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A mixed reality simulation offers strategic practice for pre-service teachers

Tara Dalinger , Katherine B. Thomas , Susan Stansberry , Ying Xiu
Tara Dalinger , Katherine B. Thomas , Susan Stansberry , Ying Xiu
a Oklahoma State University, 325 Willard Hall, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA Oklahoma State University, 325M Willard Hall, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
俄克拉荷马州立大学,325M Willard Hall,Stillwater,OK 74078,USA


Keywords: 关键词:

Mixed reality simulations
Pre-service teachers 职前教师
Teacher education 教师教育
TLE TeachLivE  TLE TeachLivE

Abstract 摘要

A B S T R A C T Teacher education programs increasingly use simulations as a teaching method for pre-service teachers. Simulations provide opportunities for authentic practice in a controlled environment with reduced risk of harm. This instrumental case study examines the experiences of 13 preservice teachers who participated in a session with the mixed reality simulation Mursion , which emerged from TLE TeachLivE , while enrolled in at least one teacher education course with a field experience. The researchers analyzed interview data with a variety of coding techniques and then drew assertions from codes and derivative themes. From data analysis, four themes emerged: opportunity for authentic practice, perceived transfer of learning, perceived confidence, and challenges of using the mixed reality simulation. The researchers drew the following conclusions from these themes. Participants considered the mixed reality simulation a more authentic form of practice than what their observations during field experiences afforded. Participants perceived transfer of learning from observations of peers during sessions with the mixed reality simulation to performance during their own sessions. Some participants perceived increased confidence in applying skills practiced during the simulation to work with live students and parents. Using the mixed reality simulation posed challenges including suspension of disbelief, meeting candidates' needs, and the presence of a peer audience. This study has implications for future use of mixed reality simulations for teacher preparation.
A B S T R A C T 师范教育课程越来越多地使用模拟教学作为职前教师的教学方法。模拟教学提供了在可控环境中进行真实实践的机会,降低了伤害风险。本工具性案例研究考察了 13 名参加了混合现实模拟 Mursion 课程的职前教师的经历,该课程源自 TLE TeachLivE ,他们至少参加了一门有实地体验的教师教育课程。研究人员采用多种编码技术对访谈数据进行分析,然后从编码和衍生主题中得出论断。通过数据分析,得出了四个主题:真实实践的机会、学习迁移的感知、感知到的信心以及使用混合现实模拟的挑战。研究人员从这些主题中得出了以下结论。学员们认为混合现实模拟是一种比实地观察更真实的实践形式。学员们认为,在使用混合现实模拟教学过程中,通过观察同伴的表现,可以将所学知识迁移到自己的教学过程中。一些学员认为,将模拟中练习的技能应用到与现场学生和家长的合作中,增强了他们的信心。使用混合现实模拟带来了一些挑战,包括悬置不信、满足候选人的需求以及同伴观众的存在。这项研究对今后在教师培训中使用混合现实模拟有一定的启示。

1. Introduction 1.导言

While the use of simulations as a training method has become a common tool for providing skills practice in fields such as medicine and aviation, this technology has recently emerged in the field of education as a method for teacher preparation (Kaufman & Ireland, 2016). Pre-service teachers typically participate in field observations before completing a teaching practicum, but this participation may or may not provide active classroom experience with opportunities to engage directly with children. Pre-service teachers often do not actively practice teaching skills in a classroom environment until they are student teachers assigned to a class of students in an actual school classroom (Ward, Chen, Higginson, & Xie, 2018).
使用模拟技术作为培训方法已成为医学和航空等领域提供技能练习的常用工具,而这种技术最近也出现在教育领域,成为教师备课的一种方法(Kaufman & Ireland, 2016)。职前教师在完成教学实习之前通常会参加实地观察,但这种参与可能会也可能不会提供积极的课堂经验,让他们有机会直接与儿童接触。职前教师通常不会在课堂环境中积极练习教学技能,直到他们成为学生教师,被分配到实际学校课堂中的一个学生班级(Ward, Chen, Higginson, & Xie, 2018)。
Using a mixed reality simulation such as the virtual classroom provided by Mursion (which emerged from TLE TeachLivE ) offers a potential opportunity for meaningful experiential learning with virtual students in the form of digital avatars, providing actual teaching practice while removing the potential risk of harm to live students taught and monitored by inexperienced student teachers. However, little research is yet available on pre-service teachers' experiences with Mursion during their pre-service teacher
使用混合现实模拟,如 Mursion (由 TLE TeachLivE 产生)提供的虚拟教室,为以数字化身的形式与虚拟学生进行有意义的体验式学习提供了潜在机会,在提供实际教学实践的同时,消除了由缺乏经验的学生教师教授和监控的真实学生受到伤害的潜在风险。然而,关于职前教师在职前培训期间使用 Mursion 的经验的研究还很少。
Fig. 1. Mursion mixed reality simulation. A candidate interacts with student avatars during a session with Mursion .
图 1.Mursion 混合现实模拟。在 Mursion 中,候选人与学生化身互动。
education programs. At the time of this study, our elementary and secondary education programs had used the mixed reality simulation for approximately a year, and we wondered how the pre-service teachers perceived the experience and if it made a perceptible difference in how they approached their internships. We wanted to know what they learned by practicing with the mixed reality simulation prior to working in a real classroom with real children and parents. We also wondered if their confidence and sense of self-efficacy were affected by the experience and whether they recognized any transfer of learning from the mixed reality simulation to the classroom. Therefore, we conducted this study for the purpose of exploring candidates' experiences with mixed reality simulations as part of their pre-service teacher education and investigated their perceptions of the simulation's effects on their learning, confidence, and their subsequent live field experiences.
Mursion is a mixed reality simulation, which provides an environment consisting of both digital and physical components (Lindgren, Tscholl, Wang, & Johnson, 2016). The program uses a blend of artificial intelligence and live actors to simulate different interactive settings. Imagine pre-service teachers, which we will hence refer to as teacher candidates, walking into a laboratory setting that looks like a middle school classroom. The candidates interact with virtual middle school aged children projected on a screen. Through improvisation from a live actor operating behind the scenes via a Skype connection, these children respond in real time to the candidates and provide different levels of pushback depending on the scenario. Fig. 1 provides an image of a candidate engaging with the student avatars in the mixed reality simulation.
Mursion 是一种混合现实模拟,它提供了一个由数字和物理组件组成的环境(Lindgren, Tscholl, Wang, & Johnson, 2016)。该程序融合了人工智能和真人演员,以模拟不同的互动环境。想象一下,职前教师(我们将其称为候选教师)走进一个看起来像中学教室的实验室环境。候选教师与投影在屏幕上的虚拟初中生进行互动。这些儿童通过 Skype 连接,由幕后的真人演员即兴表演,实时回应考生,并根据情景提供不同程度的回击。图 1 展示了一名候选人在混合现实模拟中与学生化身互动的画面。
The technology enables our candidates to teach lessons, manage the classroom, and practice the skills of teaching with these avatars prior to entering the field and working with real children. Each candidate is able to reset the program and start over at will, and he or she can teach the same lesson again and again until confident the lesson has gone well. The avatars respond in real time, can "see" the candidate, and converse on current events, new movies, books, and video games just as real children in a classroom would. The mixed reality simulation provides this experience by combining a live actor with software to give the candidates a realistic classroom environment that closely mirrors live interactions with children. The live actor provides a level of verisimilitude such that the avatars can "see" the candidate participating in the simulation and can respond as real children might to the candidate's appearance and environment. The avatars appear to mirror the candidate's attitude and approach, just as a real parent or child might respond to cues in a conversation. This mixed reality environment provides candidates a venue for standardized, targeted skills practice with reduced risk.
这项技术可以让我们的候选人在进入现场与真正的孩子们一起工作之前,通过这些化身教授课程、管理教室并练习教学技能。每个候选人都可以随意重置程序并重新开始,他或她可以反复教授相同的课程,直到确信课程顺利进行为止。头像会实时做出反应,可以 "看到 "候选人,并就时事、新电影、书籍和视频游戏进行交流,就像课堂上的真实儿童一样。混合现实模拟通过将真人演员与软件相结合,为候选人提供逼真的课堂环境,使其与儿童的现场互动如出一辙。真人演员提供了一定程度的真实感,使虚拟化身能 "看到 "参与模拟的考生,并能像真实儿童一样对考生的外表和环境做出反应。头像会反映候选人的态度和方法,就像真正的父母或孩子会对对话中的提示做出反应一样。这种混合现实环境为考生提供了一个标准化、有针对性的技能练习场所,同时降低了风险。
For the purpose of this study, we used the simulated classroom with five middle school students and the simulated office setting with an adult avatar to interact in real time with candidates. We sought to give elementary and secondary teacher candidates opportunities to practice skills prior to using them in a real classroom and in a parent-teacher conference. Because our university pays for Mursion by the hour, our model of use is quite different from what may be seen in institutions using TLE TeachLivE which is not a commercial product. We schedule classes to use the software well in advance, and candidates occupy the lab together in groups of at a time. Candidates do not use the simulation individually in private sessions or in small group sessions. This model has resulted in unexpected benefits as well as anticipated pitfalls, both of which we detail in the findings. This study examines our candidates' experiences of using the Mursion simulation software during a group exercise in which we explore what we learned about candidates' impressions of the simulated classroom and consider implications for future use of such environments.
在本研究中,我们使用了有五名初中生的模拟教室和有成人化身的模拟办公室环境,与考生进行实时互动。我们试图让中小学教师候选人有机会在真实课堂和家长会上使用这些技能之前,先进行技能练习。由于我们大学是按小时支付 Mursion 的费用,因此我们的使用模式与使用 TLE TeachLivE 的机构截然不同,因为后者不是商业产品。我们提前安排好使用该软件的课程,考生以小组为单位共同使用实验室,每次 。考生不会单独或以小组形式使用模拟软件。这种模式既带来了意想不到的好处,也存在着预期的隐患,我们将在研究结果中详细说明。本研究探讨了考生在小组练习中使用 Mursion 模拟软件的经验,其中我们探讨了考生对模拟课堂的印象,并考虑了未来使用此类环境的影响。

2. Literature review 2.文献综述

In the review of literature conducted for this study, we aimed to explore prior findings on the use of simulations in different forms by pre-service teacher education programs as well as investigate the role of skills practice when using simulation methods with preservice teacher candidates. We were particularly interested in findings which provided evidence clarifying how practice during simulations affect candidates' later experiences and performance in live classrooms. We found that while research is available on the use of other mixed reality technologies such as TLE TeachLivE and the TeachMe Lab, little research appears to be available on the use Mursion for providing targeted practice for pre-service teacher candidates. We propose that a separate strand of research on Mursion is necessary due to the fact that the mixed reality simulation is a commercial product as opposed to TLE TeachLivE , which
在为本研究进行的文献综述中,我们旨在探索职前教师教育项目以不同形式使用模拟教学的先前研究成果,并研究在对职前教师候选人使用模拟教学方法时,技能练习所起的作用。我们尤其感兴趣的是,研究结果能够提供证据,说明模拟实践如何影响师范生日后在真实课堂中的经验和表现。我们发现,虽然有关于使用其他混合现实技术(如 TLE TeachLivE 和 TeachMe Lab)的研究,但关于使用 Mursion 为职前教师候选人提供有针对性的练习的研究似乎很少。我们建议有必要对 Mursion 进行单独的研究,因为与 TLE TeachLivE 相比,混合现实模拟是一种商业产品。

affected the implementation of Mursion for this study as discussed in the previous section. We also noted an apparent lack of research on how candidates' perceive the effects of skills practice with mixed reality simulations on their subsequent live classroom experiences. This literature review begins with a survey of literature addressing the role and importance of skills practice in preservice teacher education programs, including research on practice-based teacher education and Grossman's (2009) approximations of practice, in order to establish a warrant for the use of mixed reality simulations in these programs. The review then follows with a survey of prior research investigating simulations in pre-service teacher education and explores the attributes and benefits of various types of simulations in this field, especially as related to targeted skills practice.
如上一节所述,Mursion 对本研究的实施产生了影响。我们还注意到,关于候选人如何看待混合现实模拟的技能练习对他们随后的课堂体验的影响,显然缺乏研究。本文献综述首先调查了职前教师教育项目中技能实践的作用和重要性,包括基于实践的教师教育研究和格罗斯曼(Grossman,2009)的实践近似理论,以便为在这些项目中使用混合现实模拟提供依据。本综述随后调查了先前对职前教师教育中模拟教学的研究,并探讨了该领域中各种类型模拟教学的属性和优势,尤其是与有针对性的技能实践相关的模拟教学。

2.1. Skills practice in pre-service teacher education

Teacher candidates need opportunities for authentic practice of essential pedagogical skills-sometimes referred to as core practices or high-leverage skills (Ball & Forzani, 2009; Zeichner, 2012) - long before they begin their teaching practicums. Peercy and Troyan (2017) suggest learning to teach through a practice-to-theory approach rather than through traditional theory-to-practice would give candidates an opportunity to practice essential skills needed in the classroom and reflect on those experiences so those skills are more readily available when they begin their practicums. Traditional pre-service teacher education programs with their emphasis on a theory-to-practice framework place the burden on candidates to translate theories of teaching and learning to actual practice in the classroom (Ward et al., 2018). This persistent gap between theory and practice is a recurrent issue in literature addressing the preparation of teacher candidates for the classroom (Burridge, Hooley, & Neal, 2016; Dotger, Dotger, & Maher, 2010; Vartuli, Snider, & Holley, 2016; Walker & Dotger, 2012; Ward et al., 2018; Zeichner, 2012). This dilemma provides momentum to the movement towards Practice-Based Teacher Education (PBTE), which seeks to focus more on candidates' mastery of identified sets of pedagogical skills through the embedding of targeted skills practice throughout teacher education courses (Davis & Boerst, 2014; Forzani, 2014; Grossman, Hammerness, & McDonald, 2009; Jenset, Klette, & Hammerness, 2018; McDonald, Kazemi, & Kavanagh, 2013).
教师候选人在开始教学实习之前,需要有机会对基本教学技能(有时称为核心实践或高杠杆技能)进行真实的实践(Ball & Forzani, 2009; Zeichner, 2012)。Peercy 和 Troyan(2017 年)建议,通过 "从实践到理论 "的方法而不是传统的 "从理论到实践 "的方法来学习教学,可以让候选人有机会练习课堂上所需的基本技能,并对这些经验进行反思,从而在开始实习时更容易掌握这些技能。传统的职前教师教育项目强调理论到实践的框架,这让候选人承担了将教学理论转化为课堂实际实践的重任(Ward 等人,2018 年)。理论与实践之间持续存在的差距,是解决师范生课堂教学准备的文献中反复出现的问题(Burridge, Hooley, & Neal, 2016; Dotger, Dotger, & Maher, 2010; Vartuli, Snider, & Holley, 2016; Walker & Dotger, 2012; Ward et al., 2018; Zeichner, 2012)。这种困境为 "基于实践的教师教育"(PBTE)运动提供了动力,该运动旨在通过在教师教育课程中嵌入有针对性的技能实践,更加关注候选人对已确定的教学技能的掌握(Davis & Boerst, 2014; Forzani, 2014; Grossman, Hammerness, & McDonald, 2009; Jenset, Klette, & Hammerness, 2018; McDonald, Kazemi, & Kavanagh, 2013)。
Grossman, Compton, et al. (2009) and Grossman, Hammerness, et al. (2009) suggest what they term as "approximations of practice" as a means of providing candidates opportunities in their university courses for authentic experimentation with skills needed in the field. In their article discussing the teaching and learning of practice in professional education, Grossman et al. define approximations of practice as opportunities candidates have "to engage in practices that are more or less proximal to the practices of a profession" (p. 2056). Simulations in professional teacher education are examples of approximations of practice in that they provide candidates opportunities to practice skills in controlled conditions designed to closely mirror situations they will encounter in live classrooms. Traditional field experiences provided through pre-service teacher education programs often place candidates in the role of the passive observer, and observations made with little structure do not always facilitate candidates' learning of effective teaching practices (Walker & Dotger, 2012). Pre-service teacher education programs often have little control over the quality and reliability of the experiences afforded to teacher candidates in the field (Shaughnessy & Boerst, 2018). Thus, ensuring all candidates have equitable opportunities for skills practice during their field experiences is difficult. Simulations serving as approximations of practice can provide solutions to these challenges. Prior research on the use of simulations in pre-service teacher education has established simulations as a viable source of skills practice free from many of the challenges to ensuring reliable, high quality experience and practice posed by traditional field experiences (Dieker, Hynes, Hughes, Hardin, & Becht, 2015; Dotger, 2015; Dotger et al., 2010; Shaughnessy & Boerst, 2018). Though simulations are not looked upon as replacements for live classroom field experiences, research on pre-service teacher education regards simulations as a potential source of authentic experiential learning for teacher candidates before they enter the live classroom environment (Bautista & Boone, 2015; Cil & Dotger, 2017).
Grossman、Compton 等人(2009 年)和 Grossman、Hammerness 等人(2009 年)建议,他们将 "近似实践 "作为一种手段,在大学课程中为考生提供机会,让他们真实地尝试该领域所需的技能。Grossman 等人在讨论专业教育中实践教学的文章中,将 "近似实践 "定义为考生 "参与或多或少接近专业实践的实践 "的机会(第 2056 页)。专业教师教育中的模拟教学就是近似实践的例子,因为模拟教学为考生提供了在受控条件下练习技能的机会,这些受控条件旨在密切反映他们在真实课堂中会遇到的情况。通过职前教师教育项目提供的传统实地经验通常会让候选人处于被动观察者的角色,而缺乏条理的观察并不总是能促进候选人学习有效的教学实践(Walker & Dotger, 2012)。职前教师教育项目往往无法控制师范生实地教学经验的质量和可靠性(Shaughnessy & Boerst, 2018)。因此,要确保所有候选人在实地体验中都有公平的技能实践机会是很困难的。模拟作为实践的近似形式,可以为这些挑战提供解决方案。先前关于在职前教师教育中使用模拟的研究已经证实,模拟是一种可行的技能实践来源,它摆脱了传统实地经验在确保可靠、高质量的经验和实践方面所带来的诸多挑战(Dieker、Hynes、Hughes、Hardin & Becht,2015;Dotger,2015;Dotger 等人,2010;Shaughnessy & Boerst,2018)。虽然模拟教学并不能取代现场课堂实地体验,但职前教师教育研究认为,模拟教学是教师候选人进入现场课堂环境之前进行真实体验式学习的潜在来源(Bautista & Boone, 2015; Cil & Dotger, 2017)。

2.2. Simulations in pre-service teacher education

Teacher educators have used simulations in various forms to provide candidates opportunities for experiential learning. Three types of simulations used for pre-service teacher education are live role play , mixed reality simulations such as Mursion , and role play in online virtual reality environments. All three types share certain common affordances while also possessing respective unique advantages. Technology does not always play a role when using simulations, and when present, technology's role varies across different types of simulations. We will begin with the types of simulations conducted with minimal use of technology and then proceed with simulations in which technology plays a more central role.
教师教育工作者以各种形式使用模拟,为候选人提供体验式学习的机会。用于职前教师教育的模拟有三种类型:现场角色扮演、混合现实模拟(如 Mursion )和在线虚拟现实环境中的角色扮演。所有这三种类型都有某些共同的能力,同时也拥有各自独特的优势。在使用模拟时,技术并不总是起作用,即使存在,技术在不同类型模拟中的作用也不尽相同。我们将首先介绍尽量少使用技术的模拟类型,然后介绍技术在其中发挥更重要作用的模拟类型。

2.2.1. Role play and standardized individuals

Role play offers teacher educators the option of using simulations without reliance on technology. Research has found role play useful for providing learners more authentic learning experiences (Colwell, 2013; Frederick, Cave, & Perencevich, 2010; Hume, 2012; Shapira-Lishchinsky, 2015; Teasdale, Mapes, Henley, Lindsey, & Dillard, 2016). Dotger (2015) used standardized individuals during role play simulations, a term he defined as trained actors intended to portray a specific type of individual. Dotger developed a clinical simulation pedagogy which uses standardized individuals to provide scenarios which authentically mirror their real world counterparts. In these simulations, facilitators design scenarios with standardized individuals to mirror real situations teachers encounter in the field (Dotger, 2015). Candidates experience novel and authentic challenges within a standardized, controlled environment that allows for practice and assessment of candidates' performance (Shaughnessy & Boerst, 2018). For example, recognizing a gap in candidates' knowledge and skills related to parent communication, Walker and Dotger (2012) and Cil and Dotger (2017) used simulations with standardized parents to provide candidates' practice conducting parent-teacher conferences. Dotger, Masingila,
角色扮演为教师教育者提供了不依赖技术而使用模拟的选择。研究发现,角色扮演有助于为学习者提供更真实的学习体验(Colwell,2013;Frederick,Cave,& Perencevich,2010;Hume,2012;Shapira-Lishchinsky,2015;Teasdale,Mapes,Henley,Lindsey,& Dillard,2016)。Dotger(2015)在角色扮演模拟中使用了标准化个体,他将标准化个体定义为受过训练的演员,旨在塑造特定类型的个体。多特格尔开发了一种临床模拟教学法,利用标准化个体提供真实反映真实世界的情景。在这些模拟教学中,主持人通过标准化个体设计情景,以反映教师在实际工作中遇到的真实情况(Dotger,2015 年)。候选人在标准化、可控的环境中体验新颖、真实的挑战,从而进行实践并评估候选人的表现(Shaughnessy & Boerst, 2018)。例如,Walker 和 Dotger(2012 年)以及 Cil 和 Dotger(2017 年)认识到考生在与家长沟通的相关知识和技能方面存在差距,因此采用与标准化家长进行模拟的方式,为考生提供召开家长会的实践机会。Dotger, Masingila、
Bearkland, and Dotger (2015) had teacher candidates practice math teaching skills with standardized students, and Sparks (2011) had teacher candidates participate in back-to-back simulation sessions with various standardized individuals in order to illustrate the demands of a realistic teaching schedule. Role play is a cost effective and flexible simulation in terms of not requiring technology for implementation, and, therefore, not imposing limits on space, context, and affordability. However, role play simulations with standardized individuals can prove to be costly in terms of training and employing the actors (Sparks, 2011). Though role play has the benefits of low cost and flexibility of implementation, we investigate mixed reality classroom environments in this study for their potential to more authentically mirror the challenges of teaching while managing student behavioral issues through the use of student avatars controlled by unseen interactors.
Bearkland 和 Dotger(2015 年)让师范生与标准化学生一起练习数学教学技能,Sparks(2011 年)让师范生与不同的标准化学生一起参加背靠背模拟课程,以说明现实教学计划的要求。角色扮演是一种成本效益高且灵活的模拟,因为它不需要技术来实施,因此不会对空间、环境和经济承受能力造成限制。然而,事实证明,使用标准化个体进行角色扮演模拟,在培训和雇用演员方面成本高昂(Sparks,2011 年)。虽然角色扮演具有成本低、实施灵活等优点,但我们在本研究中对混合现实课堂环境进行了调查,因为通过使用由看不见的互动者控制的学生化身,混合现实课堂环境有可能更真实地反映教学挑战,同时管理学生的行为问题。

2.2.2. Mixed reality simulations

Mixed reality simulations provide an immersive experience consisting of a combination of virtual and physical elements (Lindgren, Tscholl, & Johnson, 2016). TLE TeachLivE , TeachMe Lab, and Mursion are examples of mixed reality simulations, the former two comprising the majority of the research on mixed reality simulations in pre-service teacher education. Similar in premise to simulations using standardized individuals, these mixed reality simulations use "digital puppetry" in the form of virtual students or avatars in a virtual classroom controlled by a live interactor who operates the technology behind the scenes to control the avatar students' behaviors (Bautista & Boone, 2015). Interactors prepare for the simulation much like standardized individuals by becoming well versed in the respective personalities and back stories of the avatars as well as the scenario planned for the simulation (Dieker et al., 2015; Dieker, Straub, Hughes, Hynes, & Hardin, 2014). Candidates engage with the avatars from a physical environment to which the avatars intuitively respond through the unseen operations of the interactor. Dieker et al. (2015) described TLE TeachLivE as "sandbox technology" in which candidates are equipped with just enough tools to allow for targeted skills practice (p. 12), and this term seems appropriate across research on mixed reality simulations for pre-service teacher education. In a study by Peterson (2014) on using TLE TeachLivE with special education teacher candidates, the simulation provided practice in using strategies for increasing student engagement. Garland, Holden, and Garland (2016) had graduate special education students engage with TLE TeachLivE to practice implementation of a specific strategy used during individualized clinical coaching. Bautista and Boone (2015) had teacher candidates practice teaching science lessons using the TeachMe Lab. Ferguson (2017) also employed the TeachMe Lab but for use with elementary teacher candidates practicing administration of reading assessments. Participants in these studies perceived mixed reality simulations as viable sources of skills practice within their respective certification areas. Candidates who engage with mixed reality simulations often express a desire for continued skills practice using the simulations, believing they might improve their skills and increase their confidence before entering the live classroom (Ferguson, 2017; Peterson-Ahmad, 2018; Peterson, 2014).
混合现实模拟提供了一种由虚拟和物理元素组合而成的沉浸式体验(Lindgren, Tscholl, & Johnson, 2016)。TLE TeachLivE 、TeachMe Lab 和 Mursion 都是混合现实模拟的例子,前两者是职前教师教育中混合现实模拟研究的主要内容。与使用标准化个体进行模拟的前提相似,这些混合现实模拟使用 "数字木偶 "的形式,即虚拟教室中的虚拟学生或化身,由现场互动者控制,互动者在幕后操作技术,控制化身学生的行为(Bautista & Boone, 2015)。互动者要像标准化个人一样为模拟做准备,熟知化身各自的性格、背景故事以及模拟计划的场景(Dieker 等人,2015 年;Dieker、Straub、Hughes、Hynes 和 Hardin,2014 年)。考生在物理环境中与化身互动,化身通过互动者看不见的操作直观地作出反应。Dieker 等人(2015 年)将 TLE TeachLivE 描述为 "沙箱技术",在这种技术中,考生配备了足够多的工具,可以进行有针对性的技能练习(第 12 页),这一术语似乎适合职前教师教育混合现实模拟研究。Peterson (2014)在一项关于特殊教育师范生使用 TLE TeachLivE 的研究中发现,模拟教学为使用提高学生参与度的策略提供了实践机会。Garland、Holden 和 Garland(2016 年)让特殊教育研究生参与 TLE TeachLivE ,练习实施个性化临床辅导中使用的特定策略。Bautista 和 Boone(2015 年)让师范生使用 TeachMe 实验室练习教授科学课。Ferguson (2017)也使用了TeachMe Lab,但用于小学教师候选人练习阅读评估的管理。这些研究的参与者认为,混合现实模拟是其各自认证领域内技能实践的可行来源。参与混合现实模拟的考生往往表示希望继续使用模拟进行技能练习,认为他们可以在进入真实课堂之前提高技能并增强信心(Ferguson,2017;Peterson-Ahmad,2018;Peterson,2014)。
Certain attributes inherent to the functionality of mixed reality simulations lend themselves to targeted skills practice for teacher candidates. Dieker et al. (2014) particularly emphasize TLE TeachLivE's pause and restart functions, which are also available in the TeachMe Lab and Mursion . As opposed to the live classroom, in a mixed reality classroom an instructor can at any time pause a scenario to provide coaching to a candidate or even restart the scenario if the candidate is experiencing particular difficulty. These functions allow a candidate the opportunity for repeated skills practice until he or she achieves mastery. Mursion and TLE TeachLivE have student avatars as young as middle school students designed to reflect the personalities one would encounter in a middle school classroom. A similar experience would not be possible with live standardized individuals who are adult actors. The digital elements of mixed reality simulations provide a convincing environment in which a candidate can acquire authentic skills practice.
混合现实模拟功能的某些固有属性适合教师候选人进行有针对性的技能练习。Dieker 等人(2014 年)特别强调了 TLE TeachLivE 的 暂停和重启功能,TeachMe Lab 和 Mursion 也具有这些功能。与实时课堂不同,在混合现实课堂中,教师可以随时暂停情景模拟,为考生提供辅导,甚至在考生遇到特殊困难时重新开始情景模拟。这些功能让考生有机会反复练习技能,直到掌握为止。Mursion 和 TLE TeachLivE 的学生头像与初中生一样小,旨在反映初中课堂上的个性。类似的体验不可能通过真人标准化的成人演员来实现。混合现实模拟的数字元素提供了一个令人信服的环境,考生可以在其中获得真实的技能练习。

2.2.3. Virtual reality simulations

Participants in virtual reality simulations engage in a scenario entirely contained within a virtual environment. Examples of online virtual reality simulation tools that have been used for pre-service teacher education include Second Life and OpenSimulator. Unlike the mixed reality simulations previously discussed in which candidates retain a physical presence and operate within a physical environment to interact with digital avatars in a virtual environment, candidates in virtual reality environments such as those hosted by Second Life participate in a multiplayer virtual world in which each participant assumes the identity of an avatar and interacts with the simulation through that avatar (Gallego, Bueno, & Noyes, 2016).
虚拟现实模拟的参与者完全在虚拟环境中进行情景模拟。用于职前教师教育的在线虚拟现实模拟工具包括 "第二人生"(Second Life)和 "开放模拟器"(OpenSimulator)。与前面讨论过的混合现实模拟不同的是,在混合现实模拟中,应聘者保留了物理存在,并在物理环境中操作,与虚拟环境中的数字化身进行互动,而在虚拟现实环境(如第二人生主办的虚拟现实环境)中,应聘者参与的是一个多人虚拟世界,每个参与者都以化身的身份出现,并通过该化身与模拟进行互动(Gallego, Bueno, & Noyes, 2016)。

2.3. Affordances of simulations

Novice teachers often experience a lack of self-efficacy upon first entering the classroom (Dieker, Hynes, Hughes, & Smith, 2008). A deficit of confidence can prove detrimental and make a difficult job even harder for new teachers. Pre-service teacher education programs rely on traditional direct instructional methods over providing authentic, experiential learning to prepare candidates for classroom teaching, which leads to them feeling underprepared (Dieker et al., 2008). Typically, candidates acquire pedagogical knowledge incrementally over a series of courses with an overall minimal focus on actual skills practice (Ward et al., 2018). Field experiences and internships for pre-service teachers may prove lacking due to poorly skilled mentor teachers, limited opportunities for authentic teaching and practice, or lack of diversity in placements (Kaufman & Ireland, 2016). Inconsistency in placements often results in candidates feeling ill-prepared or unsure of their abilities to manage a classroom successfully. The lack of confidence may increase the tendency for new teachers to feel unsuccessful and stressed by the daily challenges that greet them as they bridge the gap between knowledge and practice in the typical classroom setting, an experience referred to by Cil and Dotger (2017, p. 238) as "disequilibrating uncertainties of practice." Simulations have certain affordances which enable pre-service teacher education programs to provide opportunities for authentic, risk-free experiential learning capable of bridging the gap between traditional
新教师在初入课堂时往往缺乏自我效能感(Dieker, Hynes, Hughes, & Smith, 2008)。缺乏自信可能会对新教师造成不利影响,使他们的工作变得更加困难。职前教师教育项目依赖于传统的直接教学方法,而不是提供真实的、体验式的学习来帮助候选人为课堂教学做好准备,这导致他们感到准备不足(Dieker 等人,2008 年)。通常情况下,候选人通过一系列课程循序渐进地学习教学知识,总体上很少关注实际技能实践(Ward 等人,2018 年)。由于指导教师技能不佳、真实教学和实践机会有限或实习缺乏多样性,职前教师的实地经验和实习可能会被证明是不足的(Kaufman & Ireland, 2016)。实习的不一致性往往会导致应聘者感到准备不足,或不确定自己是否有能力成功管理课堂。缺乏自信可能会增加新教师感到不成功的倾向,并在典型课堂环境中弥合知识与实践之间的差距时,对迎接他们的日常挑战感到压力,Cil 和 Dotger(2017 年,第 238 页)将这种经历称为 "实践的不确定性失衡"。模拟教学具有一定的优势,能够为职前教师教育项目提供真实的、无风险的体验式学习机会,弥补传统教学与模拟教学之间的差距。

instruction in teacher education courses and application of knowledge and skills in a live classroom, helping candidates develop a repertoire of practiced pedagogical skills ready for implementation when they assume the role of inservice teacher. Affordances manifested across different types of simulations include assessment, confidence and self-efficacy, and transfer of learning.

2.3.1. Assessment 2.3.1.评估

Simulations can enable teacher educators to identify areas in need of improvement in their candidates' skills performance (Barmaki, 2014; Chini, Straub, & Thomas, 2016; Damewood, 2016; Dieker et al., 2008; Kaufman & Ireland, 2016; Sander, 2014). Simulations allow teacher educators to standardize candidates' experiences, which facilitates reliable assessment of candidates' application of knowledge and skills (Cil & Dotger, 2017; Dotger et al., 2010; Walker & Dotger, 2012). Damewood (2016) described simulations' effectiveness for identifying learning gaps and learning through making mistakes. Immediate feedback from standardized individuals, avatars, peers, and instructors aids in simulation learning and enables the learner to engage in meaningful reflection on his or her performance (Barmaki, 2014; Enicks, 2012). The opportunity to reattempt simulation scenarios based on feedback and reflection enhances growth for the candidate.
模拟教学可以让教师教育者发现考生技能表现中需要改进的地方(Barmaki,2014;Chini,Straub,& Thomas,2016;Damewood,2016;Dieker 等人,2008;Kaufman & Ireland,2016;Sander,2014)。模拟教学使教师教育者能够将考生的经验标准化,从而有利于对考生的知识和技能应用情况进行可靠的评估(Cil & Dotger, 2017; Dotger et al.)Damewood(2016)描述了模拟教学在发现学习差距和通过犯错学习方面的有效性。来自标准化个人、化身、同伴和教师的即时反馈有助于模拟学习,使学习者能够对自己的表现进行有意义的反思(Barmaki,2014;Enicks,2012)。根据反馈和反思重新尝试模拟情景的机会能促进候选人的成长。

2.3.2. Confidence and self-efficacy

Improvements in confidence and self-efficacy are possible through simulations and interactive learning (Ferguson, 2017; Hume, 2012; Peterson, 2014; Ward et al., 2018). Ferguson (2017) found that pre-service elementary teachers reported increased confidence and self-efficacy in their ability to conduct reading assessments with students after participating in simulations with their peers. Appreciating the opportunity for intensive practical applications of reading assessment strategies, the pre-service teachers expressed interest in continued use of role-play simulations. Hume (2012) found that elementary teacher candidates' confidence and enthusiasm for teaching science increased after participation in a simulation of a primary science classroom. Candidates' engagement in a sustained simulation conducted within the authentic setting of a primary science classroom allowed them to explore and then reflect upon the teaching and learning processes specific to primary science education. In some studies, candidates' performance during simulations led researchers to identify a misalignment between candidates' confidence and self-efficacy and their actual knowledge and skills (Bautista & Boone, 2015; Walker & Dotger, 2012). Walker and Dotger reported that their candidates' performance in working with standardized parents during live role play scenarios did not align with the candidates' prior reported self-efficacy in parent communication, which illuminated the need for candidates to engage in more critical self-reflection. Bautista and Boone found that candidates' first experience teaching science with the TeachMe Lab enlightened candidates on their lack of science content knowledge. After the decrease in self-efficacy following this first experience, candidates' self-efficacy increased through continued sessions with the TeachMe Lab. Findings from this study suggest sustained practice with the simulation is associated with increases in candidates' confidence and self-efficacy.
通过模拟和互动学习可以提高自信心和自我效能感(Ferguson,2017;Hume,2012;Peterson,2014;Ward 等人,2018)。Ferguson(2017)发现,职前小学教师在与同伴一起参加模拟学习后,对自己对学生进行阅读评估的能力的信心和自我效能感都有所提高。由于有机会深入实际应用阅读评估策略,职前教师表示有兴趣继续使用角色扮演模拟。Hume (2012)发现,小学教师候选人在参与模拟小学科学课堂后,对科学教学的信心和热情都有所提高。在真实的小学科学课堂环境中进行持续的模拟教学,使候选人能够探索并反思小学科学教育特有的教学过程。在一些研究中,候选人在模拟过程中的表现使研究人员发现候选人的信心和自我效能与其实际知识和技能之间存在偏差(Bautista & Boone, 2015; Walker & Dotger, 2012)。Walker 和 Dotger 报告说,他们的候选人在现场角色扮演情景中与标准化家长合作的表现与候选人之前报告的家长沟通自我效能不一致,这说明候选人需要进行更多批判性的自我反思。包蒂斯塔和布恩发现,候选人第一次使用 TeachMe 实验室进行科学教学的经历,使他们认识到自己缺乏科学内容知识。在第一次体验后,候选人的自我效能感有所下降,但通过继续使用 TeachMe 实验室,候选人的自我效能感有所上升。本研究的结果表明,持续的模拟练习与考生自信心和自我效能感的提高有关。

2.3.3. Transfer of learning

Transfer learning is the ability to apply knowledge or skills learned in one context to a new context, and it is particularly evident when one is able to solve a problem within a new context using knowledge learned in a previous and different context (Cook, Holder, & Youngblood, 2007). Though research has provided some evidence of transfer learning within simulations and between simulations and their counterpart real world contexts (Dawson & Lignugaris-Kraft, 2017; Ma, Brown, Kulm, Davis, & Lewis, 2016), there appears to be little research on teacher candidates' transfer of learning from Mursion's simulated classroom environment to the live classroom. In this study, we were interested in how participants' experiences with a mixed reality simulation might affect their experiences in the field and wondered whether findings would indicate the participants perceived any learning transfer from the mixed reality simulation to their live field experiences.
迁移学习是指将在某一情境中学到的知识或技能应用到新情境中的能力,当一个人能够在新的情境中利用之前在不同情境中学到的知识解决问题时,迁移学习尤为明显(Cook, Holder, & Youngblood, 2007)。虽然有研究提供了一些证据,证明在模拟环境中以及模拟环境与其对应的真实情境之间存在迁移学习(Dawson & Lignugaris-Kraft, 2017; Ma, Brown, Kulm, Davis, & Lewis, 2016),但似乎很少有研究涉及师范生从 Mursion's 模拟课堂环境到真实课堂的迁移学习。在本研究中,我们感兴趣的是,参与者在混合现实模拟中的体验会如何影响他们在现场的体验,并想知道研究结果是否会表明参与者从混合现实模拟中感知到任何学习转移到现场体验中。
Hume (2012) found evidence of learning transfer in research on candidates' participation in live role play simulations conducted with peers. Candidates identified solutions to problems that arose during their experiences and translated this knowledge into plans for their future professional practice. Frederick et al. (2010) indicated candidates applied learning from the simulation to examination of educational issues in broader social contexts as well as analysis of their own experiences in schools. Further, the candidates viewed themselves as potential change agents in their future schools. This research suggests strong potential for perceived learning transfer among teacher candidates who engage in mixed reality simulations such as Mursion .
Hume(2012 年)在对候选人参与与同行进行的现场角色扮演模拟的研究中发现了学习迁移的证据。考生们找出了解决在体验过程中出现的问题的方法,并将这些知识转化为他们未来专业实践的计划。Frederick 等人(2010 年)指出,考生将模拟学习的知识应用于研究更广泛社会背景下的教育问题,以及分析自己在学校的经历。此外,候选人还将自己视为未来学校的潜在变革推动者。这项研究表明,参与混合现实模拟(如 Mursion )的师范生具有很强的学习迁移潜力。
Dieker et al. (2014) asserted that skills practice within the TLE TeachLivE classroom will translate well to the live classroom. Further, prior studies on the use of TLE TeachLivE and the TeachMe Lab with teacher candidates reveal evidence of positive learning outcomes that certainly warrant further research. Dawson and Lignugaris-Kraft (2017) investigated the extent to which graduate special education students (who were also in-service teachers) generalized skills in delivering student feedback practiced during sessions with TLE TeachLivE to the live classroom. The researchers found that while participants exhibited improvement in skills during sessions with the simulation, they generalized these skills to the live classroom with varying levels of proficiency. Sander (2014) found teacher candidates participating in TLE TeachLivE simulations were able to make reflective connections between their learning during the simulation and their field experiences, and they achieved a more realistic understanding of inquiry-based teaching methods. Findings from Chini et al. (2016) support transfer learning between sessions with a mixed reality simulation, and Garland et al. (2016) noted novice teachers' implementation of target skills increased in fidelity from mixed reality simulations to live teaching environments. Research exploring teacher candidates' perceptions of how their Mursion experience might translate to their live classroom experiences could provide insight for effectively integrating targeted skills practice with mixed reality simulations into pre-service teacher education programs.
Dieker 等人(2014 年)断言,TLE TeachLivE 课堂中的技能练习将很好地转化为现场课堂。此外,先前关于教师候选人使用 TLE TeachLivE 和 TeachMe 实验室的研究显示,有证据表明学习效果良好,当然值得进一步研究。Dawson 和 Lignugaris-Kraft(2017 年)调查了特殊教育研究生(也是在职教师)将在 TLE TeachLivE 课程中练习的学生反馈技能推广到现场课堂的程度。研究人员发现,虽然参与者在模拟教学过程中的技能有所提高,但他们将这些技能运用到现场课堂的熟练程度各不相同。桑德(2014)发现,参加 TLE TeachLivE 模拟教学的师范生能够将模拟教学中的学习与他们的现场经验联系起来,并对探究式教学方法有了更真实的理解。Chini 等人(2016 年)的研究结果支持在混合现实模拟课程之间进行迁移学习,Garland 等人(2016 年)指出,从混合现实模拟到现场教学环境,新手教师实施目标技能的保真度有所提高。研究探索教师候选人对他们的Mursion 体验如何转化为他们的现场课堂体验的看法,可以为将混合现实模拟的目标技能练习有效整合到职前教师教育项目中提供启示。

2.4. Importance of suspending disbelief

Dieker et al. (2014) stressed the importance of candidates' suspension of disbelief in order for mixed reality simulations to affect authentic and meaningful learning experiences, and suspending disbelief appears to be an important concern among other types of simulations as well. Candidates must achieve suspension of disbelief during simulations to benefit from their experience. Thus, authenticity in the simulation experience is essential to the success of a simulation. In his work on clinical simulations with standardized individuals, Dotger (2015) describes the "authenticity factor" as the extent to which a simulation mirrors a "problem of practice" (p. 216). This authenticity factor allows candidates to engage with a simulation as they would a real life scenario. Through the survey of literature for this study, candidate feedback indicates their success in suspending disbelief during simulation experiences appears more strongly associated with mixed reality simulations and role play with standardized individuals (Dawson & Lignugaris-Kraft, 2017; Dieker et al., 2014; Dotger, 2015; Garland et al., 2016), while suspension of disbelief seems more problematic in virtual reality simulations (Dalgarno, Gregory, Reiners, & Knox, 2016; Rayner, 2014).
Dieker 等人(2014 年)强调,为了让混合现实模拟影响真实而有意义的学习体验,考生必须悬置不信,而悬置不信似乎也是其他类型模拟的一个重要关注点。考生必须在模拟过程中实现 "悬置不信",才能从模拟体验中获益。因此,模拟体验的真实性是模拟成功的关键。Dotger (2015 年)在其关于标准化个体临床模拟的研究中,将 "真实性因素 "描述为模拟反映 "实践问题 "的程度(第 216 页)。这种真实性因素可以让考生像参与真实生活场景一样参与模拟。通过对本研究文献的调查,候选人的反馈表明,他们在模拟体验中成功悬置不信任感似乎与混合现实模拟和与标准化个体的角色扮演关系更密切(Dawson & Lignugaris-Kraft, 2017; Dieker et al., 2014; Dotger, 2015; Garland et al., 2016),而在虚拟现实模拟中悬置不信任感似乎更成问题(Dalgarno, Gregory, Reiners, & Knox, 2016; Rayner, 2014)。
As indicated by this review of research on use of simulations in pre-service teacher education, simulations provide opportunities for targeted skills practice and a means to potentially bridge the gap between candidates' theoretical knowledge and actual practice in the live classroom. Simulations have been used in education in various forms, namely through live role play, mixed reality simulations, and virtual reality. Through use of each of these forms, pre-service teacher educators have sought to provide candidates opportunities for authentic skills practice in controlled environments. While research supports use of various mixed reality simulations for authentic skills practice, little research is available on the use of Mursion in pre-service teacher education programs. We believe the fact that Mursion is a commercially available product may have an effect on implementation decisions which in turn may affect the candidates' experiences with the simulation. Thus, research on Mursion can be helpful to enlighten professional teacher educators on the cost versus benefits of an investment in this technology. In addition, little research addresses how pre-service teacher candidates perceive the effects of skills practice with mixed reality simulations on their later experiences and performance with live students in real classroom settings. This study seeks to address this gap in research by exploring candidates' initial experiences using a mixed reality simulation to practice basic teaching skills. Further, this study will explore candidates' perceptions of skills practice with the simulation in contrast with their prior experiences in a live classroom as well as how they view the effects of the simulation experience on their future classroom experiences.
正如本文对职前师范教育中使用模拟教学的研究综述所指出的,模拟教学为有针对性的技能练习提供了机会,也是一种有可能弥合考生理论知识与现场课堂实际操作之间差距的手段。模拟教育的形式多种多样,包括现场角色扮演、混合现实模拟和虚拟现实。通过使用上述每一种形式,职前教师教育工作者都试图为候选人提供在可控环境中进行真实技能练习的机会。虽然研究支持使用各种混合现实模拟进行真实的技能练习,但有关在职前教师教育项目中使用 Mursion 的研究却很少。我们认为,Mursion 是一种商用产品,这一事实可能会对实施决策产生影响,而实施决策反过来又会影响考生的模拟体验。因此,对 Mursion 的研究可以帮助专业教师教育者了解投资这项技术的成本与收益。此外,很少有研究涉及职前教师候选人如何看待混合现实模拟的技能练习对他们日后在真实课堂环境中与活生生的学生一起上课的经验和表现的影响。本研究试图通过探讨应聘者使用混合现实模拟练习基本教学技能的初步经验,来弥补这一研究空白。此外,本研究还将探讨考生对模拟技能练习的看法,与他们之前在真实课堂上的体验进行对比,以及他们如何看待模拟体验对其未来课堂体验的影响。

3. Methods 3.方法

The purpose of this instrumental case study was to explore how teacher candidates experienced a mixed reality simulation and to consider implications for future use of such environments. We facilitated and observed candidates using the simulation software in specific scenarios and then interviewed volunteer candidates about their experiences both with the software and in their fieldwork in order to answer the following questions:
  1. How do candidates perceive the effects of the mixed reality simulation on their confidence?
  2. How do candidates describe the effects of the mixed reality simulation on their live classroom/parent experiences?
  3. How do candidates compare the mixed reality simulation with traditional field experiences?
  4. How do candidates perceive mixed reality simulations as a tool for targeted skills practice?
Our interest in this research derived from our own work with the mixed reality simulation. Thomas facilitated the program in the first two years of its adoption by our elementary and secondary education programs. Dalinger and Xiu worked as graduate research associates in the Emerging Technologies and Creativity Research Lab where the simulations took place and often observed classes of candidates using the simulated classroom. Stansberry served as the administrator in charge of educator preparation programs and the founder/director of the Emerging Technologies and Creativity Research Lab where Mursion was purchased and implemented. We recognized early on that the simulations provided a unique experience for the candidates, and we talked often about how they might utilize the experience in their future endeavors as classroom teachers. We were particularly interested in how candidates' confidence might develop through the use of the simulated classroom environment and how their experience with the simulation compared to their live field experiences. We began to look at the research available. We found almost no literature addressing the topic; and as a result, we devised the study that we ultimately conducted.
我们对这项研究的兴趣源于我们自己在混合现实模拟方面的工作。托马斯在我们的小学和中学教育项目采用该项目后的头两年里为其提供了帮助。Dalinger 和 Xiu 在新兴技术和创造力研究实验室担任研究生助理研究员,模拟课堂就在那里进行,他们经常观察考生使用模拟课堂上课的情况。斯坦斯伯里是负责教育准备课程的行政人员,也是新兴技术与创造力研究实验室的创始人/主任,Mursion 就是在该实验室购买和实施的。我们很早就意识到,模拟教学为考生提供了一种独特的体验,我们也经常讨论他们在未来的班主任工作中如何利用这种体验。我们特别感兴趣的是,通过使用模拟课堂环境,候选人的自信心会如何发展,以及他们在模拟环境中的体验与他们的现场实地体验相比如何。我们开始研究现有的研究成果。我们发现几乎没有任何文献涉及这一主题;因此,我们设计了最终进行的研究。
We approached this research from the theoretical perspective of constructivism. We were interested in participants' perceptions and interpretations of their own experiences in mixed reality simulations, or how they constructed what they experienced (Rorty & Williams, 2009). We sought to understand how they perceived and constructed meaning from their experiences, which aligns with the purpose of constructivist research (Koro-Ljungberg, Yendol-Hoppey, Smith, & Hayes, 2009). We recognize that as researchers, our own interpretations are shaped by our experiences and background, so we took care to look for patterns of meaning throughout the research process and base our findings on those patterns (Creswell, Hanson, Clark Plano, & Morales, 2007). Additionally, Freire's (2000) concept of praxis or the ability to take an action, reflect upon that action and its results, and make changes or create a "strengthening frame" that a candidate can draw upon in the field is critical to our study (Burridge et al., 2016). We propose mixed reality simulations offer opportunities for participants to authentically practice conceptual or theoretical knowledge and skills prior to entering the field and working with live students. Thus, we interpret the findings through the lens of Freire's concept of praxis. We believe the participants can benefit from the opportunity to create frames of practice through practical application in a simulated environment.
我们从建构主义的理论角度来开展这项研究。我们感兴趣的是参与者对自己在混合现实模拟中的经历的感知和解释,或者说他们是如何建构自己的经历的(Rorty & Williams, 2009)。我们试图了解他们是如何从自己的经历中感知和建构意义的,这与建构主义研究的目的是一致的(Koro-Ljungberg, Yendol-Hoppey, Smith, & Hayes, 2009)。我们认识到,作为研究人员,我们自己的解释是由我们的经验和背景决定的,因此我们在整个研究过程中注意寻找意义的模式,并将我们的发现建立在这些模式的基础上(Creswell, Hanson, Clark Plano, & Morales, 2007)。此外,弗莱雷(Freire,2000 年)提出的 "实践"(praxis)概念,即采取行动、对行动及其结果进行反思、做出改变或创建 "强化框架 "的能力,对于我们的研究至关重要(Burridge 等人,2016 年)。我们认为,混合现实模拟为参与者提供了机会,让他们在进入实地并与学生一起工作之前,真实地实践概念或理论知识和技能。因此,我们通过弗莱雷的实践概念来解释研究结果。我们相信,通过在模拟环境中的实际应用,学员可以从创建实践框架的机会中受益。
In the second year of our adoption of the mixed reality simulation, we identified 94 candidates in our elementary and secondary education programs who took part in at least one simulation in the spring semester of 2016 and who were also enrolled in a course that included a field experience. Candidates participated in one of three of the following scenarios during their simulation sessions: leading and engaging middle school students in discussion, teaching middle school students a Cornell Notes lesson, or leading a parent-teacher conference with an adult avatar. Sessions with the simulation took place as part of teacher education courses which included field experience components. Each participant in this study had participated in one session with the simulation at the time when data collection for this study took place. Simulation sessions took place in a technology lab equipped with an LCD Smart Board screen which was used to access the simulation. The lab afforded a central open space for candidates as they engaged with the simulation as well as seating around the perimeter of the space for candidates who observed their peers while waiting for a turn with the simulation. A facilitator was present at each session who provided instructions to the candidates as well as a reiteration of the scenario the candidates were to expect. The facilitator had provided course instructors with information on their respective simulation scenarios to disseminate to candidates prior to each session. During the sessions, each candidate interacted with the simulation for approximately five minutes. During this time, each candidate communicated directly with the student or parent avatars according to the objectives of the scenario. In sessions with students avatars, the scenario restarted between candidates which allowed each candidate to experience initiating an instructional experience. The parent-teacher conference scenario was designed so that each candidate took a turn continuing an ongoing conversation with the parent avatar. (Thus this scenario did not "restart" between candidates.) After each candidate engagement as well as at the conclusion of the session, the facilitator led the candidates in a debriefing and reflection on what was experienced and observed. At the close of each session, the researchers explained the research study and the candidates' opportunity to participate and provide feedback on their experience.
在我们采用混合现实模拟的第二年,我们在中小学教育专业中确定了 94 名考生,他们在 2016 年春季学期至少参加了一次模拟,并且还修读了一门包含实地体验的课程。考生们在模拟课程中参与了以下三个场景中的一个:引导并吸引中学生参与讨论,给中学生上康奈尔笔记课,或与成人化身一起主持家长会。模拟课程是教师教育课程的一部分,其中包括实地体验环节。本研究的每位参与者在收集数据时都参加过一次模拟课程。模拟课程在技术实验室中进行,实验室配备了液晶智能板屏幕,用于访问模拟课程。实验室为考生提供了一个中央开放空间,供他们进行模拟操作,并在空间四周设置了座位,供考生在等待轮到模拟操作时观察同伴。每节课都有一名主持人在场,为考生提供指导,并重申考生所期待的情景。主持人在每节课前都会向授课教师提供有关各自模拟情景的信息,并分发给考生。在会议期间,每位候选人与模拟情景进行了大约五分钟的互动。在这段时间里,每位考生根据情景模拟的目标,直接与学生或家长化身进行交流。在有学生化身的环节中,情景在候选人之间重新开始,这让每位候选人都能体验到启动教学的经历。家长-教师会议的情景设计是让每位候选人轮流与家长化身继续进行对话。(因此,该情景不会在候选人之间 "重新开始"。)在每次候选人参与之后以及在课程结束时,主持人都会带领候选人汇报和反思所经历和观察到的情况。在每个环节结束时,研究人员都会向候选人解释研究课题以及他们参与和反馈体验的机会。
We collected email addresses from the population of 94 candidates who participated in the sessions over the course of the semester of the study. An email request for interviews elicited few responses, but we proceeded and received consent from thirteen candidates (six elementary, six secondary, and one special education) who voluntarily agreed to a short (twenty-minute) interview about their experience with the mixed reality simulation. The limited number of responses may have been due to candidates who were in the midst of their internship semester with very limited time on campus. Other candidates were in their first field experience semester and very new to the program; they may have been reluctant to discuss their experience because they lack knowledge of the classroom for comparison. Almost all interviews were conducted in person, and the need to come to campus to participate may have influenced the number willing to be interviewed. Twelve of the thirteen interviewees were female. Five were classified as seniors, seven as juniors, and one as a sophomore. Twelve interviews were conducted and taped in person, and the thirteenth took place over a recorded phone call. All interviewees signed consent forms and received information about the study and the purpose for the interviews, including the option to withdraw at any time. Interview questions are available in the Appendix.
我们从 94 名候选人中收集了电子邮件地址,他们在研究学期内参加了课程。我们通过电子邮件向 13 名候选人(6 名小学候选人、6 名中学候选人和 1 名特殊教育候选人)发出了采访请求,他们自愿同意接受简短(20 分钟)的采访,以了解他们在混合现实模拟中的体验。回答人数有限的原因可能是考生们正处于实习学期,在校时间非常有限。还有一些候选人是第一次参加实地体验活动,对该项目非常陌生;他们可能不愿意讨论自己的体验,因为他们对课堂缺乏了解,无法进行比较。几乎所有的访谈都是当面进行的,需要到校园参加访谈可能影响了愿意接受访谈的人数。13 位受访者中有 12 位是女性。其中五人是高年级学生,七人是大三学生,一人是大二学生。十二次访谈是当面进行和录音的,第十三次是通过电话录音进行的。所有受访者都签署了同意书,并收到了有关本研究和访谈目的的信息,包括随时退出的选择。访谈问题见附录。
The principal investigator coded the data using the following techniques from Saldaña's (2012) coding manual: in vivo, versus, and values. According to Saldaña, in vivo is an elemental coding method which draws codes directly from participants' language. As seen in Table 1 which presents examples of codes and corresponding data associated with the theme of opportunity for authentic practice, in vivo codes are key phrases pulled directly from the data. Versus and values are affective coding methods. Versus codes identify "conceptual conflicts" which emerge in the data (p. 48), while values codes identify the subjective positions of participants. The principal investigator selected these coding methods after a preliminary review of the data which led her to conclude the chosen methods would best capture the emergent themes. From these codes, the principal investigator derived predominant themes.
主要研究人员使用 Saldaña(2012 年)编码手册中的以下技术对数据进行编码:活体、相对和价值。根据 Saldaña,活体编码是一种直接从参与者的语言中提取代码的元素编码方法。表 1 列出了与 "真实实践机会 "主题相关的编码和相应数据的示例。对立编码和价值观编码是情感编码方法。对立编码识别数据中出现的 "概念冲突"(第 48 页),而价值观编码识别参与者的主观立场。主要研究人员在对数据进行初步审查后选择了这些编码方法,她认为所选择的方法最能捕捉到新出现的主题。从这些编码中,主要研究人员得出了主导主题。
For investigator triangulation purposes (Stake, 1995), other members of the research team individually drew assertions from each interview which were then cross-referenced with themes the principal investigator drew from codes. We used Denzin's data source triangulation (Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Stake, 1995) throughout as we looked for patterns and consistent responses from the subjects. Responses from participants remained consistent across the period of data collection improving the probability of our findings. In addition, two members of the research team observed and/or facilitated all sessions of the mixed reality simulations and provided written notes as supporting documentation. Finally, as a source of analytical triangulation (Patton, 2002), participants received complete interview transcripts via email as member checks and were offered the opportunity to react to those transcripts; several responded positively with no corrections or emendations.
出于研究人员三角测量的目的(Stake,1995 年),研究小组的其他成员分别从每次访谈中得出论断,然后与主要研究人员从代码中得出的主题相互参照。我们自始至终使用 Denzin 的数据源三角测量法(林肯和古巴,1985 年;Stake,1995 年),从研究对象那里寻找模式和一致的回答。在整个数据收集期间,受试者的回答始终保持一致,从而提高了研究结果的可信度。此外,研究小组的两名成员观察和/或协助了混合现实模拟的所有环节,并提供了书面记录作为支持文件。最后,作为分析三角测量的一个来源(Patton, 2002),参与者通过电子邮件收到了完整的访谈记录作为成员检查,并有机会对这些记录做出反应。
Table 1 表 1
Samples codes and data associated with opportunity for authentic practice.
Codes 代码 Data 数据

In Vivo -- "实践机会"、"自己的教案"。价值--实践的机会(价值)。
In Vivo - "chance to practice", "your own lesson plans."
Values - opportunity to practice (value).

"Maybe everyone could get the choice for what to teach ... maybe get the chance to practice
your own lesson plans."

In Vivo - "再次练习"、"做"、"专业角色"、"翻译"。价值观 - 在实践中增强信心(信念)。
In Vivo - "practicing it again", "doing it", "professional role",
Values - Practice increased confidence (belief).

"Just talking with the parent, it increased my confidence by just practicing it and doing it. It
put me in that professional role, and I think that should translate to your classroom."

In Vivo - "实践的机会"。价值观--欣赏实践(价值)。
In Vivo - "opportunity for practice."
Values - Appreciation for practice (value).

"It made me feel good that I that I had an opportunity for practice because I get closer and
closer to having my own classroom."

In Vivo:"体验"、"更多反思"。Versus - Teaching Peers vs. Teaching avatars.价值观 - 教头像是一种更真实的体验
In Vivo: "experience", "more reflective."
Versus - teaching peers vs. teaching avatars.
Values - Teaching avatars is a more authentic experience

"In some courses, we've made lesson plans and had to teach them to the class, but I think our
colleagues aren't going to respond the same way children are. I think this experience is more
reflective of how students are going to respond to vour teaching."
Note. In vivo, versus, and values were the coding methods from Saldaña's (2012) coding manual used in this study.
注。本研究使用的编码方法来自 Saldaña(2012 年)的编码手册。

4. Findings 4.研究结果

From analysis of the data, four main themes emerged reflecting candidates' experiences with the simulation and their perceptions of benefits and limitations: 1) opportunity for authentic practice, 2) perceived transfer of learning, 3) perceived confidence, and 4) challenges of using the mixed reality simulation.
通过对数据的分析,得出了四个主题,反映了考生的模拟体验以及他们对益处和局限性的看法:1) 真实实践的机会;2) 感知到的学习迁移;3) 感知到的信心;4) 使用混合现实模拟的挑战。

4.1. Opportunity for authentic practice

The participants in our study perceived the mixed reality simulation as an opportunity for authentic practice through the spontaneous nature of an actual classroom that is not always available in education courses or during field experiences outside of student teaching. Twelve participants described their experience with the simulation as a means of practicing teaching, classroom management, or parent communication. Six participants described their field experience in live classrooms as passive experiences in which they had little opportunity to do more than observe teachers and students. Five of these participants commented that the mixed reality simulation had provided them the most hands-on classroom experience they had received thus far in their pre-service teacher education programs. These participants clearly distinguished between observing another teacher managing a classroom and managing the avatars, and they preferred practicing the skills themselves using the mixed reality simulation. "You're getting the firsthand experience. It's not just I'm watching this teacher do her classroom management. I am a part of that and I would say it's almost better with [Mursion ] because you're getting that firsthand experience, not just observing." 1
在我们的研究中,参与者认为混合现实模拟是一个通过实际课堂的自发性质进行真实练习的机会,而这在教育课程或学生教学以外的实地体验中并不总能实现。有 12 名参与者将模拟教学体验描述为练习教学、课堂管理或家长沟通的一种手段。六名学员认为他们在现场教室的实地体验是被动的,除了观察教师和学生之外,他们几乎没有机会做更多的事情。其中五位学员表示,混合现实模拟为他们提供了迄今为止在职前教师教育项目中获得的最多的课堂实践经验。这些学员明确区分了观察其他教师管理课堂和管理化身的区别,他们更倾向于使用混合现实模拟自己练习技能。"你获得了第一手经验。这不仅仅是我在看这位教师进行课堂管理。我是其中的一员,我认为使用[Mursion ]效果更好,因为你获得的是第一手经验,而不仅仅是观察。"1

4.1.1. Participant perceptions of authentic practice

Participants described the simulations as "useful" and "valuable" and recommended other candidates experience the simulations as early as their first semester to "give them a taste" of what teaching is really like in a live classroom. One participant indicated experiencing the parent/teacher conference scenario would have been very helpful for preparing her with appropriate things to say to parents: "It gives you ideas of how to observe children and figure out how you're going to say it to the parent, which I really would have liked before my first parent teacher conference." Anticipating parent/teacher conferences during her internship, one participant recognized the value of practicing prior to facing real parents: "So just knowing what you're talking about and knowing that they might not know what you're talking about, you have to kind of prepare for everything." Participants recognized the potential challenges posed by their own lack of experience and inability to converse effectively with parents who may have concerns or frustrations, and they more clearly understood the need to avoid education jargon and to phrase things carefully in consideration of the emotions involved in a parent discussing his or her child. Participants indicated that the simulation practice helped to calm their anxiety and prepare them for real engagements with live students and parents.
学员们认为模拟教学 "有用"、"有价值",并建议其他候选人早在第一学期就体验模拟教学,"让他们尝尝 "在真实课堂上教学的滋味。一位学员表示,体验家长会/教师会议的情景对她准备好与家长交谈的适当内容很有帮助:"它让你知道如何观察孩子,并想出如何对家长说这些话,这是我在第一次家长会之前就想知道的"。一位学员在实习期间预计到了家长会/教师会,她认识到在面对真正的家长之前进行练习的价值:"所以,只要知道你在说什么,知道他们可能不知道你在说什么,你就必须做好万全的准备"。学员们认识到,由于自己缺乏经验,无法与可能有顾虑或挫折感的家长进行有效交流,这给他们带来了潜在的挑战,他们更清楚地认识到,考虑到家长在讨论自己孩子时的情绪,有必要避免使用教育术语,并谨慎措辞。学员们表示,模拟练习有助于平息他们的焦虑,并为他们与学生和家长的真实接触做好准备。
Nine participants mentioned the doubts and anxiety that assailed them prior to using the mixed reality simulation. Sessions with the avatars helped relieve those feelings of anxiety. All but one participant viewed the avatars as similar to real children. "I think [Mursion ] does a good job of preparing you for kind of the different personalities that you need to expect in your classroom. They (the avatars) ... talk all the time or were really quiet or didn't want to listen to you or were rude." Another participant said, "I was just as nervous to teach the avatars as I was teaching a real classroom, so I feel like if we were able to do [Mursion ] more often, then we would be more confident in ourselves." These rehearsals or simulated classroom sessions enabled participants to focus their attention on the responses and needs of the avatars rather than simply the content of the lesson. As a result, they were more able to make adjustments or modifications based on the avatars' responses and behaviors. Participants recognized the experiences in the simulations replicated what they would soon face in a real classroom with live students of varying personalities and needs. They expressed confidence in their abilities to recognize differences and meet needs based on their work with the avatars.
九名参与者提到了在使用混合现实模拟之前的疑虑和焦虑。与化身的交流有助于缓解这些焦虑感。除一名参与者外,其他所有参与者都认为化身与真实儿童相似。"我认为,[Mursion ]很好地让你对课堂上的不同性格有所准备。他们(化身)......总是说话,或者非常安静,或者不想听你说话,或者很粗鲁"。另一位学员说:"给化身上课时,我就像在真正的课堂上上课一样紧张,所以我觉得如果我们能更经常地进行[Mursion ],那么我们就会对自己更有信心"。这些排练或模拟课堂使学员们能够将注意力集中在化身的反应和需求上,而不仅仅是课程内容上。因此,他们更能根据化身的反应和行为做出调整或修改。学员们认识到,模拟教学中的体验与他们即将在真实课堂上面对不同个性和需求的学生时的体验如出一辙。他们表示对自己的能力充满信心,能够根据与虚拟人的合作来识别差异和满足需求。

4.1.2. Spontaneity of context

Unexpected elements such as the avatars' ability to respond in real-time required candidates to think in the moment and make decisions quickly, much like teachers working with students in a real-world classroom setting. This authentic spontaneity of context proved to be an attribute of the simulation experience noted by several participants: seven participants described the spontaneity of the avatars' behaviors as an unexpected, surprising, and occasionally even shocking feature. "It was just weird that they - the computer could respond and everything, and it was so lifelike." Many participants entered the space expecting a game-like experience with prescribed responses from the avatars. One student's expression of relief at the real-life aspect of the mixed media simulation mirrored other responses: "I don't think I was expecting it to be as real or them to be responding as well as they did." The avatars asked personal questions, offered compliments on candidates' clothing and jewelry, and surprised the candidates with their knowledge of current events, popular culture, and politics.
Each time the pre-planned scenario restarted, candidates experienced unique responses from the avatars who clearly keyed off of each candidate's individual teaching and presentation. "I was actually shocked that all - every single one had a different situation with the avatars." Another participant said, "You never know what to expect when you're talking with live students. You never know what they're going to say and how they're going to respond. Similarly, with [Mursion ], I'm asking [the avatar] this question - I don't know what's going to be the answer." The participants recognized that the spontaneity of the avatar responses provided authentic, useful and often unexpected opportunities in dealing with classroom management issues: "Whenever I got up there, I was talking with - I think her name is CJ - and she brought up an experience with her pothead brother, and I did not know how to respond. Afterwards, we talked about how we would deal with that situation in the real world." While engaging in a simulated parent/teacher conference, participants found that though they had prepared possible solutions ahead of time, the avatar did not necessarily always understand their points of view and occasionally disagreed or even became emotional. "The avatar was like snappy: 'Oh I don't have all day for this!'" The difficult encounter with a parent was a new experience for participants. One participant expressed surprise coupled with gratitude for the opportunity to deal with a difficult parent in a practice setting: "You don't know how your parents are going to react, and seeing just the smallest little things you could say were upsetting her, I think that's going to prepare me for when I'm doing parent/teacher conferences on my own."
每次重新开始预先计划好的情景时,候选人都会从化身那里体验到独特的反应,而化身们显然是根据每个候选人的个人教学和演示进行了调整。"实际上,我感到震惊的是,所有的人--每个人与化身的情况都不一样"。另一位学员说:"当你与真人学生交谈时,你永远不知道会发生什么。你永远不知道他们会说什么,会如何回应。同样,在[Mursion ]中,我在问[化身]这个问题--我不知道答案会是什么"。学员们认识到,在处理课堂管理问题时,化身回答的自发性提供了真实、有用且往往出乎意料的机会:"每当我上台时,我都会和--我想她的名字叫 CJ--聊天,她提起了她的瘾君子哥哥的经历,我不知道该如何回答。之后,我们讨论了在现实世界中如何处理这种情况。在模拟家长/教师会议中,参与者发现,虽然他们提前准备了可能的解决方案,但虚拟人并不一定总能理解他们的观点,偶尔也会有不同意见,甚至变得情绪化。"化身就像在说:'哦,我可没有一整天的时间来做这个!'"与家长的艰难接触对参与者来说是一种全新的体验。一位学员对有机会在实践环境中与难缠的家长打交道表示惊讶和感激:"你不知道你的父母会有什么反应,看到你能说的最微小的事情都会让她不高兴,我想这将会让我为自己开家长会/教师会做好准备"。
These highly memorable conversations with avatars gave participants real-life difficulties to work through during reflective discussions after the simulations ended, but they also required quick thinking in the moment to figure out how to respond to completely unexpected comments or behaviors. The simulation provided a more realistic experience complete with unexpected interruptions or challenges that allow candidates to respond authentically. One participant, in particular, described the controlled chaos she experienced as she tried to teach the high-energy avatars:
Shawn started talking and then wouldn't stop, and trying to get him to stop talking was really difficult, and I wasn't prepared for that; and then as I went through my lesson, CJ was on her phone, so I had to deal with that, and I never had to - I mean even though they're virtual students, I never had to have an altercation with trying to get a student to participate and cooperate, and it was just really difficult, so I think that it was a good experience because I had to get on to her all the time and try to make her participate and listen to me.
肖恩开始说话,然后一直不停,想让他停止说话真的很困难,我对此毫无准备;在我上课的过程中,CJ 一直在玩手机,所以我不得不处理这个问题,我从来没有--我的意思是,即使他们是虚拟学生,我也从来没有因为试图让学生参与和合作而发生过争吵,这真的很困难,所以我认为这是一次很好的经历,因为我不得不一直跟她沟通,试图让她参与并听我说话。
This participant acknowledged the value of encountering difficult behaviors from the avatars; her comments indicated she had not previously had direct experience in managing behavior problems among students. The facilitator controls the level of misbehavior from the avatars with settings of low, medium, and high. The avatars become increasingly sassy and noncompliant at the higher settings. Because the facilitator sets the behavior push back level in advance and the interactor responds to the candidates, the experience is just frustrating enough to inspire growth without discouraging the candidates needlessly. Both the candidates' prior experience with the program and in the field determine the level of push back from the avatars. Typically, our facilitators ask for higher levels only if candidates have had prior experience with the avatars. Spontaneity and the intuitiveness of the avatars appeared to provide most participants an authentic experience engaging a classroom of students and thus facilitated opportunities for authentic practice.

4.2. Perceived transfer of learning

Perceived transfer of learning emerged from the data analysis as a strong second theme in the study: eleven participants described a form of learning transfer related to the mixed reality simulation. Five participants described their transfer of learning from observation of peers during the simulation to their own interaction with the simulation while two participants described transfer of learning from their experience during the simulation to application during field experiences. Perceived transfer of learning was most strongly evident through participant reflections on past or prospective field experiences to which they were be able to reflectively translate their experience with the simulation: nine participants described transfer of learning from the simulation to past or future field experiences. These participants discussed how they would have approached situations encountered during past field experiences differently based on what they learned from the simulation or how they anticipated applying what they learned to future field experiences. Their awareness of the possibilities of transferring what they observed and experienced into new situations was one of the highlights of our conversations with participants.
从数据分析中发现,学习迁移是本研究的第二个重要主题:11 名参与者描述了与混合实 景模拟有关的学习迁移形式。五位参与者描述了他们从模拟过程中对同伴的观察到自己与模拟的互动中获得的学习迁移,而两位参与者则描述了他们从模拟过程中的经验到实地体验中的应用中获得的学习迁移。学员对过去或未来实地经验的反思最能体现学习迁移:9 名学员描述了从模拟学习到过去或未来实地经验的学习迁移。这些学员讨论了他们将如何根据从模拟活动中学到的知识,以不同的方式处理过去实地体验中遇到的情况,或者他们预计将如何把学到的知识应用到未来的实地体验中。他们对将自己观察到的和体验到的东西迁移到新的情境中的可能性的认识,是我们与学员对话的亮点之一。
Participants had the opportunity to observe their peers in simulation prior to engaging themselves with the avatars and described how they cued off the mistakes of their peers to improve their own encounters. "Some other girls went before I did, so I saw how they interacted. It made me see some things that triggered it (the avatar) or set it off a little bit." The facilitators noticed that by the time a group finished, the encounters had improved tremendously, and the last candidates to teach in the simulation usually had by far the most successful experience with the avatars.
Two participants also described ways in which they had transferred what they learned in the simulations to field experiences and clinical practice as they continued through their programs. These participants indicated they were still thinking about things that happened with the avatars even months later when a similar situation arose in their fieldwork. One participant had observed the parent avatar react negatively to the term "retention," which the participant then described as a "trigger word." Remembering this observation of how certain "trigger words" can incite negative feelings and reactions when communicating with a parent, the candidate discussed how this knowledge informed her decisions during an actual parent teacher conference that followed her session with the simulation: "I was really careful about the words that I used because you can say something, and it can be taken out of context or as rude. Using those words as opposed to the trigger words that I saw didn't work well for the avatar really helped me prepare."
两名学员还描述了他们在继续完成学业的过程中,如何将模拟课程中学到的知识运用到实地经验和临床实践中。这些学员表示,即使在几个月后,当他们在实地工作中遇到类似情况时,他们仍然在思考在虚拟人身上发生的事情。一位学员观察到家长化身对 "保留 "一词有负面反应,该学员将其描述为 "触发词"。在与家长沟通时,某些 "触发词 "会激起家长的负面情绪和反应,该候选人回忆了这一观察结果,并讨论了这一知识如何指导她在模拟课程之后的实际家长会上做出决定:"我在用词方面非常谨慎,因为你说的话可能会被断章取义或粗鲁无礼。使用这些词语,而不是我看到的对头像不起作用的触发词,确实帮助我做好了准备。
The participants perceived transfer of learning both in the simulations themselves as they watched their peers interact with the avatar children and parent, and then again as they entered real classrooms in the field. In both cases, they put into practice what they observed or experienced the next time they encountered a similar situation. The simulations gave them a framework for practice that made them more confident and sure of themselves later and allowed them to carry what they learned into later, more critical situations.

4.3. Perceived confidence

Use of the simulation positively affected participants' levels of confidence to apply skills practiced during the simulation to their future work with live students and/or parents, but to varying degrees. While most participants approached the simulation experience with a degree of trepidation originating either from the novelty of the situation, the presence of their peers during their sessions, or their inability to anticipate the behaviors of the avatars, ten participants described leaving the experience with improved confidence in their abilities within the context of the live classroom. Additionally, participants who witnessed difficult behaviors from the student or parent avatars felt confident in their abilities to handle similar behaviors in future live contexts.
Nine participants noted the experience increased their confidence in dealing with difficult situations similar to what they encountered during the simulation. For example, one shared, "I think just getting those jitters and those nerves out helped me for the future." This participant further discussed how her session with the parent avatar in a conference scenario did not go well, and she received "a negative reaction from the avatar." Upon further reflection on her experience, she reached the following conclusions: "You're going to have parents that aren't happy. So, I think it helped me build my confidence up so when I have my own classroom, I'll know how I can interact with parents and communicate with them better."
九名参与者指出,这次经历增强了他们处理类似模拟过程中遇到的困难情况的信心。例如,一位学员分享说:"我认为消除紧张和不安有助于我今后的工作"。这位学员进一步讨论了她在会议场景中与家长化身的对话如何不顺利,她收到了 "化身的负面反应"。在进一步反思自己的经历后,她得出了以下结论:"你会遇到不高兴的家长。因此,我认为这帮助我建立了自信,这样当我有了自己的教室时,我就知道如何与家长互动,如何更好地与他们沟通了。

4.4. Challenges of using the mixed reality simulation

Participants perceived certain challenges in their experiences with using the mixed reality simulation. The most notable challenges in the findings were the difficulty of suspending disbelief, the presence of peers during sessions, adequate preparation prior to a simulation, and the limitations of the simulation for meeting individual candidates' needs.

4.4.1. Suspension of disbelief

As noted previously, seven participants expressed surprise or shock at the intuitive, spontaneous behaviors of the avatars. Two of these participants discussed their struggle to suspend disbelief, describing their initial contact with the avatars as "awkward," "strange," and even "robotic." "I wish the avatars weren't so computer generated because they look so fake, but they talk so realistic. That's the only thing that freaks me out, but other than that, I'm honestly pretty impressed with the program." Five of the seven participants who described their surprised reaction to the avatars said they were able to overcome their initial discomfort and interact with the avatars as they would real people.
如前所述,七名参与者对化身的直观、自发行为表示惊讶或震惊。其中两位参与者谈到了他们在怀疑幻觉方面所做的努力,他们把与化身的初次接触描述为 "尴尬"、"奇怪",甚至是 "机器人"。"我希望头像不是电脑生成的,因为它们看起来太假了,但它们说话的样子却很逼真。这是唯一让我感到奇怪的地方,但除此之外,说实话,我对这个项目印象很深"。在七位描述了自己对化身的惊讶反应的参与者中,有五位表示,他们能够克服最初的不适,像对待真人一样与化身互动。
One particular participant admitted he was unable to fully suspend disbelief and expressed belief that this affected his performance during the session. "I honestly think that just my mindset towards the virtual classroom made things difficult because I think it was hard for me to recognize these are real students, to actually convince myself that the virtual students were real." This particular participant later described his performance during his session with a degree of satisfaction, saying that he was able to effectively apply what he had learned from observing his peers' sessions when it was his turn to interact with the student avatars. His memory of the experience included both an initial inability to suspend disbelief and a confidence that he had engaged with the avatars quite successfully after watching his peers.
Almost all participants who engaged with a classroom scenario noted the small number of avatars (only five) as an attribute of the middle school simulation environment. However, three of these participants regarded the small number of students as a limitation when the average classroom may have up to thirty students. For these participants, the limitation may have taken away from the authenticity of the experience. One candidate perceived the distinctly different personalities evident in such a small group of avatars to be a source of additional difficulty. She found the five personalities "extreme," and she felt the "five extremes were somewhat overbearing and overwhelming." While some participants regarded the number of avatars in a scenario as a limitation of the simulation, others seemed to accept the number as a matter of course within the context of training pre-service teachers to teach and manage a class. "The difference between the number of students is five times as many students in a real class or six times, so I can see how it's very difficult for one person to have to deal with that when it's already difficult enough to handle five students." Overall, our findings supported the importance of candidates' ability to suspend disbelief while engaging in a mixed reality simulation. When participants discussed attributes of the simulation they found unrealistic compared to the live classroom, they often described these attributes as distractions from their learning experience.
几乎所有参与课堂情景模拟的参与者都指出,头像数量少(只有五个)是中学模拟 环境的一个特点。然而,其中有三位参与者认为学生人数少是一种限制,因为一般的教室可能有多达 30 名学生。对这些参与者来说,这种限制可能会影响体验的真实性。一位候选人认为,在这么小的化身群体中,明显不同的个性是额外困难的来源。她认为这五种个性 "极端",而且她觉得 "五个极端有点霸道,让人不知所措"。一些参与者认为,情景模拟中的头像数量是一种限制,而另一些参与者则认为,在 培训职前教师教学和管理班级的背景下,头像数量是理所当然的。"学生人数的差别是真实班级学生人数的五倍或六倍,所以我可以理解,一个人要处理这样的问题是非常困难的,而处理五个学生已经够困难了。"总之,我们的研究结果表明,考生在参与混合现实模拟时,必须具备 "暂缓相信 "的能力。当参与者讨论到他们认为与真实课堂相比模拟不切实际的特性时,他们通常会将这些特性描述为学习体验中的干扰因素。

4.4.2. Peer audience 4.4.2.同行受众

Performing in the simulation in front of a peer audience made two of the participants nervous and hesitant. One candidate described her feelings as "stage fright" and said, "I think I was more afraid of the people watching us interact with them than the actual avatar kids." She believed her preoccupation with the peer audience affected her performance with the simulation, saying she preferred using the simulation without an audience: "I think I'd definitely be more focused on what I was doing, because it was distracting to think, 'Okay, what are they thinking of how I'm doing right now?'" However, other participants expressed appreciation for the opportunity to watch their peers interact with the simulation. "It was just nice for me to watch them. It was interesting to be able to go into [my session] after witnessing people." Another candidate had a similar response: "It was really interesting to see a lot of people take a different approach to the situation that we had for the parent/teacher conference."
在同龄人面前进行模拟表演让两名学员感到紧张和犹豫。一位候选人把自己的感受描述为 "怯场",她说:"我想我更害怕的是那些看着我们与他们互动的人,而不是真正的化身孩子们"。她认为她对同伴观众的关注影响了她在模拟中的表现,她说她更喜欢在没有观众的情况下使用模拟:"我想我肯定会更专注于我正在做的事情,因为想'好吧,他们在想我现在在做什么?然而,其他参与者则对有机会观看同伴与模拟互动表示赞赏。"对我来说,看着他们很好。在目睹了人们的情况后再进入[我的环节],这很有趣"。另一位候选人也有类似的回答:"看到很多人以不同的方式来应对家长会/教师会的情况,真的很有趣"。
Participants who had the opportunity to observe their peers before they participated in the simulation expressed gratitude that they themselves had not been first and were thus able to learn from their peers' encounters. "I honestly feel like I had an advantage because I got to go at the end. So, I got to see my classmates get up there and greet students and figure out how the kids behaved." Participants appreciated the opportunity to watch others before they engaged with the avatars themselves, but many participants

expressed discomfort with having an audience for their own performances. In spite of the challenges described by several participants of performing before a peer audience, the findings of this study suggest the potential benefits outweigh these concerns. Discussing the potential benefits of a peer audience during teaching as part of preparing candidates for sessions with the mixed reality simulation may help candidates understand the necessity and address their anxiety over peer observers.

4.4.3. Adequate preparation

Ensuring candidates had adequate preparation prior to engaging with the mixed reality simulation proved to be a considerable challenge. Seven participants perceived that a lack of preparation or access to information seemed to compromise their experiences with the simulation. The course instructors had not yet been trained to facilitate, so the researchers served as facilitators. Two participants reported that course instructors did not supply them with information on the simulation and scenario sufficiently in advance, or did not supply the information at all. In other cases, two participants received the information but did not adequately familiarize themselves with the information prior to their sessions. One participant even admitted she had forgotten about her session and arrived late. As one might expect, she felt "thrown into" the experience. One other participant said she also felt unprepared for her session due to inadequate preparation with the provided materials. Three participants did not find the materials detailed enough about either the situation or the avatars. In particular, one participant in the simulated parent/teacher conference felt that her lack of personal knowledge of the student discussed during the conference affected the realism of the scenario. She indicated her only difficulty with the mixed reality simulation was the lack of "information you have on the student ... Because in the real classroom you know so much about your students. You can talk to a parent for like hours and hours about what their student is like." However, another candidate felt that it was possible to supply too much information beforehand: "Don't tell [us] everything."
事实证明,确保候选人在参与混合现实模拟之前做好充分准备是一个相当大的挑战。七名学员认为,缺乏准备或无法获得信息似乎影响了他们的模拟体验。课程讲师尚未接受过促进培训,因此研究人员充当了促进者的角色。两名学员报告说,课程讲师没有提前向他们提供足够的模拟和情景信息,或者根本没有提供这些信息。在其他情况下,两名学员收到了相关信息,但在课程开始前并没有充分熟悉这些信息。一位学员甚至承认她忘记了自己的课程,所以迟到了。正如人们所预料的那样,她觉得自己被 "扔进 "了体验中。还有一位学员说,由于对所提供的材料准备不足,她也感到毫无准备。有三位参与者认为材料对情境或化身的介绍不够详细。特别是,一位参加模拟家长/教师会议的与会者认为,她对会议期间讨论的学生缺乏个人了解,这影响了情景的真实性。她表示,她在混合现实模拟中遇到的唯一困难就是缺乏 "关于学生的信息......"。因为在真实课堂上,你对学生了解得太多了。你可以和家长谈上几个小时,了解他们的学生是什么样的"。然而,另一位候选人认为,有可能事先提供太多信息:"不要什么都告诉我们"。

4.4.4. Meeting candidates' needs

Eight participants expressed interest in on-demand access to the mixed reality simulation for teaching their own lessons or the ability to tailor scenarios according to individual preferences. However, the current functionality and cost effectiveness of mixed reality simulations is very limited in terms of tailoring scenarios to individual preferences. For instance, in one scenario used during this study, candidates taught a lesson on taking notes using the Cornell Notes method. Some participants indicated they might have performed better during the simulation with a lesson they themselves had planned. Participants said they would prefer on-demand access to the simulation for further practice: "If there were more places where it was more convenient to do [Mursion , like in an actual classroom, I think that'd be pretty cool, because I feel like the more you do it, it's like you're more confident in yourself." However, the process of planning and conducting a mixed reality simulation when hosted by a service provider prevents candidates from having any license over their experience outside of the prewritten parameters of the scenario. Since suspension disbelief regarding the live interactor behind the avatars is preferred, it is difficult to explain to students why they just cannot use the simulation at any time and why they cannot teach their own lessons instead of the prepared ones.
八位与会者表示有兴趣按需使用混合现实模拟教学,以教授他们自己的课程或根据个人喜好定制情景。然而,就根据个人喜好定制情景而言,混合现实模拟的现有功能和成本效益非常有限。例如,在本研究中使用的一个场景中,候选人使用康奈尔笔记法讲授了一堂笔记课。一些学员表示,如果模拟的课程是他们自己策划的,他们的表现可能会更好。学员表示,他们更希望能按需访问模拟课程,以便进一步练习:"如果有更多的地方可以更方便地进行[Mursion ,比如在真正的教室里,我觉得那会很酷,因为我觉得你做得越多,就越对自己有信心"。然而,由服务提供商主办的混合现实模拟的规划和实施过程,使候选人无法在预先编写的情景参数之外对自己的体验拥有任何许可。由于对虚拟化身背后的真人互动者最好不要相信,因此很难向学生解释为什么他们不能在任何时候使用模拟,为什么他们不能教授自己的课程而不是准备好的课程。
Some participants expressed a desire to adjust the simulated environments to suit their individual preferences. During the parent/ teacher conference scenario, candidates conducted a conference with a parent avatar whose son was struggling in his science class. Participants said the setting was not one they themselves would choose for a conference. In this scenario, the avatar appears separated from the participant by an office desk, giving the setting the appearance of a principal's office. Participants found this setting to be too impersonal and likely to make a parent feel uncomfortable, especially during a conference in which a difficult subject must be addressed. "For our class personally, we try not to sit behind the desk and sit next to them, to make it more personable, because we don't want them to think that we're superior ... I feel like in a real parent/teacher conference it's going to be a little more personable because you'll actually get to shake hands." Feedback from participants suggested they would prefer a more informal setting for a conference out of consideration for parents' levels of comfort and to promote positive rapport with those parents. The setting contributed to their sense of unease and made it more difficult to connect with the avatar parent. At this time however, adjustments to the virtual environments based on user preferences is not possible. The mixed reality simulation appears designed for providing groups of students a standardized experience without allowing for adjustments to individual preferences.
一些学员表示希望调整模拟环境,以适应他们的个人喜好。在 "家长/教师会议 "情境中,候选人与一位儿子在科学课上表现不佳的家长化身进行了一次会议。学员们表示,他们自己不会选择这样的环境来召开会议。在这一情景中,化身与参与者之间隔着一张办公桌,看起来就像校长办公室。与会者认为这种场景太不人性化,很可能让家长感到不舒服,尤其是在必须解决棘手问题的会议上。"就我们班级而言,我们尽量不坐在桌子后面,而是坐在他们旁边,这样更有亲和力,因为我们不想让他们觉得我们高高在上......"。我觉得在真正的家长/教师会议上,会更有人情味一些,因为你们会真正握手"。与会者的反馈表明,出于对家长的舒适度的考虑,以及为了促进与家长的积极融洽关 系,他们更倾向于在较为非正式的环境中召开家长会。这种环境增加了他们的不安感,使他们更难与化身家长建立联系。不过,目前还无法根据用户的喜好来调整虚拟环境。混合现实模拟似乎旨在为学生群体提供标准化的体验,而不允许根据个人喜好进行调整。

5. Discussion 5.讨论

This study explored a mixed reality simulation environment as a tool for skills practice among candidates enrolled in pre-service teacher education courses requiring field experience in schools. We were interested in candidates' experiences and perceptions of the mixed reality simulation as a tool for practice, in how candidates perceived the simulation affected their confidence, and in how the candidates' felt the simulation compared to and affected their live field experiences. From analysis of interview data, the following themes emerged: opportunity for authentic practice, perceived transfer of learning, perceived confidence, and challenges of using the mixed reality simulation. Our conclusions from these themes are discussed next.

5.1. Conclusions: authentic practice

Most participants perceived the simulation as a source of authentic practice they do not always have a chance to experience during live field observations. The live actor aspect of the simulations gives a real-world quality to the experience that surprised participants. Participants had the opportunity to experience difficult situations with students and parents in a controlled environment, and this opportunity for authentic practice is difficult to replicate during field observations (Shaughnessy & Boerst, 2018). In fact, several participants described their live field observations as providing little opportunity for authentic interactions with students
大多数参与者认为,模拟是一种真实实践的来源,他们在现场实地观察中不一定有机会体验到。模拟活动中的真人表演给学员们带来了一种真实世界的体验,这让学员们感到惊喜。参与者有机会在可控环境中体验与学生和家长相处的困难情况,而这种真实实践的机会在实地观察中很难复制(Shaughnessy & Boerst, 2018)。事实上,几位参与者认为,现场实地观察几乎没有提供与学生进行真实互动的机会

and parents. Participants' comments on the lack of active engagement with students during field experience coincides with criticisms in the literature on traditional approaches to field experience in which candidates, for the most part, play the role of the passive observer until they begin their teaching practicum (Walker & Dotger, 2012).
和家长。学员们关于在实地体验期间缺乏与学生的积极接触的评论,与文献中对传统实地体验方法的批评不谋而合,在传统方法中,考生在开始教学实习之前大多扮演被动观察者的角色(Walker & Dotger, 2012)。

5.2. Conclusions: perceived transfer of learning

Participant responses indicated they perceived transfer of learning when they had the opportunity to observe their peers engaging with the simulation. Simulations facilitate learning transfer when students observe others; therefore, students often engage with simulations as part of a class or collaborative group (Damewood, 2016). While mixed reality simulations may be set up for one individual and a facilitator only, our implementation team determined that allowing an audience would help candidates value and become comfortable with teaching in front of a colleague or an evaluator. Several participants expressed discomfort at being observed by their peers; however, participant responses indicated meaningful learning from observing peers during the mixed reality simulation in that they tailored their own performance according to observations they had made during their peers' performances.
参与者的回答表明,当他们有机会观察同伴参与模拟时,他们会感受到学习的迁移。当学生观察他人时,模拟会促进学习迁移;因此,学生通常作为班级或协作小组的一部分参与模拟(Damewood,2016 年)。虽然混合现实模拟可能只为一个人和一个主持人设置,但我们的实施团队认为,允许有观众将有助于候选人重视并适应在同事或评估者面前授课。有几位学员表示不适应被同伴观察;不过,学员的回答表明,他们在混合现实模拟中通过观察同伴进行了有意义的学习,因为他们根据在同伴表演时观察到的情况调整了自己的表演。
Some participants perceived transfer of learning from their experiences with the mixed reality simulation to similar situations they encountered during field experiences that took place after their session. One participant was able to specifically identify how her experience with the parent avatar during the parent/teacher conference scenario later affected her decision-making when she participated in a conference with a live parent. Most predominantly, candidates reflectively related their simulation experiences to past field experiences or to situations they anticipate encountering in their future classrooms or during engagements with parents.

5.3. Conclusions: perceived confidence

Participants' reflections on their experiences with the simulation indicated effects on their levels of confidence, but to varying degrees. Meaningful, productive reflection was evident among all the participants as they considered aspects of their sessions that went well, did not go as expected, and/or seemed to go poorly. The opportunity to debrief with their peers and with a faculty member after the simulations further enriched the overall experience, but also enabled candidates to probe deeper into their own experience and the experience of their peers immediately following the simulation. From these reflections, many participants expressed they felt better prepared to handle situations they experienced during the mixed reality situation when they may encounter similar situations in future field experiences because of the practice they experienced through the simulation. Teacher candidates need a repertoire of well-practiced pedagogical skills they can use with confidence when they enter the live classroom (Peercy & Troyan, 2017), and providing skills practice through mixed reality simulations may be a means of ensuring candidates are not only sufficiently equipped, but also confident in their craft.
学员们对模拟体验的反思表明,他们的自信水平得到了提高,但程度不一。所有学员都进行了有意义的、富有成效的反思,他们对模拟课程中进展顺利、不尽如人意和/或似乎进展不顺利的方面进行了思考。模拟培训结束后,学员们有机会与同伴和教员进行汇报,这进一步丰富了他们的整体体验,同时也使学员们能够在模拟培训结束后立即深入探讨自己和同伴的体验。从这些反思中,许多学员表示,由于在模拟中得到了锻炼,他们觉得在今后的实地体验中遇到类似情况时,能够更好地处理在混合现实情境中经历的情况。教师候选人需要一套练习有素的教学技能,当他们进入现场课堂时,可以自信地使用这些技能(Peercy & Troyan, 2017),通过混合现实模拟提供技能练习可能是确保候选人不仅装备充足,而且对自己的技能充满信心的一种手段。

5.4. Conclusions: challenges

Participants pointed out challenges in using the simulation: difficulty in suspending disbelief, meeting candidates' needs, presence of peer observers, and adequate preparation or information. We discuss conclusions we drew from these challenges in the sections that follow.
Suspending disbelief was important for candidates to learn effectively from the simulation experience (Dieker et al., 2014), but some participants found suspension of disbelief to be a challenge. However, despite efforts to avoid disclosing the functionality of the simulation, some participants expressed that the artificial appearance of the avatars, the avatar's distinctive personalities, and/or the small number of avatars present in the virtual classroom made suspension of disbelief difficult.
悬置不信对考生从模拟体验中有效学习非常重要(Dieker 等人,2014 年),但一些参与者发现悬置不信是一项挑战。然而,尽管努力避免透露模拟的功能,但一些参与者表示,虚拟化身的人造外观、化身的独特个性和/或虚拟教室中出现的化身数量较少,都使悬置不信任感变得困难。
Providing participants their desired access to the mixed reality simulation with individual specifications is a challenge; however, the current affordances, logistics, and expense of the simulation prevent on-demand, personalized access. Sessions require preplanning, including developing detailed written scenarios, reserving dates/times with the interactor that fit within course schedules, and training instructors to facilitate. The availability of a live interactor must be matched with the course instructors' class periods. Due to the high cost of sessions and scheduling issues, candidates cannot just walk in and use the simulations whenever they like. In addition, the equipment necessary to conduct the simulation limits the locations where coordinators can host sessions. The mixed reality simulation requires a computer with internet access, video camera, microphone, and a large monitor. Space must be available for the participant engaging in the simulation, a facilitator, and any additional classmates or observers who may need to be present.
One solution to this limitation would require purchasing the program outright and using on-site actors to run the avatars. The expense of this option - including training and paying actors - has prevented our institution from taking this route, but it is available. The exhaustive process required to set up simulation sessions means that the institution's access to the program is less than what participants expressed preference for during their interviews. Faculty also might be more comfortable and more likely to schedule sessions if they could hold them in their own classrooms and on a more casual basis. Several participants identified the presence of peer observers as a source of discomfort or anxiety; however, we concluded the benefits for students' observing peer participation during the simulation outweighs this challenge. As previously discussed in 5.2, observing peers was a common source of perceived transfer learning across participants. Participants will also experience the presence of observers such as supervising teacher mentors and principals when they become student teachers and then career teachers. Therefore, we conclude peer observers to be of benefit to students during the simulation despite the potential discomfort an audience may cause.
解决这一限制的办法之一是直接购买该程序,并使用现场演员来操作虚拟化身。这一方案的费用--包括培训和支付演员的费用--使我们的机构无法采用这一途径,但这是可行的。设置模拟课程所需的详尽程序意味着,本机构使用该程序的机会少于参与者在访谈中表达的偏好。如果能在自己的教室里以更随意的方式举行模拟课程,教师们可能会更乐意和更有可能安排模拟课程。有几位参与者认为,同伴观察员的存在会让他们感到不适或焦虑;但是,我们的结论是,学生在模拟过程中观察同伴参与的益处超过了这一挑战。正如之前在 5.2 中讨论的那样,观察同伴是学员感知迁移学习的一个共同来源。学员在成为学生教师和职业教师后,还将经历诸如指导教师导师和校长等观察者的存在。因此,我们得出结论,在模拟教学过程中,尽管旁观者可能会引起学员的不适,但同伴观察员对学员是有益的。
Finally, adequate preparation in the form of prior exposure to the simulation and access to information on simulation scenarios, expectations, and procedures is necessary to maximize students' benefits from the experience. Some participants expressed they felt

unprepared for the simulation due to lack of information on expectations for their session or on the simulation itself. In consideration of this feedback, it may help future candidates to view video recordings of prior sessions with the mixed reality simulation as part of their preparation for their own sessions. Showing footage of sessions may be a better means of preparing those candidates who participate in earlier sessions and do not have the advantage of watching their peers beforehand. Prior exposure to the mixed reality simulation will also allow candidates the opportunity to address the initial discomfort or even shock that may come with the simulation's novelty. In addition, facilitators must make efforts to ensure that both course instructors and candidates have adequately prepared for their sessions. Course instructors must be involved in and cognizant of the specific learning objectives concomitant to the candidates' simulation sessions and must effectively disseminate and communicate the necessary information to the candidates. Providing planning information on the scenarios will allow candidates to authentically experience the preparation necessary for successful teaching as well as help ensure they understand the expectations for their sessions. Exerting these efforts will potentially increase the mixed reality simulation's benefits to candidates in their preparation for live teaching.

6. Limitations and future research

Certain limitations preclude the generalizability of this study's findings. Our research focused on our participants' perceptions of the mixed reality simulation which may not be generalizable to other populations. In addition, participants in this study engaged with the mixed reality simulation during a single session. Future research needs to explore candidates' experiences using the mixed reality simulation over a number of sessions to investigate the benefits of more sustained practice. This study is also limited in the fact that only one candidate was male. We asked for voluntary participation from the students, and only thirteen of the students who experienced the simulation elected to participate in this study. Although several male students participated in the simulation sessions, only one consented to an interview. Future studies may be conducted with students who participate as part of a requirement in their pre-service teacher education courses which may yield larger pools of possible participants and lead to more heterogeneous samples. In spite of this study's limitations, participant feedback in this study suggests pre-service teacher candidates' use of mixed reality environments for skills practice can potentially affect their perceptions, confidence, and decisions during live classroom field experiences.
本研究结果的普遍性受到某些限制。我们的研究侧重于参与者对混合现实模拟的感知,这可能无法推广到其他人群。此外,本研究的参与者只参与了一次混合现实模拟。未来的研究需要探索考生在多个环节中使用混合现实模拟的经验,以调查更持久的练习所带来的益处。本研究的局限性还在于,只有一名候选人是男性。我们要求学生自愿参与,但只有 13 名体验过模拟的学生选择参与本研究。虽然有几名男生参加了模拟课程,但只有一名同意接受采访。未来的研究可能会针对作为教师职前教育课程要求的一部分而参与的学生,这样可能会有更多的参与者,并产生更多不同的样本。尽管本研究有其局限性,但参与者的反馈表明,职前教师候选人使用混合现实环境进行技能练习可能会影响他们在课堂现场体验中的感知、信心和决策。
Future research on mixed reality simulations can build on these findings to further explore the impact of prior practice with mixed reality simulations on candidates' performance in the classroom during their practicum and then early career teaching experiences. We believe future research on Mursion should investigate how a closer alignment between mixed reality simulation scenarios and the classroom contexts candidates will encounter in their subsequent field experiences could improve candidates' confidence and skills performance in the live classroom. Working with teacher educators who teach pedagogical methods courses that include a field experience component could be a means to provide candidates specific skills practice during a simulation followed by an opportunity to demonstrate the same skills in a live classroom environment. Future research investigating this context could provide deeper insight into the effects of candidates' skills practice during sessions with a mixed reality simulation on their performance in the teaching field.
未来有关混合现实模拟的研究可以在这些研究结果的基础上,进一步探索混合现实模拟的前期实践对考生在实习期间和职业生涯初期的课堂表现的影响。我们认为,未来有关 Mursion 的研究应探讨混合现实模拟场景与考生在随后的实地体验中将遇到的课堂情境之间的更紧密结合如何提高考生在现场课堂上的信心和技能表现。与教授包含实地体验内容的教学法课程的教师教育者合作,可以在模拟场景中为考生提供具体的技能练习,然后让他们有机会在现场课堂环境中展示相同的技能。未来对这种情况的调查研究可以让我们更深入地了解考生在混合现实模拟课程中的技能练习对其教学实战表现的影响。

Declarations of interest

None. 无。

Funding 资金筹措

This work was supported by the 2016 Graduate College Robberson Summer Research Fellowship, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, to the first author. This funding source played no role in the design, development, or publication of this work.
本研究工作得到了俄克拉荷马州立大学(Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK)2016 年研究生院罗伯逊暑期研究奖学金(2016 Graduate College Robberson Summer Research Fellowship)的支持,第一作者获得了该奖学金。该资金来源在本作品的设计、开发或出版过程中未发挥任何作用。

Appendix 附录

The following are some of the questions which guided the semi-structured interviews conducted with participants.
  • How many of your prior or current education courses have included field observations?
  • Describe the students, teachers and/or parents you have worked with during your field experiences.
  • Describe the activities in which you have participated during your field experiences.
  • Have you ever seen or participated in a Mursion session prior to this semester?
    在本学期之前,您是否看过或参加过 Mursion 课程?
  • Describe your expectations of Mursion before you began your Mursion session.
    在开始 Mursion 课程之前,请描述您对 Mursion 的期望。
  • Describe what you experienced during your session with Mursion .
    请描述您在与 Mursion 交谈过程中的感受。
  • Describe the Mursion program in terms of how easy or difficult it is to use.
    请描述 Mursion 程序的难易程度。
  • How did your interactions with the Mursion avatars compare with your interactions with live students?
    您与 Mursion 头像的互动与您与现场学生的互动相比如何?
  • How did your Mursion experience prepare you to work with live students or parents?
    您在 Mursion 的经历为您与现场学生或家长一起工作做了哪些准备?
  • How did the Mursion program meet or not meet your expectations?
    Mursion 计划符合或不符合您的期望?
  • How would you recommend other pre-service teachers or instructors use Mursion ?
    您建议其他职前教师或教师如何使用 Mursion

Appendix A. Supplementary data
附录 A.补充数据

Supplementary data to this article can be found online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103696 .

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  1. Corresponding author.
    E-mail address: kathy.thomas@okstate.edu (K.B. Thomas).
    电子邮件地址:kathy.thomas@okstate.edu (K.B. Thomas)。
  2. All unattributed quotations are drawn directly from interviews with participants during data collection in 2016 .
    所有未注明出处的引文均直接取自 2016 年数据收集期间与参与者的访谈。