何看待和使用空間?
  • Public, Private, Mixed 公共、私人、混合

Relationship with the Environment: How should we work with the environment around us?
與環境的關係:我們該如何與周遭環境相處?

Includes the physical, economic and social worlds.
包括物質世界、經濟世界和社會世界。
Two most influential responses in business are Mastery and Harmony (see text for Subjugation). Both are effective, but take different routes.
在商業活動中,最有影響力的兩種對策是 "掌握 "與 "和諧"(參見文中的 "征服")。兩者都很有效,但採取的途徑不同。
  • Mastery: The environment is separate from us, and something to be managed. Our actions should influence and control the environment to get things to work well.
    掌握:環境與我們是分離的,是需要管理的。我們的行動應該影響控制環境,讓事情順利進行。
  • Examples: Pioneering, colonizing. High pay for CEOs (assumption that the CEO should control / master the business). Goal setting to produce results.
    例如:開拓、殖民。執行長的高薪(假定執行長應控制/掌握企業)。設定目標,創造成果。
  • Harmony: The environment is a complex system of which we are one part. Our actions should keep the system in balance, then everything will work well.
    和諧:環境是一個複雜的系統,我們是其中的一部分。我們的行為應保持系統的平衡,這樣一切才會運作良好。
  • Examples: Traditional hunting and gathering. Business systems of engaging many small actions in a coordinated way to bring about a comprehensive result over time. Goal setting to try actions and get feedback.
    例如:傳統狩獵和採集:傳統的狩獵和採集。以協調的方式參與許多小型行動,從而在一段時間內取得全面成果的商業系統。設定目標,嘗試行動並獲得回饋。

Relations among People: How should we think about relationships of power and responsibility? (Examples see next PPT slide)
人與人之間的關係:我們該如何看待權力與責任的關係? (實例請見下一張 PPT 投影片)

Three approaches to relationships combine differently in each society. All are effective, but take different routes.
處理人際關係的三種方法在每個社會中的結合方式各不相同。它們都很有效,但採取的途徑不同。
  • Collectivism: People in the group should be responsible for each other, and everyone is responsible to fulfil the group's needs. The group may be the extended family, the community, or any other large group.
    集體主義:群體中的人應該互相負責,每個人都有責任滿足群體的需求。群體可以是大家庭、社區或任何其他大型群體。
  • Examples: Ubuntu, extended families, strong company cultures,
    例如烏班圖、大家庭、強大的公司文化、
個人主義
  • Individualism: Each of us should be responsible for him- or herself alone, and perhaps the immediate family if necessary. Society works better if everyone looks after him- or herself.
    個人主義:我們每個人都應為自己負責,必要時也要為直系親屬負責。如果每個人都能照顧好自己,社會就會運作得更好。
  • Examples: Strict democracy, teams with specific and separate roles
    例如嚴格的民主制度、具有特定和獨立角色的團隊
等級制
  • Hierarchy: Power and responsibility are arranged such that those above have power over those below, and responsibility for them. Those below should obey the wishes of those above.
    階級制度:權力和責任的安排是:上位者對下位者擁有權力,並對他們負責。下級應服從上級的意願。
  • Examples: Strict communication and responsibility through an organization chart, privileges by hierarchical level.
    例如:透過組織架構圖進行嚴格的溝通和責任分工,並依等級劃分權限。

Examples (real life stories)
例(真實故事)

  • Collectivism vs Individualism:
    集體主義與個人主義:
  • Example of International Joint venture of German MNC with Japanese Family Business: Top Management Meeting of the JV Partners
    德國跨國公司與日本家族企業的國際合資企業實例:合資夥伴高階管理會議
  • German: direct, critical, individualistic
    德語:直接、批判、個人主義
  • Japanese: silent, consent seeking among peers, collectivistic
    日本人:沉默、尋求同儕同意、集體主義
  • Hierarchies: 等級制度:
  • Example of German GM asking Chinese Accounting to prepare an analysis where he needs inputs from other departments
    例如,德國總經理要求中國會計部準備一份分析報告,他需要其他部門的投入

Mode of Activity: What is the basic sequence of activity we agree to use together? (Examples see next PPT slide)
活動方式:我們同意共同採用的基本活動順序是什麼? (範例請見下一張 PPT 投影片)

Two most influential responses in business are Doing and Thinking. All societies engage in both modes, but prioritize them differently.
在企業中,最有影響力的兩種應對方式是 "行動"(Doing)和 "思考"(Thinking)。所有社會都會採用這兩種模式,但優先順序各不相同