不同靠泊规则下的集装箱港口连续泊位与岸桥联合分配研究

Study on the joint allocation of continuous berths and quay cranes in container ports under different berthing rules

郭瑞军^{1}，周凯硕，张艺骞，王晚香

Guo Ruijun1^{}, Zhou Kaishuo, Zhang Yiqian, Wang Wanxiang

（大连交通大学 交通运输工程学院，辽宁 大连116028）

(School of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028, Liaoning, China).

摘 要：按照船舶先到先停原则进行港口泊位与岸桥分配容易造成船舶停滞和压货，导致泊位与岸桥利用率低,降低了港口的服务水平和竞争力。针对连续泊位布局方式下的集装箱港口泊位与岸桥联合分配问题，建立了基于船舶偏好靠泊位置、靠泊位置与起点的距离、可行岸线长度和可用岸桥数量的四种典型靠泊规则，并构建了考虑惩罚成本的多船动态到达泊位与岸桥联合分配多目标优化模型.同时，设计将四种靠泊规则考虑在内的启发式算法，利用遗传算法对模型进行求解，得出最优靠泊规则和调度方案。将该方法应用于某集装箱港口连续到港船舶的实际案例，计算不同规则下的集装箱码头泊位与岸桥联合分配模型的最优结果，结果显示:规则一，即按船舶偏好靠泊位置靠泊的规则为最优规则，最优方案中船舶停靠的时间及岸桥利用率分别为93.81457小时和68.617%。研究结论表明:按照船舶典型的靠泊方式建立四种靠泊规则是合理的.通过建立这种考虑惩罚成本的泊位与岸桥联合分配模型，能够对不同规则下的泊位与岸桥分配方案进行比选并得出最优规则和最优方案。

Abstract: The allocation of port berths and quay cranes according to the principle of first-come, first-stop is easy to cause ship stagnation and cargo pressing, resulting in low utilization rate of berths and quay cranes, and reducing the service level and competitiveness of ports. In order to solve the problem of joint allocation of container port berths and quay cranes under the continuous berth layout mode, four typical berthing rules based on the ship's preferred berthing location, the distance between the berthing position and the starting point, the feasible shoreline length and the number of available quay cranes are established, and a multi-objective optimization model for the joint allocation of berths and quay cranes for multiple ships considering the penalty cost is constructed. At the same time, a heuristic algorithm considering the four berthing rules is designed, and the genetic algorithm is used to solve the model to obtain the optimal berthing rules and scheduling scheme. The method is applied to the actual case of continuous arrival of ships in a container port, and the optimal results of the joint allocation model of container terminal berths and quay cranes under different rules are calculated, and the results show that the first rule, that is, the rule of berthing according to the ship's preferred berthing position is the optimal ruleIn the optimal scheme, the docking time and quay crane utilization rate are 93.81457 hours and 68.617%, respectively. The results show that it is reasonable to establish four berthing rules according to the typical berthing mode of ships. By establishing this joint allocation model of berth and quay crane considering the penalty cost, the allocation scheme of berth and quay crane under different rules can be compared and selected, and the optimal rules and optimal schemes can be obtained.

关键词：集装箱港口；泊位分配；岸桥调度；靠泊规则；遗传算法

Keywords: container port; berth allocation; quay crane scheduling; berthing rules; Genetic algorithms

Doi：

中图分类号：U691.3 文献标识码：A

CLC Number: U691.3 Document Identification Code: A

Research on the Joint Allocation of Continuous Berths and Shore Bridges in Container Ports under Different Berthing Rules

Guo Ruijun，Zhou Kaishuo，Zhang Yiqian，Wang Wanxiang

( School of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028，China)

Abstract：According to the principle of first-come-first-served, the allocation of berths and bridges in ports is easy to cause ship stagnation and cargo pressure, resulting in low utilization rate of berths and bridges, which reduces the service level and competitiveness of ports. For the problem of joint allocation of berths and bridges in container ports under continuous berth layout, four typical berthing rules based on ships' preferred berthing position, distance between berthing position and starting point, feasible shoreline length and the number of available bridges are established, and a multi-objective optimization model of joint allocation of berths and bridges for multi-ships arriving dynamically is constructed by considering the penalty cost. At the same time, a heuristic algorithm taking the four berthing rules into account is designed, and the model is solved using genetic algorithm to derive the optimal berthing rules and scheduling scheme. The method is applied to the actual case of continuous arrival of ships in a container port to calculate the optimal results of the joint allocation model of berths and bridges in a container terminal under different rules, and the results show that: Rule 1, i.e., the rule of berthing according to the ship's preference of berthing position, is the optimal rule, and the docking time of the ship and the utilization rate of the bridges in the optimal scheme are 93.81457 hours and 68.617%, respectively. The conclusion of the study shows that it is reasonable to establish four berthing rules according to the typical berthing mode of ships. Through the establishment of this joint allocation model of berths and bridges considering the penalty cost, it is possible to compare the berths and bridges under different rules and derive the optimal rules and optimal programs.

Key words：container port; berth allocation; shore bridge scheduling; berthing rules; genetic algorithm