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GUIDE  指导

FOR

CONTAINER 容器

DAMAGE 损伤

MEASUREMENT 测量
Prepared by: 编写者:

IICL Technical Committee IICL技术委员会Textainer Equipment Management (U.S.) Ltd.
Textainer Equipment Management (U.S.) Ltd.(纺织设备管理(美国)有限公司)
A. Sowry (Chairman) A. Sowry (主席)Carlisle Leasing International Co.
卡莱尔租赁国际公司
F. Loiacono F·洛亚科诺Container Applications International, Inc.
国际容器应用公司
D. Jardine D. 怡和Cronos Containers Limited
Cronos Containers Limited(克罗诺斯集装箱有限公司)
J. Kirby J·柯比Flexi-Van Leasing, Inc. Flexi-Van Leasing, Inc.(Flexi-Van Leasing公司)M. Merezio 梅雷齐奥Florens Container Services (USA) Ltd.
Florens Container Services (USA) Ltd.(弗洛伦斯集装箱服务(美国)有限公司)
B. McKenna B.麦肯纳Genstar Container Corporation
Genstar集装箱公司
V. Cole V·科尔Sea Containers, Ltd. Sea Containers, Ltd.(海运集装箱有限公司)E. Wheeler E.惠勒Transamerica Leasing Inc.
全美租赁公司
G. Wolf G·沃尔夫Triton Container International Ltd.
Triton Container International Ltd.(特里顿国际集装箱有限公司)
P. Ouborg P.欧堡XTRA International XTRA国际G. Macmillan G.麦克米伦

Guide for Container Damage Measurement Subcommittee
集装箱损坏测量小组委员会指南
Triton Container International Ltd.
Triton Container International Ltd.(特里顿国际集装箱有限公司)
Textainer Equipment Management (U.S.) Ltd. Itel Terminals
Textainer Equipment Management (U.S.) Ltd. Itel 码头
Unicon International 优康国际
H. Heacox (Chairman) H. Heacox (主席)
J. Figueira 菲盖拉
M. Baldwin 鲍德温
W. Stenwick W.斯滕威克
ABOUT THE GUIDE 关于指南
CREDITS 学分
HOW TO ORDER IICL PUBLICATIONS
如何订购IICL出版物

This Guide presents methods for measuring damage to a container during a container inspection. However, because any inspection depends largely upon the skill of human beings, the conditions under which it is performed and many other variables, the Institute and its members and personnel cannot and do not assume any liability for damage to persons or property or other consequences of any procedures referred to herein.
本指南介绍了在集装箱检查期间测量集装箱损坏的方法。但是,由于任何检查在很大程度上取决于人的技能、执行检查的条件和许多其他变量,因此研究所及其成员和人员不能也不会对本文提及的任何程序对人身或财产的损害或其他后果承担任何责任。
IICL wishes to thank Itel Terminals of Oakland, California, and Unicon International of San Francisco, California, for their active participation as members of the subcommittee that prepared this Guide. Thanks are also extended to Maersk Line and American President Lines Ltd. for their assistance with the field trials of the measurement methods.
IICL感谢加利福尼亚州奥克兰的Itel Terminals和加利福尼亚州旧金山的Unicon International作为编写本指南的小组委员会的成员积极参与。还要感谢马士基航运公司和美国总统航运有限公司在测量方法的现场试验中提供的帮助。
ICL also expresses appreciation to Carl Mezoff, A.I.A., for his quick mastery of the container industry and his excellent drawings, prepared on a CAD system.
ICL还对Carl Mezoff, A.I.A.表示感谢,感谢他对集装箱行业的快速掌握,以及他在CAD系统上准备的出色图纸。
Persons interested in obtaining the latest IICL order form and price list for technical guides and manuals on containers and chassis should contact IICL at the following address, telephone, fax or e-mail: P.O. Box 605, 630 Old Post Road, Bedford, NY 10506, USA. Telephone: 1-914-234-3696; Fax: 1-914234-3641; E-mail: IICL@worldnet.att.net. The order form can also be downloaded directly from IICL's website on the Internet (www.IICL.org). The website also includes information on the Inspector's Certification examinations, reefer courses and other IICL activities and programs.
有兴趣获取最新的IICL订购表和价目表以获取集装箱和底盘技术指南和手册的人士应通过以下地址,电话,传真或电子邮件与IICL联系:P.O. Box 605, 630 Old Post Road, Bedford, NY 10506, USA。电话:1-914-234-3696;传真: 1-914234-3641;电子邮件:IICL@worldnet.att.net。订购表格也可以直接从IICL的互联网网站(www.IICL.org)下载。该网站还包括有关检查员认证考试、冷藏课程和其他 IICL 活动和计划的信息。

CONTENTS 内容

SECTION 1 第1节
SECTION 2 第2节

INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE/1
导言和目的/1

FUNDAMENTALS OF DAMAGE MEASUREMENT/3
损害测量基础/3
2.1 Dimensional Limits for Bends, Dents and/or Bows
2.1 弯曲、凹痕和/或弓形的尺寸限制
2.1.1 Measuring Bends, Dents and/or Bows (Concave)
2.1.1 测量弯曲、凹痕和/或弓形(凹面)
2.1.2 Measuring Bends, Dents and/or Bows (Convex Damage and Damage to Non-Linear Surfaces:
2.1.2 测量弯曲、凹痕和/或弯曲(凸面损坏和非线性表面损坏):
"Space Out/Measure Back" Method)
“空出/回测”方法)
2.2 Measuring Damage to Check "Envelope" Limits (ISO Dimensions Plus ISO/IICL Tolerances)
2.2 测量损坏以检查“包络”限值(ISO 尺寸加 ISO/IICL 公差)
2.2.1 Using "Space Out" Method with Limiting Surface as Reference Point
2.2.1 使用以极限曲面为参考点的“间距”方法
2.2.2 Checking Envelope When Reference Line Cannot Be Positioned at Limiting Surface and Over Damage
2.2.2 当参考线不能定位在极限表面和过度损坏时检查包络
2.2.3 Variations and Special Cases
2.2.3 变更和特殊情况
SECTION 3 第 3 节
SECTION 4 第4节
3.2 Recommended Additional Tools for Container Inspection
3.2 推荐的集装箱检测附加工具

TOOLS REQUIRED FOR DAMAGE MEASUREMENT/16
损坏测量所需的工具/16

3.1 Basic Measurement Tools
3.1 基本测量工具

MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR SPECIFIC AND UNUSUAL CASES/18
特殊和不寻常情况的测量方法/18

4.1 Measurement Methods for Specific Components and in Individual Cases
4.1 特定组件和个别情况下的测量方法
4.2 Methods of Measuring Damage to Rails
4.2 测量钢轨损坏的方法
4.2.1 Measuring Localized Damage to Side and End Rails
4.2.1 测量侧轨和端轨的局部损坏
4.2.2 Checking Rails for ISO Dimensions
4.2.2 检查导轨的 ISO 尺寸
4.2.3 Measuring Bows or Gradual Deformation to Rails
4.2.3 测量钢轨的弓形或逐渐变形
4.2.4 Measuring Damage to Headers with Corner Protection Plates
4.2.4 测量带角保护板的集管损坏情况
4.2.5 Measuring Damage to Bottom Rail Webs
4.2.5 测量底轨腹板的损坏
4.2.6 Measuring Damage to Door Sills
4.2.6 测量门槛损坏
4.3 Measuring Damage to Corner Posts
4.3 测量角柱的损坏
4.4 Measuring Damage to Side and Front Panels
4.4 测量侧板和前面板的损坏
4.4.1 Measuring Bends and Dents in Panels (Impacted from Outside)
4.4.1 测量面板的弯曲和凹痕(从外部冲击)
4.4.2 Measuring Bends and Dents in Panels (Impacted from Inside)
4.4.2 测量面板的弯曲和凹痕(从内部冲击)
4.4.3 Measuring Panel Bows
4.4.3 测量板弓
4.4.4 Calculating Cube Reduction Caused by Opposite Damage
4.4.4 计算由相反损坏引起的立方体减少
4.5 Measuring Damage to Doors
4.5 测量门的损坏
4.6 Measuring Damage to Roofs
4.6 测量屋顶损坏
4.6.1 Measuring Downward Damage on a Standing Corrugation
4.6.1 测量直立波纹的向下损伤
4.6.2 Measuring Downward Damage on the Panel Area
4.6.2 测量面板区域向下损坏
Between Corrugations 波纹之间
4.6.3 Measuring Downward Damage on a Standing Corrugation End
4.6.3 测量直立波纹端向下的损伤
4.6.4 Measuring Downward Damage on a Standing Corrugation End at the Roof Ends
4.6.4 测量屋顶端部直立波纹端部向下的损伤
4.6.5 Measuring Upward Damage on the Panel Area Between Corrugations
4.6.5 测量波纹之间面板区域的向上损坏
4.6.6 Measuring Upward Damage Within Corrugations;
4.6.6 测量波纹内向上的损伤;
Upward Bows to Roof Sheets; and Upward Damage to Header Extension Plates
向上向屋顶板鞠躬;和针座延长板的向上损坏
4.6.7 Measuring Downward Bows to Roof Sheets and Downward
4.6.7 测量屋顶板的向下弯曲和向下
Damage to Header Extension Plates
集管延长板损坏
4.7 Measuring Damage to Floors
4.7 测量地板损坏
4.7.1 Measuring Gouges for Depth Only
4.7.1 仅测量深度的凿痕
4.7.2 Measuring Gouges for Depth and Width
4.7.2 测量凿子的深度和宽度
4.8 Measuring Damage to Understructure
4.8 测量下部结构的损坏
4.8.1 Measuring a Direct Impact to a Crossmember Web
4.8.1 测量对横梁卷材的直接影响
4.8.2 Measuring an Impact to a Crossmember Web from the Flange Side
4.8.2 从法兰侧测量横梁腹板的冲击
4.8.3 Measuring Crossmember Web Damage at the Web Center
4.8.3 在 Web 中心测量横梁 Web 损坏
4.8.4 Measuring Crossmembers Bent in Two Locations
4.8.4 测量横梁在两个位置弯曲
4.8.5 Separation of Crossmembers from Underside of Floor
4.8.5 横梁与地板底面的分离
4.8.6 Crossmembers Outside ISO Plus IICL Tolerances
4.8.6 超出 ISO 和 IICL 公差的横梁

SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 第一节 引言

AND PURPOSE 和目的
The Guide for Container Damage Measurement has been issued in order to assist inspectors in measuring damage to dry-van freight containers. Accuracy and consistency in container inspection is key to maintaining containers in safe and serviceable condition. Since containers constitute a vital link in the worldwide movement of intermodal transportation, assuring a high standard of inspection is of paramount importance to the industry.
《集装箱损坏测量指南》已经发布,以协助检查员测量干货车货运集装箱的损坏情况。集装箱检测的准确性和一致性是保持集装箱处于安全和可维修状态的关键。由于集装箱是全球多式联运运输的重要环节,因此确保高标准的检验对行业至关重要。
According to inspection procedures set forth in the IICL/ICS Guide for Container Equipment Inspection, any damage discovered during an inspection must be measured and compared to the inspection criteria included in the Inspection Guide to determine if repair is necessary. The criteria describe the acceptable limits of container damage that, when exceeded, must be repaired. Many of these limits consist of specific dimensions, such as a specified depth, width or length for a dent or other deformation.
根据IICL/ICS集装箱设备检查指南中规定的检查程序,必须对检查期间发现的任何损坏进行测量,并与检查指南中包含的检查标准进行比较,以确定是否需要维修。该标准描述了容器损坏的可接受限度,当超过该限值时,必须进行修复。其中许多限制由特定尺寸组成,例如凹痕或其他变形的指定深度、宽度或长度。
Experience in the field, however, has shown that container damage measurement can vary depending on the measurement method. Furthermore, certain conditions can make it difficult to measure some types of damage and therefore to ascertain if repair is required. It was felt, therefore, that a manual describing exactly how to measure damage and thereby setting a common basis for measurement methods could be helpful in achieving estimate accuracy.
然而,该领域的经验表明,集装箱损坏测量可能因测量方法而异。此外,某些条件可能使测量某些类型的损坏变得困难,因此难以确定是否需要维修。因此,有人认为,一本准确描述如何测量损失的手册,从而为测量方法奠定共同基础,可能有助于实现估计的准确性。
The Guide for Container Damage Measurement has been designed 1) to standardize measurement methods to assure consistent and repeatable results whenever a specified type of damage is measured and 2) to provide methods for measuring damage that is hard to measure, and 3) to clarify damage limits that are subject to misinterpretation.
《集装箱损坏测量指南》旨在 1) 标准化测量方法,以确保在测量特定类型的损坏时获得一致和可重复的结果,以及 2) 提供难以测量的损坏测量方法,以及 3) 澄清容易被误解的损坏限值。
This Guide does not provide criteria for determining if damage to containers requires repair. These criteria are published only in the latest edition of the Guide for Container Equipment Inspection, issued by IICL in cooperation with the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS).
本指南没有提供确定容器损坏是否需要维修的标准。这些标准仅在IICL与国际航运公会(ICS)合作发布的最新版《集装箱设备检验指南》中公布。
Since it was felt that a visual approach would be the most practical, the Guide consists primarily of drawings illustrating the proper method of measuring damage to a given component, accompanied by brief explanatory text. A small selection of color photos has also been included to demonstrate tools and measurement techniques.
由于认为目视方法最为实用,因此《指南》主要由附图组成,说明测量某一部件损坏情况的适当方法,并附有简短的解释性文字。还包括一小部分彩色照片,以演示工具和测量技术。
The manual is divided into four parts:
本手册分为四个部分:
  • Section 2 provides basic information on methods of measuring damage.
    第2节提供了关于测量损害的方法的基本信息。
  • Section 3 describes tools required for damage measurement.
    第 3 节介绍了损坏测量所需的工具。
  • Section 4 provides specific information on measuring damage to different components, including defects that are hard to measure.
    第 4 节提供了有关测量不同部件损坏的具体信息,包括难以测量的缺陷。
  • Section 5 includes definitions of measurement terms as applied in this Guide.
    第 5 节包括本指南中应用的测量术语的定义。
The publishers make no representation that inspections carried out using the damage measurement methods recommended in this Guide will meet any specific requirements of any particular government. Container owners are reminded that they are responsible for complying with the procedures prescribed or approved by the applicable governments. Each owner should check carefully the particular requirements of its government. Inspections should be performed in compliance with all international conventions and regulations (e.g., the Convention for Safe Containers [CSC]) as well as with national and local laws, including those regulating safety, the workplace, the environment, inspection and working conditions (e.g., 29 U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1910, 1917 and 1918).
出版商不保证使用本指南中推荐的损害测量方法进行的检查将满足任何特定政府的任何特定要求。提醒集装箱船东,他们有责任遵守相关政府规定或批准的程序。每个业主都应仔细检查其政府的特殊要求。检查应遵守所有国际公约和法规(例如,《安全集装箱公约》 [CSC])以及国家和地方法律,包括规范安全、工作场所、环境、检查和工作条件的法律(例如,美国联邦法规第 29 章第 1910、1917 和 1918 部分)。
A complete and updated list of IICL and IICL/ICS publications can be obtained from IICL. For information on how to contact IICL, see the "credits" page on the back of the title page.
IICL和IICL/ICS出版物的完整和更新清单可从IICL获得。有关如何联系IICL的信息,请参阅标题页背面的“致谢”页面。

SECTION 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF DAMAGE MEASUREMENT
第 2 节 损害测量的基础知识

2.1 Dimensional Limits for Bends, Dents and/or Bows
2.1 弯曲、凹痕和/或弓形的尺寸限制

The dimensional inspection criteria in the IICL/ICS Guide for Container Inspection Criteria fall into two categories: those for bends, dents and/or bows; and those that affect ISO plus IICL tolerances on ISO dimensions, or the container "envelope". The first type--bends, bows and/or dentsconstitutes by far the most common category of IICL/ICS damage criteria. The limits of acceptable damage are given as a maximum depth beyond which repair is required. The damage depth is measured from the point of maximum deflection within the damaged area to the original, undamaged point on the component.
IICL/ICS集装箱检验标准指南中的尺寸检验标准分为两类:弯曲、凹痕和/或弯曲的尺寸检验标准;以及影响 ISO 尺寸或容器“信封”上的 ISO 和 IICL 公差的那些。第一种类型——弯曲、弯曲和/或凹痕构成了迄今为止最常见的 IICL/ICS 损坏标准类别。可接受损坏的限值是作为需要维修的最大深度给出的。损伤深度是从受损区域内的最大挠度点到部件上原始的未损坏点进行测量的。
For the purposes of this Guide, "depth" of damage is defined as the deflection in any direction away from the original, undamaged profile.
就本指南而言,“损坏深度”定义为偏离原始未损坏轮廓的任何方向的偏转。

2.1.1 Measuring Bends, Dents and/or Bows (Concave)
2.1.1 测量弯曲、凹痕和/或弓形(凹面)

The usual method of measuring a bend, dent or bow is to position a reference line between undamaged portions of a damaged component on either side of the damage. The reference line establishes the original, undamaged profile of the damaged area. Normally, a measurement is made from the reference line to the point of maximum deflection within the damaged area: this is the depth of damage that is compared to the specific IICL/ICS criterion. See Figure 2.1.
测量弯曲、凹痕或弯曲的常用方法是在损坏部件的未损坏部分之间放置一条参考线,位于损坏的两侧。参考线建立受损区域的原始、未损坏的轮廓。通常,从参考线到受损区域内的最大挠度点进行测量:这是与特定 IICL/ICS 标准进行比较的损伤深度。请参阅图 2.1。
Often, a sharp bend or a dent is accompanied by gradual damage (such as bowing), and the damage measurement must include the total combined deflection due to both the sharp and the gradual damage. To ensure that both the sharp damage and any underlying gradual damage are captured in the measurement, standard practice is to run the reference line over the full length or height of the damaged component, as illustrated in Figure 2.1. In the case of a damaged side panel, for instance, the reference line would be run from just below the weld joining the top rail to the panel to just above the weld joining the bottom rail to the panel.
通常,急剧弯曲或凹痕伴随着逐渐损坏(例如弯曲),并且损坏测量必须包括由于尖锐和渐进损坏而导致的总组合挠度。为确保在测量中同时捕获锐器损坏和任何潜在的渐进损坏,标准做法是在损坏部件的整个长度或高度上运行参考线,如图 2.1 所示。例如,在侧板损坏的情况下,参考线将从连接顶部导轨和面板的焊缝正下方延伸到连接底轨和面板的焊缝正上方。
There are certain exceptions to this standard practice. In some cases, there is additional damage to the component so that the reference line cannot be positioned at the end(s), or the component is so long that it is not practical to position a reference line over its entire length. In these cases, and provided the damage is purely local, the reference line need not extend over the entire length of the component. However, the reference line must not be placed over only the immediate area of the bend or dent without including the larger area with the accompanying gradual damage (as shown in Figure 2.2). Restricting the reference line to the area of damage will fail to establish the
此标准做法存在某些例外情况。在某些情况下,元件会造成额外的损坏,使参考线无法定位在末端,或者元件太长,以至于在其整个长度上放置参考线是不切实际的。在这些情况下,如果损坏是纯局部的,则参考线不必延伸到组件的整个长度上。但是,参考线不能仅放置在弯曲或凹痕的直接区域上,而不包括伴随的逐渐损坏的较大区域(如图 2.2 所示)。将参考线限制在损坏区域将无法建立
REFERENCE LINE EXTENDS BETWEEN UNDAMAGED SECTIONS OF THE COMPONENT ON EITHER SIDE OF THE DAMAGE.
参考线在损坏两侧的组件未损坏部分之间延伸。

SIDE VIEW 侧视图
Fig. 2.1/Correct placement of reference line: full damage measured. See Section 2.1.1.
图 2.1/参考线的正确放置:测量全损伤。请参见第 2.1.1 节。

original profile of the damaged component and will therefore result in an incorrect plane of reference for measuring the damage. As stated above, the reference line must extend between two undamaged portions of the component on either side of the damage so as to provide a correct plane of reference for the damage measurement.
损坏部件的原始轮廓,因此将导致测量损坏的参考平面不正确。如上所述,参考线必须在损坏两侧的组件的两个未损坏部分之间延伸,以便为损坏测量提供正确的参考平面。
If, on the other hand, there is bowing over the entire length of the component, as in the case of a full-length top side rail bow, the reference line must extend the full length of the component. If the corner fittings are not thrown out of proper alignment by the damage, their surfaces usually make good anchors for the ends of the reference line.
另一方面,如果在组件的整个长度上存在弯曲,例如全长顶部侧轨弓形的情况,则参考线必须延伸组件的整个长度。如果角管接头没有因损坏而偏离正确对齐,则其表面通常可作为参考线末端的良好锚点。
In either case, the reference line must be positioned directly over the point of maximum damage to insure that the full depth of the damage is measured. Figure 2.3 on page 6 shows the reference line correctly placed directly over the point of maximum damage. Figure 2.4 on page 7 shows the reference line incorrectly placed beside the point of maximum damage, so that the full depth of the damage is not measured.
无论哪种情况,参考线都必须直接位于最大损坏点上方,以确保测量损坏的整个深度。第 2.3 页的图 6 显示了正确放置在最大损坏点上方的参考线。第 7 页的图 2.4 显示了参考线错误地放置在最大损坏点旁边,因此无法测量损坏的整个深度。

WRONG! 错!

REFERENCE LINE DOES NOT EXTEND TO UNDAMAGED AREA ON BOTH SIDES OF DAMAGE.
参考线不会延伸到损坏两侧的未损坏区域。

SIDE VIEW 侧视图
Fig. 2.2/INCORRECT placement of reference line: full damage NOT measured. See Section 2.1.1.
图 2.2/参考线位置不正确:未测量全损伤。请参见第 2.1.1 节。
REFERENCE LINE IS POSITIONED OVER POINT OF GREATEST DEFLECTION.
参考线位于最大挠度点上方。

Fig. 2.3/Correct placement of reference line: placed over point of maximum damage. See Section 2.1.1.
图 2.3/参考线的正确放置:放置在最大损坏点上方。请参见第 2.1.1 节。

WRONG! 错!

REFERENCE LINE IS NOT POSITIONED OVER POINT OF GREATEST DEFLECTION.
参考线未定位在最大挠度点上。

Fig. 2.4/INCORRECT placement of reference line: NOT placed over point of maximum damage. See Section 2.1.1.
图 2.4/参考线放置不正确:未放置在最大损坏点上。请参见第 2.1.1 节。

Non-Linear Surfaces: "Space Out/Measure Back" Method)
非线性曲面:“留出空间/回测”方法)
Two exceptions exist for the measurement method described above in Section 2.1.1: first, when damage is convex with respect to the reference line (that is, when damage extends out into the path of the reference line); and second, when the damage occurs on a non-linear surface. The first exception is explained below and in 2.1.2.1, and the second in 2.1.2.2. In addition, there are cases where the reference line cannot be placed directly over the damage because adjacent components would extend into the reference line.
上述第 2.1.1 节中描述的测量方法存在两种例外情况:首先,当损坏相对于参考线呈凸形时(即当损坏延伸到参考线的路径中时);其次,当损伤发生在非线性表面上时。第一个例外在下面和 2.1.2.1 中解释,第二个例外在 2.1.2.2 中解释。此外,在某些情况下,参考线不能直接放置在损坏的上方,因为相邻的组件会延伸到参考线中。
When convex damage cannot be measured from the opposite side (with the reference line positioned on the concave side, as described in Section 2.1.1), the "space out/measure back" method should be used. The reference line is "spaced out" (i.e., placed away) from the component by a known distance in order to clear all obstacles. "Spacers" of a known thickness (height) are used to position the reference line away from the damaged component. A spacer is placed on either side of a component, and the reference line is extended from the top surface of one spacer across to the top surface of the second spacer. A measurement is then made from the reference line to the point of maximum deflection within the damage. This measurement is then subtracted from the distance that the reference line has been spaced out from the component to determine the actual depth of the damage. For the purposes of this manual, this method will be referred to as the "space out/measure back" method.
当无法从另一侧测量凸损伤时(参考线位于凹面,如第 2.1.1 节所述),应使用“空出/回测”方法。参考线与组件“间隔”(即远离)已知距离,以清除所有障碍物。已知厚度(高度)的“垫片”用于将参考线定位在远离损坏元件的位置。在元件的任一侧放置一个垫片,参考线从一个垫片的顶面延伸到第二个垫片的顶面。然后从参考线到损伤内的最大挠度点进行测量。然后从参考线与组件间隔的距离中减去该测量值,以确定损坏的实际深度。就本手册而言,此方法将称为“空格输出/回测”方法。
For the drawings in this manual illustrating situations where damage measurements that are made by calculation, such as in the method described above, the capital letter " " will denote a spacer thickness, " " a measured dimension; and " " a calculated dimension of damage.
对于本手册中的图纸,说明通过计算进行损坏测量的情况,例如在上述方法中,大写字母“ ”将表示间隔层厚度,“” “表示测量尺寸;和 “ ” 是计算出的损坏维度。

2.1.2.1 Using Space Out/Measure Back Method to Measure Damage in Two Directions
2.1.2.1 使用空距/回测法测量两个方向的损坏

Figure 2.5 shows the space out/measure back technique used to measure web damage to a crossmember that has been bent in two directions. The string line cannot be placed directly on either side of the web because the adjacent damage interferes with running the line over the entire length of the crossmember. Consequently, the reference line is spaced back from the crossmember web (in actual practice, the reference line is held against the bottom side rail webs a known distance away from the crossmember web), and the damage is determined by measurement and calculation as shown in the figure.
图 2.5 显示了用于测量在两个方向上弯曲的横梁的腹板损坏的空间输出/测量回溯技术。弦线不能直接放置在腹板的任一侧,因为相邻的损坏会干扰线在横梁的整个长度上运行。因此,参考线与横梁腹板的间隔(在实际实践中,参考线与底侧导轨腹板保持距离横梁腹板的已知距离),并且通过测量和计算确定损坏,如图所示。
BOTTOM SIDE RAIL 底部侧轨
Fig. 2.5/Measuring crossmember web damage when reference line cannot be placed along web. See Section 2.1.2.1.
图 2.5/当参考线不能沿腹板放置时,测量横梁腹板损伤。参见第 2.1.2.1 节。

2.1.2.2 Measuring Damage on Non-Linear Surfaces (Roof Sheets)
2.1.2.2 测量非线性表面(屋顶板)的损坏

The second case where damage cannot be measured using the common method described in Section 2.1 involves the measurement of damage on nonlinear surfaces (i.e., roof sheets). Because the reference line is straight, it cannot follow the original curved surface of the roof sheet; therefore, the original undamaged position of the damaged surface cannot be precisely determined. To provide a common framework for assessing this type of damage and to assure consistent field measurement results, this Guide recommends that the curvature of the roof sheet in such cases be ignored; the reference line should simply be placed across the entire length of the damaged component, and the measurement taken from reference line to the point of maximum damage just as in Section 2.1. The reference line should be placed on the concave side of the damage. If this is not possible, the reference line may be placed on the convex side of the damage, and the "space out/measure back" method of measurement used.
使用第 2.1 节中描述的通用方法无法测量损坏的第二种情况涉及测量非线性表面(即屋顶板)上的损坏。由于参照线是直线,因此不能遵循屋板的原始曲面;因此,无法精确确定受损表面的原始未损坏位置。为了提供评估此类损坏的通用框架并确保现场测量结果的一致性,本指南建议在这种情况下忽略屋顶板的曲率;参考线应简单地放置在损坏部件的整个长度上,并从参考线到最大损坏点进行测量,就像第 2.1 节一样。参考线应放置在损坏的凹面上。如果无法做到这一点,可以将参考线放置在损坏的凸面上,并使用“空隙/测量后”的测量方法。
Figure 2.6 (below) shows an upward bend on the interior surface of a roof sheet in the flat area between corrugations. As the camber (curvature) of the roof cannot be followed by the reference line, the damage measurement is made from a reference line placed horizontally across the roof sheet width, and roof camber is ignored.
图 2.6(下图)显示了波纹之间平坦区域屋顶板内表面的向上弯曲。由于屋顶的外倾角(曲率)不能跟随参考线,因此损坏测量是从水平放置在屋顶板宽度上的参考线进行的,并且屋顶外倾角被忽略。

UPWARD ROOF DAMAGE ON FLAT AREA BETWEEN CORRUGATIONS
波纹之间平坦区域的向上屋顶损坏

Fig. 2.6/Measuring upward damage on roof: flat area between corrugations. See Section 2.1.2.2.
图2.6/测量屋顶向上损伤:波纹之间的平坦区域。请参阅第 2.1.2.2 节。

ISO/IICL Tolerances ) ISO/IICL公差)
In the cases discussed above, it was necessary to measure the depth of damage and compare to the permissible limit for that component to determine if repair was required. Certain IICL/ICS criteria, however, are not based on acceptable limits for a particular bend, dent or bow. Instead, they require that the damage not pass beyond certain prescribed limits defined by ISO, with added tolerances permitted by IICL and ICS ("ICL tolerances"). These criteria, commonly known as the "out-of-ISO" and "into-containercube" limits, are also measured with the use of a reference line. Instead of measuring a dent to ascertain if the depth exceeds a limit, the damage is checked to see if it extends beyond the plane defined by the maximum ISO dimensions and ISO plus IICL tolerances. In these cases, the reference line is used to establish the limiting surface (as, for instance, corner fitting faces) and the damage is checked to see if it reaches that limit.
在上述情况下,有必要测量损坏的深度,并与该部件的允许限值进行比较,以确定是否需要维修。然而,某些 IICL/ICS 标准并非基于特定弯曲、凹陷或弯曲的可接受限值。相反,它们要求损坏不超过 ISO 定义的某些规定限值,并增加 IICL 和 ICS 允许的公差(“ICL 公差”)。这些标准,通常称为“超出 ISO”和“进入容器立方体”限制,也使用参考线进行测量。不是测量凹痕以确定深度是否超过限制,而是检查损坏是否超出最大 ISO 尺寸和 ISO 加 IICL 公差定义的平面。在这些情况下,参考线用于建立极限曲面(例如,拐角配合面),并检查损坏情况以查看其是否达到该极限。
2.2.1 Using "Space Out" Method With Limiting Surface as Reference Point
2.2.1 使用以极限曲面为参考点的“间距”方法
Figure 2.7 shows a situation in which an impact to a corner post has pushed material outward so that it could possibly exceed the criteria for end frame dimensions of "ISO + (3/16 in)"; that is, no end-frame damage may extend more than ( ) beyond the vertical plane defined by the vertical surfaces of the corner fittings. In this case, the reference line is spaced out from the corner fitting surfaces, and the damage is checked to see if it reaches the reference line. If it does, repair is required. This method is illustrated in Figure 2.7A.
图 2.7 显示了对角柱的冲击将材料向外推的情况,因此它可能超过“ISO + (3/16 in)”的端框尺寸 标准;也就是说,任何端架损坏的延伸都不得超过 )超出由角管接头的垂直面定义的垂直平面。在这种情况下,参考线与角管接头表面隔开 ,并检查损坏情况以查看其是否到达参考线。如果是这样,则需要维修。该方法如图2.7A所示。
If the inspector does not have a spacer exactly ( in) thick, he may use any two spacers of equal thickness greater than , and use a variation of the "space out/measure back" method. Figure 2.7B illustrates this method.
如果检查员没有精确 in) 厚的垫片,他可以使用任何两个厚度相等的垫片, 并使用“间隔/测量回”方法的变体。图 2.7B 说明了这种方法。
A: USING A 5 MM (3/16 IN) SPACER)
答:使用 5 毫米(3/16 英寸)垫片)
B: USING A MM (3/16 IN) SPACER
B:使用 毫米(3/16 英寸)垫片
TO USE SPACER THICKER THAN 5 MM, SPACE OUT AND MEASURE BACK:
要使用厚度大于 5 毫米的垫片,请留出空间并测量:
NO REPAIR 无需维修
REPAIR 
Fig. 2.7/Using a spacer to determine if corner post damage exceeds ISO + |CL tolerances. See Section 2.2.1.
图 2.7/使用垫片确定角柱损坏是否超过 ISO + |CL 公差。请参见第 2.2.1 节。

Surface and Over Damage
表面和过度损坏
In some cases, it is not possible to position a reference line both at the limiting surface, such as the corner fittings, and directly over the damage. For example, this usually happens in the case of panel bulges, where the reference line cannot be positioned from the corner fittings over the damage. As a consequence, it is not possible to check directly if the damage reaches a reference line such as is illustrated in Figure 2.7 and thus is "out-of-ISO" (i.e., exceeds the envelope or the ISO-specified dimension and tolerance plus the additional tolerance permitted under criteria).
在某些情况下,不可能同时在极限曲面(如拐角管接头)和直接在损坏处放置参考线。例如,这通常发生在面板凸起的情况下,其中参考线无法从角配件定位在损坏上方。因此,无法直接检查损坏是否达到图 2.7 所示的参考线,因此“超出 ISO”(即超出包络或 ISO 规定的尺寸和公差以及 标准允许的额外公差)。
To provide a standardized method for checking the envelope when the reference line cannot be placed in a position that makes direct measurement possible, has developed an indirect measurement procedure. A reference line is placed in a location where it is possible to measure deflections. The maximum allowable distance between this line and the envelope limit is defined using assumptions about typical material profiles. This distance is called the "reference dimension." The distance between the reference line and the maximum point of damage is measured and then compared to the reference dimension. If the measurement is greater than the reference dimension, the dent or other damage exceeds the permissible limit, is "out-of-ISO" and must be repaired.
为了提供一种标准化的方法,当参考线无法放置在可以直接测量的位置时检查包络线, 开发了一种间接测量程序。参考线放置在可以测量挠度的位置。这条线与包络极限之间的最大允许距离是使用有关典型材料轮廓的假设来定义的。这个距离称为“参考尺寸”。测量参考线与最大损伤点之间的距离,然后与参考尺寸进行比较。如果测量值大于参考尺寸,则凹痕或其他损坏超过允许的限值,即为“超出 ISO”,必须修复。
Figure 2.8 illustrates this method as it applies to an outward dent in an outboard side panel corrugation. The figure illustrates a situation where an inspector suspects that the dent, which bulges out from the outboard corrugation, might exceed the IICL criterion ("ISO tolerances plus [3/8 in]"); in other words, the bulge might protrude more than beyond the plane defined by the side vertical surfaces of the corner fittings. The inspector cannot space out a reference line beyond the corner fittings and at the same time place it directly over the damage, because the damage is not directly in line between the two corner fitting surfaces.
图 2.8 说明了这种方法,因为它适用于舷外侧板波纹的向外凹痕。该图说明了一种情况,即检查员怀疑从外侧波纹凸出的凹痕可能超过IICL标准(“ISO公差加 [3/8英寸]”);换言之,凸起可能比角管接头的侧面垂直曲面所定义的平面更 突出。检查员不能在拐角管接头之外划出一条参考线 ,同时将其直接放置在损坏处,因为损坏不直接在两个拐角装配表面之间。
The method recommended by this Guide is to place the reference line vertically on the inside surface of the outboard corrugation starting as close as possible to the weld joining top rail to panel, and extending down to the weld joining bottom rail to panel. The bend, dent or bow depth should be measured in the standard way, from reference line to the point of maximum damage. The assumption is made that the interior surface of an undamaged outboard corrugation is located inwards of the outside vertical face of the corner fittings. The reference dimension in the case illustrated in Figure 2.8 is ( ). Therefore, if the measurement exceeds 18 (11/16 in), the outward bulge exceeds the ( ) criterion, and must be repaired.
本指南推荐的方法是将参考线垂直放置在外侧波纹的内表面上,从尽可能靠近连接顶部导轨到面板的焊缝开始,并向下延伸到连接底部导轨到面板的焊缝。弯曲、凹陷或弯曲深度应以标准方式测量,从参考线到最大损坏点。假设未损坏的舷外波纹的内表面位于 角配件的外垂直面的内侧。图2.8所示情况下的参考尺寸为 )。因此,如果测量值超过 18 (11/16 英寸),则向外凸起超过 ) 标准,必须修复。

2.2.3 Variations and Special Cases
2.2.3 变更和特殊情况

The categories described above-measuring bends, dents and/or bows for damage limits, and measuring to check the envelope-cover most damage measurement situations. There are many variations of the fundamental measuring techniques as well as a few special cases that require a different approach. Section 4 of this Guide will describe these variations in measurement methods and the techniques that can be used to handle cases where the basic procedures in this Section cannot be followed.
上述类别 - 测量弯曲、凹痕和/或弯曲的损坏限制,以及测量以检查包络覆盖大多数损坏测量情况。基本测量技术有许多变化,也有一些特殊情况需要不同的方法。本指南第 4 节将描述测量方法的这些变化以及可用于处理无法遵循本节基本程序的情况的技术。

INBOARD CORRUGATION 舷内瓦楞纸
REFERENCE LINE (PLACED INSIDE OF OUTBOARD CORRUGATION AND EXTENDING FROM RAIL TO RAIL).
参考线(放置在舷外波纹内,从钢轨延伸到钢轨)。
Fig. 2.8/Checking ISO + IICL tolerances when reference line cannot be positioned between two corner fittings over point of maximum damage. See Section 2.2.2.
图 2.8/当参考线不能位于最大损坏点的两个角接头之间时,检查 ISO + IICL 公差。请参见第 2.2.2 节。

SECTION 3 TOOLS REQUIRED FOR DAMAGE MEASUREMENT
第 3 节 损坏测量所需的工具

3.1 Basic Measurement Tools
3.1 基本测量工具

Damage measurement requires a certain minimum number of tools. The inspector should keep these tools on hand at all times when inspecting a container. Basic measurement tools consist of the following:
损伤测量需要一定数量的最小工具。检查员在检查容器时应始终随身携带这些工具。基本测量工具包括以下内容:
  1. Retractable reference line of at least 2.9 meters ( 9.5 feet), with magnet attached to end
    至少 2.9 米(9.5 英尺)的可伸缩参考线,末端附有磁铁
  2. Damage scale. This generally consists of a ruler of at least (6 in), preferably with gauges for and (9/16 in) gouges attached.
    损坏等级。这通常由至少 (6英寸)的尺子组成,最好带有用于 (9/16英寸)凿子的量规。
  3. Several magnetic spacers of various heights or thicknesses (some spacers have protruding, notched pins of varying heights to which reference lines can be attached, as in the photos on page 50)
    几个不同高度或厚度的磁性垫片(一些垫片具有不同高度的突出缺口销,可以连接参考线,如第 50 页的照片所示)
  4. Taper gauge (a triangular flat bar which shows the increasing width measurements away from the pointed end)
    锥度规(一个三角形扁平条,显示远离尖端的宽度测量值增加)
  5. Standard tape measure, approximately ( )
    标准卷尺,约
The following other tools or equipment are also required for general container inspection, and should be kept on hand at all times during a container inspection:
一般集装箱检查还需要以下其他工具或设备,在集装箱检查期间应随时准备:
  1. Corrosion testing hammer (having a tapered end with a rounded point)
    腐蚀试验锤(具有圆角端的锥形端)
  2. Aluminum weather-resistant clipboard
    铝制耐候剪贴板
The top photo on page 17 illustrates the tools listed above.
第 17 页的顶部照片说明了上面列出的工具。
In addition to the basic tools required for damage measurement and general container inspection, an inspector should have access to a number of other tools that are needed for less common measurement situations. These additional tools, although not required to be in the inspector's possession at all times as are those listed in Section 3.1 above, should be readily available in the depot where the inspections are performed. They are:
除了损坏测量和一般集装箱检查所需的基本工具外,检查员还应该能够使用不太常见的测量情况所需的许多其他工具。这些额外的工具虽然不像上文第3.1节所列那样要求检查员在任何时候都拥有,但在进行检查的仓库中应该随时可用。他们是:
  1. A 15.3 meter ( 50 feet) retractable chalk line or string line
    15.3 米(50 英尺)的可伸缩粉笔线或弦线
  2. A 15.3 meter ( 50 feet) measuring tape
    15.3 米(50 英尺)的卷尺
  3. A small autofocus camera
    小型自动对焦相机
  4. Chalk and/or magnetic clip and note paper
    粉笔和/或磁夹和便条纸
  5. A multi-purpose folding tool, such as a "Leatherman" tool or Swiss Army knife
    一种多用途折叠工具,例如“Leatherman”工具或瑞士军刀
  6. inspection manuals. To obtain guides and manuals from , see the "Credits" page (back of title page).
    检查手册。要从 中获取指南和手册,请参阅“致谢”页面(标题页的背面)。
See the bottom photo on page 17 for an illustration of some of the tools listed above in this section.
请参阅第 17 页的底部照片,了解本节上面列出的一些工具的插图。
Basic measurement tools for a container inspector. At the left, from top to bottom: a retractable reference line with magnet attached to end and three magnetic spacers with protruding, notched pins of different heights for holding the reference line. In the center: a taper gauge and a damage scale with (3/16 in) and (9/16 in) gauges attached. At the far right: a corrosion testing hammer and a standard (12.5 ft) tape measure. The tools are resting on a weather-resistant clipboard. See Section 3.1
集装箱检查员的基本测量工具。在左侧,从上到下:一条可伸缩的参考线,末端连接有磁铁,三个磁性垫片带有不同高度的突出缺口销,用于固定参考线。在中心:一个锥度计和一个带有 (3/16 英寸)和 (9/16 英寸)量规的损坏刻度。最右边:腐蚀测试锤和标准 (12.5英尺)卷尺。这些工具放在防风雨的剪贴板上。请参阅第 3.1 节
Recommended additional tools for container inspection. Clockwise, starting at top right with red knife: a Swiss Army knife; a multi-purpose folding tool (Leatherman's tool); a (50 ft) retractable string line with magnet attached to end; a (50 ft) retractable measuring tape; and a small autofocus camera. In the center: chalk and a magnetic clip and note paper. See Section 3.2.
推荐用于容器检测的附加工具。顺时针方向,从右上角开始,用红色的刀:一把瑞士军刀;多用途折叠工具(Leatherman's tool);一根 (50 英尺)可伸缩的绳子线,末端连接有磁铁;( 50 英尺)可伸缩卷尺;以及一个小型自动对焦相机。中间:粉笔、磁性夹和便条纸。请参阅第 3.2 节。

SECTION 4 MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR SPECIFIC AND UNUSUAL CASES
第 4 节 特定和异常情况的测量方法

4.2 Methods of Measuring Damage to Rails
4.2 测量钢轨损坏的方法
To measure damage to rails, follow the basic methods described in Section 2, "Fundamentals of Damage Measurement". Figures 4.1 - 4.5 illustrate these methods as applied to specific cases of damage to rails.
要测量钢轨损坏,请遵循第 2 节“损坏测量基础知识”中描述的基本方法。图 4.1 - 4.5 说明了这些方法应用于钢轨损坏的特定情况。

4.2.1 Measuring Localized Damage to Side and End Rails
4.2.1 测量侧轨和端轨的局部损坏

As explained in Section 2, placement of the ends of the reference line to measure damage to a side rail depends upon the type of damage encountered. If damage to a side rail is localized, as in the case of a downward bend over a small portion of a flat-bar top side rail, a reference line is positioned between the undamaged portions of the damaged rail on either side of the damage, as shown in Figure 4.1. In this case, since it is clear that there is no overall downward bow of the entire side rail, the reference line does not need to extend across the entire length of the rail. When the reference line is in place, a measurement is made from the line to the point of maximum deflection (see Figure 4.1 and Section 2.1.1).
如第 2 节所述,用于测量侧轨损坏的参考线末端的位置取决于遇到的损坏类型。如果侧轨损坏是局部的,例如在扁杆顶部侧轨的一小部分上向下弯曲的情况下,则在损坏的导轨的未损坏部分之间放置一条参考线,如图 4.1 所示。在这种情况下,由于很明显整个侧轨没有整体向下弯曲,因此参考线不需要延伸到导轨的整个长度上。当参考线就位时,从线到最大挠度点进行测量(参见图 4.1 和第 2.1.1 节)。
On the other hand, if there is localized damage to an end rail, the reference line must be placed over the full length of the rail.
另一方面,如果端轨局部损坏,则必须将参考线放置在导轨的整个长度上。
Fig. 4.1/Measuring localized damage to top rail. See Section 4.2.1.
图4.1/测量顶部导轨的局部损坏。请参见第 4.2.1 节。

4.2.2 Checking Rails for ISO Dimensions
4.2.2 检查导轨的 ISO 尺寸

Figure 4.2 illustrates a situation where a top side rail has an outward bow which the inspector suspects may exceed the IICL criteria for ISO dimensions and tolerances (ISO plus [3/8 in]). In this case, the reference line is spaced out ( ) from the surfaces of the corner fittings; if the damage touches the reference line, the container is "out-of-ISO" and must be repaired (See Figure 4.2A and Section 2.2 ).
图 4.2 说明了顶部侧轨向外弯曲的情况,检查员怀疑该弯曲可能超过 IICL 的 ISO 尺寸和公差标准(ISO 加 [3/8 in])。在这种情况下,参考线从角管接头的表面间隔 );如果损坏触及参考线,则容器“超出 ISO”,必须进行维修(参见图 4.2A 和第 2.2 节)。
If spacers measuring in thickness (height) are not available, the inspector can use spacers of any dimension over that places the reference line out beyond the damage, and can apply the "space out/measure back" method shown in Figure 4.2B. In the example shown in this drawing, a reference line is positioned using spacers measuring ( ) in thickness, more than the IICL limit over ISO tolerances. In the situation illustrated on the bottom left drawing in Figure , a measurement from the reference line back to the point of maximum outward deflection shows more than between line and bow. Since the spacer thickness minus the measurement from the reference line to the point of maximum deflection is less than , the bow is within the IICL plus ISO tolerances and repair is not required.
如果没有厚度(高度)测量 的垫片,检查员可以使用任何尺寸的垫片 ,将参考线置于损坏之外,并可以应用图4.2B所示的“空隙/测量”方法。在此图中所示的示例中,使用厚度为 ) 的垫片定位参考线, 该垫片的厚度超过 ISO 公差的 IICL 限制。在图 左下角图中所示的情况下,从参考线回到最大向外偏转点的测量值显示比 线和弓之间的测量值更多。由于垫片厚度减去从参考线到最大挠度点的测量值小于 ,因此弓在 IICL 加 ISO 公差范围内,不需要维修。
The bow in the drawing on the bottom right of Figure 4.2B, however, does require repair: measurement reveals that less than remains between reference line and point of maximum bowing when a thick spacer is used. This means that the bow extends a little over IICL's 10 limit beyond the surface of the corner fittings and therefore exceeds the IICL tolerance of beyond ISO.
然而,图4.2B右下角图中的弓确实需要维修:测量显示,当使用 厚垫片时,参考线和最大弓形点之间的剩余小于 。这意味着弓形略微超出 IICL 的 10 限制,超出角配件的表面,因此超出了 ISO 的 IICL 公差。
See Section 2.2 for basic instructions in the "space out/measure back" method of checking the ISO envelope.
有关检查 ISO 包络的“空格/测量后”方法的基本说明,请参见第 2.2 节。
A.
FRONT 前面
REAR 
IF TOP RAIL TOUCHES LINE, REPAIR REQUIRED.
如果顶部导轨触及线路,则需要维修。
REFERENCE LINE 参考线
B.
OR USE THE "SPACE OUT & MEASURE BACK METHOD"
或使用“空格输出和测量回放法”
DEFLECTION: DEFLECTION ( REPAIR NOT REQUIRED
偏转: 偏转 (无需 维修)
DEFLECTION:  挠度:
DEFLECTION > REPAIR REQUIRED
需要挠度> 维修
Fig. 4.2/Measuring outward bow in top rail. See Section 4.2.2.
图4.2/测量上轨的向外弓。请参见第 4.2.2 节。

4.2.3 Measuring Bows or Gradual Deformation to Rails
4.2.3 测量钢轨的弓形或逐渐变形

If there is bowing over the entire length of a side or end rail, the reference line must extend over the full length of the rail. When measuring bow deformation, do not forget to include any accompanying bend or dent depths in the measurement. See the top color photo on page 23 opposite.
如果侧轨或端轨的整个长度上存在弯曲,则参考线必须延伸到导轨的整个长度上。测量弓形变形时,不要忘记在测量中包括任何伴随的弯曲或凹痕深度。请参阅对面第 23 页的顶部彩色照片。

Photo to right: 右图:

Measuring bows to rails: the inspector measures distance from reference line to point of maximum deflection in a flat-bar top side rail. In the case of bows, the reference line must be extended across the full length of the rail. See Section 4.2.3.
测量船首到导轨:检测仪测量从参考线到扁平杆顶部侧轨最大挠度点的距离。在弓的情况下,参考线必须延伸到导轨的整个长度上。请参见第 4.2.3 节。

Photo above 上图
Measuring damage to corner posts: the inspector measures the distance from reference line to point of maximum deflection in a corner post bow. The reference line extends over the full height of the post. See Section 4.3.
测量角柱损坏:检查员测量角柱弓中从参考线到最大挠度点的距离。参考线延伸到柱子的整个高度。请参阅第 4.3 节。
Photo to left: 左图:
Measuring damage to side panels: the inspector measures a dent to a side panel impacted from outside. Note that the reference line extends vertically over the full height of the panel. See Sections 2.1.1, 4.4 and
测量侧板损坏情况:检查员测量从外部撞击的侧板的凹痕。请注意,参考线垂直延伸到面板的整个高度上。请参阅第 2.1.1、4.4 节和

4.2.4 Measuring Damage to Headers with Corner Protection Plates
4.2.4 测量带角保护板的集管损坏情况

The location of the corner protection plates may prevent a reference line from being positioned over the full length of the header. In this case, the reference line may be placed on the corner protection plates where they overlap the header, and the damage depth ("D") is determined by subtracting the thickness of the corner protection plates from the measurement between reference line'and point of maximum damage. Alternatively, the reference line may be placed on the top surfaces of the corner fittings, as shown in Figure 4.3, and the depth of damage can be calculated using the "space out/measure back" method: the distance from rail to corner fitting top surface is subtracted from the dimension between reference line and point of maximum damage.
转角保护板的位置可能会阻止参考线位于集管的整个长度上。在这种情况下,参考线可以放置在与集管重叠的角保护板上,并且损坏深度(“D”)是通过从参考线和最大损坏点之间的测量值中减去角保护板的厚度来确定的。或者,参考线可以放置在角配件的顶面上,如图 4.3 所示,并且可以使用“空间输出/测量回程”方法计算损坏深度:从参考线和最大损伤点之间的尺寸中减去从导轨到角配件顶面的距离。
Fig. 4.3/Measuring damage to top header when corner protection plates prevent placing reference line over full length of header. See Section 4.2.4.
图 4.3/当转角保护板阻止在集管的全长上放置参考线时,测量顶部集管的损坏。请参见第 4.2.4 节。

4.2.5 Measuring Damage to Bottom Rail Webs
4.2.5 测量底轨腹板的损坏

Figure 4.4 illustrates several different situations involving measurement of damage to bottom rail webs. Whenever possible, the reference line should be placed so that the damage extends away from the reference line and the maximum deflection of the web may be easily measured. If the flange is in the way and makes it impossible to measure the web deflection, use the method illustrated in Figure 4.28. Although the flange may be deflected, only damage to the web should be measured. Flange deflections should be ignored.
图 4.4 说明了涉及测量底部钢轨腹板损坏的几种不同情况。在可能的情况下,应放置参考线,使损坏远离参考线,并且可以很容易地测量卷材的最大挠度。如果法兰挡住了路,无法测量腹板挠度,请使用图 4.28 中所示的方法。尽管法兰可能会偏转,但只应测量对腹板的损坏。应忽略法兰挠度。

VARIATIONS 变化

POSITION LINE SUCH THAT ONLY WEB DEFLECTION IS MEASURED. DO NOT INCLUDE FLANGE DEFLECTION.
定位线,以便仅测量卷材挠度。不包括法兰挠度。
Fig. 4.4/Measuring damage to bottom rail web. See Section 4.2.5.
图4.4/测量底部钢轨腹板的损坏。请参见第 4.2.5 节。

4.2.6 Measuring Damage to Door Sills
4.2.6 测量门槛损坏

Damage to a door sill should be measured by running the reference line across the full length of the sill, as is required for a transverse rail, and measuring the distance from the line to the point of maximum deflection. In some cases, however, it may not be possible to position the reference line in such a manner. Figure 4.5, for instance, shows a damaged door sill in which the sill cut-outs prevent placing the reference line over the full length of the sill. In this situation, the inspector should position the reference line on the outer surfaces of the corner fittings and calculate the extent of damage with the "space out/measure back" method.
门门槛的损坏应通过将参考线穿过门槛的整个长度来测量,这是横向导轨的要求,并测量从线到最大挠度点的距离。但是,在某些情况下,可能无法以这种方式定位参考线。例如,图 4.5 显示了损坏的门槛,其中门槛切口阻止了参考线在门槛的整个长度上放置。在这种情况下,检查员应将参考线定位在转角配件的外表面上,并使用“空间输出/测量回程”方法计算损坏程度。

SILLS 门槛

REAR VIEW OF DOOR SILL
门槛后视图
TOP VIEW OF DOOR SILL WITH SILL CUT-OUTS
带门槛切口的门槛顶视图
Fig. 4.5/Measuring damage to door sill where sill cut-outs prevent placing reference line over full length of sill. See Section 4.2.6.
图 4.5/测量门槛的损坏,其中门槛切口阻止将参考线放置在门槛的整个长度上。请参见第 4.2.6 节。
Damage to a corner post is measured by positioning a reference line over the entire length of the post and measuring the distance from the line to the point of maximum deflection. In some cases, damage to corner posts that protrudes ("bulges") outward may exceed applicable IICL plus ISO tolerances (ISO plus .
角柱的损坏是通过在柱的整个长度上定位参考线并测量从线到最大挠度点的距离来测量的。在某些情况下,向外突出(“凸起”)的角柱损坏可能超过适用的 IICL 加 ISO 公差(ISO 加 .
The (3/16 in) additional tolerance applies to both the end surfaces and the side surfaces of each post, since the entire post is part of the end frame. In order to determine if the container is "out-of-ISO," the inspector should space the reference line ( ) out from the appropriate surface (end or side) of the corner fittings to establish the envelope limit. If the damage touches the reference line, repair is required.
(3/16 英寸)附加公差适用于每个立柱的端面和侧表面,因为整个立柱是端架的一部分。为了确定容器是否“超出 ISO”,检查员应将参考线 ) 与角配件的适当表面(端部或侧面)隔开,以确定包络限值。如果损坏触及参考线,则需要维修。
Figure 4.6 shows a typical dent-and-bulge to a corner post, and illustrates the two measurement methods described above.
图 4.6 显示了角柱的典型凹痕和凸起,并说明了上述两种测量方法。
If ( ) spacers are not available, any spacers of a known dimension greater than may be used. The "space out/measure back" method should be used to determine if the container exceeds the IICL plus ISO criterion. Since the limit of permissible damage is ( ) beyond the surface of the corner fittings, any damage which extends beyond that limit must be repaired. To determine if repair is required, the distance from the reference line to the point of maximum damage is measured; if this dimension is less than the amount by which the spacer exceeds in), repair is required. For instance, if a in) thick spacer is used, the post would require repair if the dimension from line to damage is less than . See Figures 2.7 and 4.6 (opposite), and the lower right color photo on page 23.
如果 ) 垫片不可用,则可以使用任何已知尺寸大于 的垫片。应使用“空出/回测”方法来确定容器是否超过 IICL 加 ISO 标准。由于允许损坏的限值是 )超出转角配件的表面,因此任何超出该限值的损坏都必须进行修复。为了确定是否需要维修,测量从参考线到最大损坏点的距离;如果此尺寸小于垫片超过 的量),则需要维修。例如,如果使用 厚的垫片,如果从线到损坏的尺寸小于 ,则柱子将需要维修。参见图 2.7 和 4.6(对面),以及第 23 页右下角的彩色照片。
MEASURING "DENT" 测量“凹痕”
MEASURING "BULGE" 测量“凸起”
Fig. 4.6/Measuring damage to corner posts. See Section 4.3.
图 4.6/角柱损伤测量。请参阅第 4.3 节。

4.4 Measuring Damage to Side and Front Panels
4.4 测量侧板和前面板的损坏

The general measurement method for panels differs from that used for structural members such as rails and posts, in that the reference line must be positioned over the entire height of the panel whenever possible. In other words, any type of damage to panels, including bends, dents and bows, requires the reference line to be placed over the full height of the panel. The line should be positioned vertically, from top to bottom of the panel.
面板的一般测量方法与用于结构构件(如导轨和柱子)的测量方法不同,因为参考线必须尽可能定位在面板的整个高度上。换言之,任何类型的面板损坏,包括弯曲、凹痕和弯曲,都需要将参考线放置在面板的整个高度上。该线应垂直放置,从面板的顶部到底部。
IICL criteria for panels, however, are different for localized damage such as bends or dents, and for gradual damage over the length of a panel, such as bowing. Inspection criteria for bends and dents consist of specific depth limitations. All types of panel damage are subject to limits on reduction of the interior cube, as well as by ISO plus IICL tolerances.
然而,IICL对面板的标准对于局部损坏(如弯曲或凹痕)和面板长度上的逐渐损坏(如弯曲)是不同的。弯曲和凹痕的检查标准包括特定的深度限制。所有类型的面板损坏都受到内部立方体缩小的限制,以及 ISO 和 IICL 公差的约束。
For color photos showing measurement of side panels, see the bottom left photo on page 23 and the two photos on page 33 opposite.
有关显示侧板测量值的彩色照片,请参阅第 23 页左下角的照片和第 33 页对面的两张照片。
Photo to right: 右图:
Measuring dents to panels impacted from the inside: the inspector inside the container measures the distance from reference line to point of maximum outward deflection. Note that the reference line extends vertically over the full height of the panel. See Section 4.4.2.
测量从内部撞击的面板的凹痕:容器内的检测仪测量从参考线到最大向外偏转点的距离。请注意,参考线垂直延伸到面板的整个高度上。请参见第 4.4.2 节。

Photo to left: 左图:
Measuring dents to side panels impacted from the outside: the inspector measures the distance from reference line to point of maximum inward deflection. Note that the reference line extends vertically over the full height of the panel. See Section 4.4.1.
测量从外部撞击的侧板的凹痕:检测器测量从参考线到最大向内偏转点的距离。请注意,参考线垂直延伸到面板的整个高度上。请参见第 4.4.1 节。

4.4.1 Measuring Bends and Dents in Panels (Impacted from Outside )
4.4.1 测量面板的弯曲和凹痕(从外部冲击)

As stated above, bends and dents in panels must be measured by extending the reference line vertically over the entire height of the panel from top to bottom, and making a measurement of the distance from the reference line to the point of maximum deflection, as shown in the top photo on page 33. As explained in Section 2.1.1, the reference line must be placed directly over the point of maximum damage. Figure 4.7 illustrates this measurement method as applied to two common examples of panel damage. In these examples, the damage is from outside the container extending inwards. As mentioned in Section 4.3 above, the repairworthiness criterion is based on the depth of the dent or bend.
如上所述,面板中的弯曲和凹痕必须通过将参考线从上到下垂直延伸到面板的整个高度来测量,并测量从参考线到最大偏转点的距离,如第 33 页的顶部照片所示。如第 2.1.1 节所述,参考线必须直接放置在最大损坏点上方。图 4.7 说明了这种测量方法应用于两个常见的面板损坏示例。在这些示例中,损坏来自向内延伸的容器外部。如上文第 4.3 节所述,可修复性标准基于凹痕或弯曲的深度。
REFERENCE LINE 参考线

"D"
Fig. 4.7/Measuring dents in side panels. See Section 4.4.1.
图 4.7/测量侧板上的凹痕。请参见第 4.4.1 节。

4.4.2
Measuring Bends and Dents in Panels (Impacted from Inside)
4.4.2 测量面板的弯曲和凹痕(从内部冲击)

The same method as described above in Section 4.4.1 should be used to measure damage from the inside of the container extending outwards, as shown in the bottom photo on page 33. In this case, however, both the depth limitation and also the ISO plus IICL tolerances must be considered. If damage extends beyond the ISO cube plus the additional IICL ( ) tolerance, it must be repaired. The procedure recommended by IICL for determining if the damage exceeds ISO plus IICL tolerances is illustrated in Figure 4.8, and is explained further in the following section.
如第 4.4.1 页底部照片所示,应使用上述第 4.4.1 节中描述的相同方法来测量容器内部向外延伸的损坏。然而,在这种情况下,必须同时考虑深度限制以及 ISO 和 IICL 公差。如果损坏超出 ISO 立方体加上额外的 IICL ) 公差,则必须进行修复。图 4.8 说明了 IICL 建议的用于确定损坏是否超过 ISO 和 IICL 公差的程序,并在下一节中进一步解释。

4.4.3 Measuring Panel Bows
4.4.3 测量板弓

When a side panel has a gradual bow but no dent or bend, repair is required if the damage causes the container to exceed the ISO plus IICL tolerance of ( . That is, the outward damage may not extend more than 10 ( beyond the plane of the corner fitting side surfaces. In practice, it can be difficult to locate the ISO plus ( ) plane that delineates the permissible limit.
当侧板逐渐弯曲但没有凹痕或弯曲时,如果损坏导致容器超过 ISO 加 IICL 公 差 ( .也就是说,向外的损伤不能超过10 超出拐角管合侧表面的平面。在实践中,可能很难找到划定允许限值的 ISO 加 ) 平面。
As explained in Section 2.2.2, this Guide recommends a simplified and standardized procedure that can be used for determining if outward side panel bows in dry van containers exceed the ISO plus IICL ( ) limit: the damage is measured against a suitable reference line, and this measurement is compared to a reference dimension that includes ISO plus IICL tolerances. In the case of outward side panel bows, the reference dimension is ( ). If an outward bow, measured from the interior of an outboard corrugation (i.e., a corrugation which is recessed when viewed from inside) exceeds